Sunday, March 31, 2019

A Basic Model Of Consumer Decision Making Marketing Essay

A Basic Model Of Consumer Decision Making merchandise EssayThe demographic environment is delimitate as the demographic factors that marketers apply to analyze market trends by segmenting the targeted commonwealth., 2013. It consists of six factors which be population ethnical mix, education take aims, population size and retrovert judgment of growth, senesce diffusion and migration shifts and attri simplyes. check to statistics, capital of capital of Singapore Residents Growth Rate has ebbd from 0.9 to 0.8 from 2010 to 2011 (Department Of Statistics Singapore DOSS, 2012). How invariably, the growth rate is insignifi permitdt endt as comp bed to the Non-Residents which grew from 4.1 to 6.9 ( DOSS, 2012). As nigh of the non-residents ar goers that put up to the pathetic end jobs in Singapore, they do non earn high income and whitethorn find Singapore Air passs (SIA) too expensive. Therefore, SIA view it as an chance to open up a cypher ci rculariseline return to cater to this group.The age distri stillion of the Singapore population besides affects the marketing strategies of SIAs conclusion to launch blast. Singapores population percentage for ages between 45 and over accounted for 38.4% (DOSS, 2012). This is a signifi nominatet guide and it indicates a trend to an ageing population. It is projected that by 2030, in that respect get out be a 2.1 replacement ratio to to each one citizen above age 65 (Our Demographic Ch all(prenominal)enges And What These Mean To Us, n.d.). Therefore, compared to SIA, the lower cost fare of flutter is able to cater to this group of consumers as m some(prenominal) of the aged are retirees who whitethorn non be able to endure the standard evasion fare. This may be due to reasons much(prenominal) as not having electrostatic incomes, high medical and living expenses. The hot(prenominal) group of consumers that may favor for cheaper tag fares are the young adults. They a re aged between 15 to 34 and accounted for 28.4% of the population (DOSS, 2012). They represent an opportunity for scoot as their commitments to family, work and study means they may go to control their expenses. Thus, they may hold lower purchasing power and might be unable to afford SIAs travel fares.In addition, foreigners are projected to take up half of Singapores population by 2030 (Singapore Population Half Foreigners By 2030, 2013). This trend cigarette be attributed to the migratory movement of foreigners from developing countries such as India and mainland China to Singapore. They come from varied parts of China and India and pose an opportunity for film. Thus, this pop the questions a round-eyedr targeted consumer group for marketers to promote their service. Citing from the pillow slip study, it states that scare, which will compete in the maturement low-cost travel sector, will fill a gap that directly exists within the group. This group of commuters may tr avel back to their own countries every year for festive seasons or visiting of families and would not desire an expensive excursionist to exotic countries for holidays such as Europe or Japan. Therefore, SIA launched belt along to allow low cost travels for these expanding targeted consumers to increase its profitability. To further maximize its market authority, the case study also states that rush will do longer leakages, to Australia, China, India and at long last Europe. Thus, SIA aims to create to a greater extent opportunities by change magnitude operate to this group of heap.The political-legal environment is defined as the legal and political factors that affect marketing decision making strategies. The factors are changes in line legislation and laws, the number and competency of exceptional welcome-to doe with groups and market reforms and corruption. The new-made growth of special interest groups over the years may gravel contributed to SIAs decision to launch inject to serve the lower income consumers needs. The groups such as CASE (Consumer Association Of Singapore) serves to cling to the consumers interest, educate and inform the consumers. It also ensures business ethics within the connection by advocating f shineer legislation. Since SIA is a private competitive firm with no organisation intervention, it has to guard constant good go to consumers. Since such consumerist movement is increasing and SIA organism one of largest auraway company, it will need to establish relationships with consumers and acquire policies to increase consumers interest and reduce guest complaints.With regards to the political-legal factor, Singapore is liberal in its aviation policy and has continue to adopt this policy in recent sequences by signing agreements with more countries such as linked Kingdom, United States, United Arab Emirates , New Zealand and other countries (The impact of international argument service liberalization on Singapore, 2009). This allows frivol away with its bigger stockcrafts to fly to more destinations and longer distances where other reckon air passage competitors dissolvenot reach.The stinting environment is defined as the economic factors that affect the marketing decision making strategies. The economic factors include income distribution and savings, debt and credit availability of the population. As per reported, the income levels of all classes have risen over the years. The median monthly household income has risen from 5,600 SGD per month per household in 2010 to 6,310 SGD per month per household in 2011 (DOSS, 2012). Although median income has increased, absolute bulk of the increment is due to a raise in the income for the higher income group. The nerve and lower income groups might not have higher income and might point be worse off due to pretension. The rich are acquiring wealthier and the poor are getting poorer. Hence SIA can cater to the wealthier consumers who requisite premium air travel services and twinkle can cater to people who need to travel at a compute air fare ( scare Asias Newest Low-Cost Airline, 2012).The other factor is Singapore populations savings, debt, and credit availability. The Singapore economy has contracted in the 2nd quarter in 2011 triggered by the economic crisis that happened in 2008 (Singapore may escape technical recession but downside stakes remain, 2011). This un indisputable outlook of the economy combined with inflation rate at 5.7%, (Global recession credibly, Singapore says, 2011) may have contributed to SIAs launch of Scoot. With higher inflation rate and slower economic growth, people may be broken about the future and cut back on unnecessary expenditures. Consumers may choose to travel by other cheaper alternatives hence, demand for SIAs feather services will decrease.However, the trend of Singapores future economy and inflation rate ashes un indisputable as economists have forecasted tha t for 2013, median inflation rate for consumer price index would be high at 3.0% (Monetary Authority Of Singapore, 2012). Singapores GDP forecasted growth is expect to be between 1% to 3% indicating a slow economic growth ( Singapore economy expected to grow 1-3% in 2013, 2012). Thus, majority of the people in Singapore are most likely passing play to save more and give-up the ghost less on luxury goods and services like expensive air fares which will lead to a decrease in the demand for SIA air travel. As disposable income reduces, more people would opt for budget airlines such as Scoot, Tiger Airways and Jetstar Asia for air traveling. This presents an opportunity for Scoot to expand its services. However, it might be a threat if competitors set of tickets are comparatively lower and economy continues to shrink in the future. interrogate 2All companies which render services to guests should be highly radiosensitive to their own service whole tone and achieved level of custo mer satisfaction. Service bore is the totality of features and characteristics of a reaping or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs (Kotler, Keller, Ang, Leong, Tan, 2009). Companies performances may draw short, meet or exceed customers expectations. Therefore, companies performances and customers expectations de termine customer satisfaction which is customers intuitive ascertainingings of joy or disappointment resulting from comparing a harvest-feast or services perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations (Kotler et al., 2009).A business entitys main aim should be to generate consistent profits for its shareh senior(a)s or owners. Sustained profitability is achieved when companies yield revenue streams that exceed the cost streams of attracting, change and servicing the customers over succession (Kotler et al., 2009). Scoot is a budget airline which strives to be sustainable, at the aforementioned(prenominal) time celebrateing and expanding its market share through and through ensuring desired service quality and achieving customer satisfaction.For cost reduction usages, Scoot emphasizes to its customer that they are no-frills. With the removal of certain features which are prominent in full-service airlines, it is unavoidable that customers will pack comparisons and mark down the service quality of Scoots flights. Scoot has made conscious efforts to distance itself from its parent company Singapore Airlines (SIA), as well as to create deeper impressions in its customer that it is a budget airline, by having its cabin faction to wear casual crew uniform (Kaur, 2011). With the use of Boeing 777 aircrafts, Scoot runs its customers with more leg space and rooms in the aircrafts to maneuver. This gives Scoot a comparative advantage over its budget airlines, which usually operate smaller aircrafts.Air travelers are expected to be more hands-on when they travel on budget airlines. With no give customer service platform available to these air travelers, they have to aviate the budget airlines websites and online systems themselves, in ordinance to obtain shaftledge or make amendments to their bookings. With large mob of available resources and experience, SIA has an efficient and comprehensive online system for its customer. by dint of the introduction of SIA, Scoot can discuss with SIAs service providers on how to chassis and implement a user-friendly online system, which is cost effective at the same time.Even though Scoot will not respond to complaints from its customers, they moldiness take note of the complaints and implement corrective and preventive measures, in aim to maintain or even improve service quality. Additionally, Scoot can also provide Feedback forms to its customers. This will give quick and accurate information on their service quality, at relatively low be.Like most if not all budget airlines, Scoot does not offer flight packages whic h include free in-flight entertainment, food and drinks. With the particular(a) services provided, it is difficult for Scoot to achieve customer satisfaction. Therefore, Scoot has to focus on constantly improve its performances, as well as to mitigate the expectations of its customers. SIA is world renowned to provide great services to its customers, therefore face-off or even colossal the expectations of its customers. Scoot can leverage on SIAs experiences and methods, as well as the trainings regimes provided to its staff, in swan to achieve similar results and have a pool of well-trained staff.Scoot has vigorously time-tested to shed the public impression of it being a subsidiary of SIA. The marketing strategy of Scoot has to continue in this line, that is to distance itself from premium, full-service carriers and to be in the same market as other budget airlines. Scoot can distance itself from full-service carriers, by having its customer to mesa and alight from its airc rafts in the same airline terminals also utilized by other budget airlines. This could also prevent customers from utilize full-service carrier expectations, to sound out the performances of Scoot.Scoot will be able to achieve fuel-efficiency by using Boeing 777 aircrafts. This allows Scoot to have lower be than its competitors who are using older and less fuel-efficient aircrafts. With greater savings from less fuel drug addiction, Scoot should pass on some of the cost-saving benefits to its consumers. For example, Scoot can afford to reduce its air ticket prices due to lower costs. This will enable Scoot to maintain and capture a bigger market share through securing new customers from its competitors.With the advancement in technology and the popularized use of social media, many companies have turn to social media and internet to advertise their products and services. Scoot has actively tried to portray a lively and young image. Therefore, they should further strengthen this image, as well as to reach out to greater market of potential customers, by exploring and utilizing the social media platform. For example, Scoot can engage fresh-faced foreign celebrities with overconfident images who are active on the social media platforms, to be their spokespersons in destinations where they heed to gain greater market share. This couples with more online advertising spending, could assist Scoot to reach out to greater diversity of air travelers who are not based in Singapore.Budget airlines like Scoot face mammoth tasks in achieving desired levels of customer satisfaction and service quality, tour wounding costs and maximizing revenues to ensure sustained profitability. With concerted efforts in providing staple fibre and necessary services, as well as improving performances and lowering expectations, Scoot can secure its customer base and reduce operate costs which will in turn result in Scoot meeting its main aim of earning consistent revenues and profi ts. psyche 3(a)With the availability of a wide range of choices for air traveling, which includes budget and full-service airlines, air travelers will make original comparisons to decide on the most measure out for money option for vacant travel and business purposes.The procedure from recognizing a need to fulfilling it is shown in render 3.1 which is a form of cognitive learning that depicts the five-stage decision making execute model. The definition of consumer learning is the work on by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience they apply to future related behaviour (Belch, Belch, Guolla, 2011). think 3.1 A basic model of consumer decision making. (Source)According to Bauer, Consumer behavior involves risk in the sense that any action of a consumer will engender consequences which he cannot anticipate with anything approximating certainty, and some of which at least are likely to be unpleasant (1960, p. 24). Thus, consequences and u ncertainty are the two basic factors that are used to determine the level of perceived risks. Bauer stresses that his main concern is still with subjective (perceived) risk and not real world ( accusative) risk. This is because consumers will however buy a product that he believes to be good and trustworthy. perceive risk might not be actual risk but the amount of risk a consumer believes that could be incurred when he buys a certain product from a certain vendor (Kotler et al., 2009). The risks include useful, physical, psychological, fiscal and time risks.Functional risk occurs when the product is not up to consumers perceived level of service. As Scoot is a subsidiary of Singapore Airlines (SIA), most of us will expect it to be exceptional. However, Scoot is a budget airline and hence, like all other budget airlines, its main concern is to provide cheap air transport. The basic air fare covers plainly transportation from one point to another. So, one has to pay for whatever is desired. The utilitarian progression is to ensure that all costs are reduced to the minimum which allows the air fare to be low, yet, profitable. Thus, consumers who expect incessant amenities on budget airlines will be greatly disappointed.If a person thinks that consuming a certain product can be harmful to him or his love ones, then this is a physical risk perceived and he would likely never consume that product. When travelling with budget airlines, the usual complaint would be limited space and uncomfortable seats. When one has to sit in a cramped aircraft with little moving space for a few hours, it can be very uncomfortable and may cause backaches and other pincer aches or even death (space adaption syndrome). These are physical risks of travelling with budget airlines that travellers might want to avoid.Psychological risk is defined as the product that affects the mental well-being of the user (Kotler et al., 2009, p. 186). Some conservative consumers may feel that fast-flying in bigger aircrafts would give them more sense of auspices and comfort. Hence, they would avoid by travelling by budget airlines such as Scoot.If one purchases a product and it is defective, he will incur fiscal losses when he has to pay trim money to repair or find a replacement. Hence, the cost exceeds the value of this product. If one intents to travel by budget flight, then he must be prepared to aim extra cash in case he gets stuck in a foreign country when his flight is delayed or cancelled. This is because budget airlines do not provide any other recompense besides ticket re playd. That means, one needs to pay for whatever expenses incurred, be it lodging or purchase of another ticket to fly to the next destination. It is believed that budget air flights experiences frequent delays and cancellations. Thus, it is commonly believed that one should avoid budget flights to avoid financial risks.Moreover, with frequent cancellations and delays for budget flight is t ime wasted. One needs to reside indefinitely or buy another air ticket, which requires extra time and effort. In addition, one could miss an important appointment which might have undesirable consequences.Question 3(b)In order to cut across the perceived risks, marketers should know that consumers are worried about risks that they believe are true and not necessarily real. As per Gordon Allport (1935), Attitudes are learned predispositions to respond to an object in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.. Consumers hold perspective toward many things that are vital to the marketer. Moreover, their attitudes indicate their emotions, assessment and behavioral tendencies towards a product. Therefore, we need to change the consumers attitude regarding budget airlines.To overcome perceived risks, Scoot could publish statistics of the level of customers satisfaction, of light delays, cancellations and the amount of money saved compared to the cheapest flight available. This can b e done through the market research process in which marketers could identify the problem caused by the five perceived risks and provide decision alternatives. When consumers realise that the level of statistics shown is actually similar to other regular carriers, plus the incentive of the amount of money saved, they will feel more encouraged to travel on Scoot. The proven performance will supporter to progress to customers confidence in Scoots ability to meet their expectations. Hence, the perceived functional risk is solved.The growth of competitors such as Tiger Airways, Jetstar , Airasia and Webjet may run consumers purchasing decision with extremely competitive prices and numerous attractive promotions. Scoot marketers could identify the consumers needs and wants and apply incompatibleiation strategies through product improvement, weaken services and well trained personnel. Some of the frequent complaints while flying budget airlines are poor services, cramped spaces and un comfortable chairs. Scoot uses product differentiation by offering wider spaces in planes and more comfortable seats. Also, there are pictures of the aircraft interior posted in their website to allow people to gather in their offerings. Additionally, on-line forums or memo boards on Scoots website allows consumers who have used Scoots service to post their reviews and share their experiences. This marketing strategy could alleviate the conservative consumers psychological risk. These include good and bad experiences and tips when flying Scoot. The feedback and control system also allows Scoot to track its results such as customer satisfaction and computer memory rate and sales. This will also allow Scoot to adapt to a shift in consumers expectations such as better services or technological find. In this way, Scoot has addressed perceived physical risks of the consumers.The purpose of using budget airlines is to save money. It defeats the purpose if consumers have to pay extra mo ney in order to proceed with the journey. However, occasional delays are inescapable and the worst case scenario would be stuck without accommodation. Since budget airlines sustain with minimum expenses, it is impractical to make allowance for lodgings. Thus, Scoot could make a list of comfy corners or cafes that offer comfortable resting venues at minimum or no cost for the passengers as a reference. Hence, the consumers will not need to spend extra money on contingency plans. This will reduce financial risk of a consumer.It is true that delays and cancellations are possible when flying on budget flights. This is because budget flight operates like a bus and travels the equivalent path to and fro many times daily. Minor delays could occur but, after a long day, the slight delays become significant when many delays build up into major time lapse and even cancellations. However, delays could also happen to any regular air flights. So, it should be made very clearly to passengers that promptness is very important and any delays will affect subsequent flights. As Scoot target consumers are the young and young at heart, a comic strip could be used to illustrate this scenario to make it fun but not offensive.In conclusion, perceived risks are what consumers believe are true but not necessarily real. In order to overcome these perceptions effectively, we need to understand their worries and help them to correct their perceptions and gain a appointed Scootitude. Hence, we gain attention from hesitant potential customers and retain current customers.Question 4Every business needs effective strategies to meet ever changing demands of the market. For a business to be sustainable, it needs to satisfy its customers expectations and build a lasting relationship. This means it needs to fulfill the customers perceived value (CPV) which is the difference between the prospective customers evaluation of all the benefits and all the costs of an offering and the perceived a lternatives (Kotler et al., 2009, p. 133). Hence, long term strategies must be enforced to cultivate strong customer relationships.Customer relationship management (CRM) is native in cultivation of long term customer relationship. It is defined as the process of carefully managing detailed information about individual customers and all customers touch points to maximize customer patrioticty (Kotler et al., 2009, p. 144). There are quad ways to good CRM which are identify its prospects and customers, distinguish customer in terms of their needs and their value to the company, interact with individual customers and custom-make products, services, and messages to each customer (Kotler et al., 2009).When booking air tickets on-line, consumers are already giving their ain details to the airlines. The information includes gender, date of birth, billing address, nationality, passport number and compensation methods. We can use the customer data base to identify the different market types and establish effective communications to the respective consumers. Through such data mining, we can identify the trend and segments to forecast the needs and wants of different consumers. The consumers could be segmented into different nationality, gender and age distribution.With the market segmentation, Scoot could separate customers in terms of their needs and values brought to the company. Scoot has limited financial resources, so it needs to attract more good customers, and retain profitable existing customers. In order to build customer loyalty, Scoot need to implement special benefits for long term customers.The main objective for travelling with budget airline is to save money. Customers will have their personal accounts with Scoot upon successful purchase and they will be able to access this account to check their transactions. Hence, Scoot can emphasize this point by letting consumers know how much they have saved by frequently travelling with Scoot. The amount s aved will be translated to respect points for reward redemptions. Loyal customers will be able to redeem rewards with Scoot and its afield partners like getting free transportation at pick up points and drop off at desired destinations. This will make members feel privileged that they are rewarded for their loyalty. This also acts as a one-stop comprehensive admission that provides cost savings to these loyal customers by providing cheap lodging options and discounted ticket prices to places of interest in other countries, offered by working partners of Scoot. This is in line with Scoots objective of providing low cost and no-frills travel for consumers and maximise customer perceived value.Scoot needs to interact with individual customers in order to understand the requirements of different customers and implement changes where required. However, a budget airline is operating within budget constraints hence it will not be operable to maintain a customer service department to en tertain consumers enquiries and complains. participation fees or administrative fees usually incurred when online transactions are performed. In order to encourage consumers to fill up questionnaires and survey forms designed by Scoot, Scoot can offer customers waiver of these fees when they book air tickets, after the fulfilment of the questionnaires and survey forms. With incentives, consumers will be more willing to provide feedbacks which can help to enhance Scoots services.With data collected from these surveys, Scoot can customize communications to each customer by sending them information only for what they are interested in. This will allow Scoot to identify and differentiate customers in terms of their needs and wants. These include promotions for certain locations which are of interest, special occasions in certain countries and new exciting happenings in certain countries. As such, consumers will not feel frustrated when receiving mail trailers but will be anticipating what Scoot can offer them.In conclusion, while Scoot can lookout for potential consumers and offer them some boost to become its customers, the focus is still to establish and strengthen long term relationship with current customers. As such, Scoot needs to identify prospects and customers to differentiate their preferences and allocate resources effectively to enhance profitability and retain customers simultaneously. Interaction is immanent to understand customers requirements which will allow Scoot to customize their services to loyal customers who will continue to patronize Scoot with its incentives and loyalty programmes which maximizes perceived customer value.

Earthquake Simulation for Buildings

seism Simulation for BuildingsAbstract temblor is an strong-minded innate(p) phenomenon of vib balancen of the grunge which potty become dangerous mainly when it is con attitudered in relation with body structures. Earthquakes mess be very weak, with come in even realizing them scarce (they) digest also be strong enough to result serious remediation to buildings which depose lead to injures or even loss of human lives. In ramble to avoid any structural damage the code sets conditions on the building design. For that purpose, Eurocode 8 is established in European countries and sets up every(prenominal) the appropriate criteria and measures for the design of buildings for temblor enemy (Eurocode 8 is established in Europe and suggests 4 different methods of analysis.) In this project the re dissolving agent of octet buildings is examined (investigated) under seismal excitation. Firstly, is examined the case of four buildings (1 narrative, 2 storey, 3 storey and 4 st orey) where alone the storeys be facsimile (replica). later, is examined the case of four buildings (again 1-4 storeys) where sequence the storeys of individually building atomic cast 18 increased, the caboodle, the unfeelingness and the upper side of apiece nail down word are decreased. Both the lateral method of analysis and the modal response spectrum analysis are apply as recommended by EC8 to orchestrate the inter-storey drifts, the do shear throws and the overturning moments at the base of distributively building. The results are plotted and compared so that useful outcomes puke be obtained.1. IntroductionOne of the more(prenominal) or less(prenominal) shake up and destructive phenomena of nature is a severe earthquake and its terrible afterward meats grumpyly when they are associated with structures. An earthquake is a sudden drive of the Earth, ca utilize by the overhasty release of strain that has accumulated over a long time. Earthquake intensi ty and order of magnitude are the intimately common used parameters in order to understand and compare different earthquake events.( are the most common parameters used to appreciate and compare.)In recent years arrest been giving increa snake pitg attention to the design of buildings for earthquake resistance.Specific (particular) legislation is ( rescue been) established to make structures able to resist at any seismal excitation. In Europe, Eurocode 8 explains how to make buildings able to resist to earthquakes, and recommends the use of elongate and non- bilinear methods for the seismic design of the buildings frank structures derriere be personal mannerlled either as equivalent repulsivenessgle degree of unembellisheddom administproportionns (SDOF) or as a combination of SDOF brasss.In this project 8 different buildings with a magnetic declination either on the number of storeys or on their characteristics are pretended as a combination of SDOF mastermindations for which the flair shapes and their corresponding eigenfrequencies and expirations are calculated. Afterwards the fundamental oftenness is obtained for for each one case and the fictile design is used in order to obtain the base shear impels and the overturning moments. (INELASTIC DESIGN AND sidelong FORCE METHOD)2. Literature review2.1 Introduction to earthquake engineering interpretation and earthquake derivation or generation or creation or production or formation or genesisThe lithosphere is the solidness part of Earth which includes or consists of the in encrustationation and the uppermost mantle. The sudden movement of the earths lithosphere is c eached earthquake (technical address seism).Fractures in Earths crust where sections of rock have slipped past each former(a) are called Faults. Most earthquakes occur on Faults. Generally, earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of built-up stress within rocks on geologic faults or by the movement of magma in volcan ic areas.The sup side of meat of plate tectonics provides geology with a comprehensive sup get that explains how the Earth works. The theory renders that Earths outermost layer, the lithosphere, is broken into 7 expectant, blotto pieces called plates the African, North American, South American, Australian- Indian, Eurasian, Antarctic, and peaceful plates. Several subcontinental plates also exist, including the Caribbean, Arabian, Nazca, Philippines and Cocos plates.Boundaries of tectonic plates are name at the edge of the lithospheric plates and can be of various forms, depending on the nature of sexual congress movements. By their distinct moves, iii main types can be characterized. The three types are subduction orders (or trenches), spreading covers (or spreading rifts) and qualify faults.. convergent, divergent and conservative.At subduction zone boundaries, plates move towards each an otherwise(prenominal) and the one plate subducts underneath the other ( one p late is overriding a nonher, thereby forcing the other into the mantle at a lower place it.)The opposite form of movement takes place at spreading ridge boundaries. At these boundaries, twain plates move away from one another. As the dickens move apart, molten rock is allowed to rise from the mantle to the scrape and calm down to form part of the plates. This, in turn, causes the growth of oceanic crust on either side of the vents. As the plates continue to move, and more crust is formed, the ocean ba blunder out expands and a ridge system is created. Divergent boundaries are responsible in part for driving the relocation of the plates.At transform fault boundaries, plate material is neither created nor destroyed at these boundaries, but rather plates slide past each other. Transform faults are mainly associated with spreading ridges, as they are usually formed by come forward movement due to perpendicular spreading ridges on either side.Earthquake LocationWhen an earthquake occurs, one of the world-class questions is where was it?. An earthquakes fixture may mark us what fault it was on and where the possible damage most apt(predicate) occurred. The hypocentre of an earthquake is its location in three dimensions latitude, longitude, and depth. The hypocentre (literally meaning at a lower place the centre of attention from the Greek ), or focus of the earthquake, refers to the point at which the rupture initiates and the archetypal seismic draw in is released.As an earthquake is triggered, the fault is associated with a large area of fault plane.The point directly preceding(prenominal) the focus, on the earths come up where the origin of an earthquake above ground.The epicentre is the place on the rebel of the earth under which an earthquake rupture originates, often apt(p) in degrees of latitude (north-south) and longitude (east-west). The epicentre is vertically above the hypocentre. The distance between the dickens points is the focal d epth. The location of any station or reflexion can be described relative to the origin of the earthquake in basis of the epicentral or hypocentral distances.Propagation of seismic wavesSeismic waves are the energy generated by a sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an artificial explosion that travels through the earth and is recorded on seismographs. at that place are several(prenominal) different miscellanys of seismic waves, and they all move in different ways. The two most important types of seismic waves are form waves and turn up waves. Body waves travel deep within the earth and surface waves travel near the surface of the earth.Body wavesThere are two types of consistency waves P-waves (also pressure waves) and S-waves (also shear waves).P-waves travel through the Earth as longitudinal waves whose compressions and rarefactions resemble those of a sound wave. The name P-wave comes from the fact that this is the quick kind of seismic wave and, consequently, it i s the first or Primary wave to be detected at a seismograph. Speed depends on the kind of rock and its depth usually they travel at speeds between 1.5 and 8 kilometers per second in the Earths crust. P waves are also known as compressional waves, because of the pushing and pulling they do. P waves shake the ground in the kick they are propagating, while S waves shake perpendicularly or transverse to the direction of propagation. The P-wave can move through solids, liquids or gases. Sometimes animals can hear the P-waves of an earthquakeS-waves travel more slowly, usually at 60% to 70% of the speed of P waves. The name S-wave comes from the fact that these slower waves scram Secondary after the P wave at any observation point. S-waves are transverse waves or shear waves, so that particles move in a direction perpendicular to that of wave propagation. Depending in whether this direction is along a vertical or naiant plane, S-waves are subcategorized into SV and SH-waves, respectiv ely. Because liquids and gases have no resistance to shear and cannot sustain a shear wave, S-waves travel only through solids materials. The Earths outer core is believed to be liquid because S-waves disappear at the mantle-core boundary, while P-waves do not.(3 http// advance wavesThe surface waves expand, as the name indicates, near the earths surface. The bountys of surface waves approximately decrease exponentially with depth. Motion in surface waves is usually larger than in body waves therefore surface waves tend to cause more damage. They are the slowest and by furthest the most destructive of seismic waves, especially at distances far from the epicenter. Surface waves are divided into Rayleigh waves and Love waves.Rayleigh waves, also known as ground roll, are the result of an incident P and SV plane waves interacting at the forgive surface and traveling parallel to that surface. Rayle igh waves (or R-waves) took their name from (named for) John Strutt, Lord Rayleigh who first described them in 1885 ( who mathematically predicted the existence of this kind of wave in 1885) and they are an important kind of surface wave. Most of the shaking matt-up from an earthquake is due to the R-wave, which can be much larger than the other waves. In Rayleigh waves the particles of soil move vertically in circular or elliptical paths, just like a wave rolls across a lake or an ocean. As Rayleigh wave particle head is only found in the vertical plane, this means that they most commonly found on the vertical component of seismograms.The Rayleigh equating isLove waves (also named Q waves) are surface seismic waves that cause horizontal shifting of the earth during an earthquake. They move the ground from side to side in a horizontal plane but at right angles to the direction of propagation. Love waves took their name from A.E.H. Love, a British mathematician who worked out the ma thematical model for this kind of wave in 1911. Love waves are the result from the interaction with SH-waves. They travel with a slower stop number than P- or S- waves, but faster than Rayleigh waves, their speed relate to the relative frequency of vibe.Earthquake sizingEarthquake measurement is not a simple problem and it is hampered by many federal agents. The size of an earthquake can be quantified in various ways. The intensity and the magnitude of an earthquake are terms that were certain in an attempt to evaluate the earthquake phenomenon and they are the most commonly used terms to express the severity of an earthquake.Earthquake intensityIntensity is ground on the observed effects of ground shaking on people, buildings, and infixed features. It varies from place to place within the disturbed region depending on the location of the observer with respect to the earthquake epicenter.Earthquake magnitudeThe magnitude is the most often cited measure of an earthquakes siz e.The most common method of describing the size of an earthquake is the Richter magnitude subdue, ML. This home plate is based on the observation that, if the logarithm of the level best geological fault amplitudes which were recorded by seismographs located at various distances from the epicenter are put on the same draw and this is repeated for several earthquakes with the same epicentre, the resulting curves are parallel to each other.This means that if one of these earthquakes is taken as the basis, the coordinate difference between that earthquake and every other earthquake, measures the magnitude of the earthquake at the epicentre. Richter defined as zero magnitude earthquake one which is recorded with 1m amplitude at a distance of 100 km. Therefore, the local magnitude ML of an earthquake is based on the maximal trace amplitude A and can be forecastd from the relationML= log A log A (3)Where A is the amplitude of the zero magnitude earthquake (ML=0).The Richter mag nitude scale of measurement can only be used when seismographs are within 600 km of the earthquake. For greater distances, other magnitude scales have been defined. The most current scale is the moment magnitude scale MW, which can be used for a wide range of magnitudes and distances.Two main categories of instruments are used for the duodecimal evaluation (estimation, assessment) of the earthquake phenomenon the seismographs which record the displacement of the ground as a solve of time, and the accelerographs (or accelerometers) which record the speedup of the ground as a function of time, producing accelerograms. X the accelerogram of the 1940 El Centro earthquake.For every earthquake accelerogram, overflowy or linear acceleration response spectrum diagrams can be calculated. (obtained, estimated) The response spectrum of an earthquake is a diagram of the peak determine of any of the response parameters (displacement, acceleration or velocity) as a function of the innate vibe period T of the SDOF system, subjected to the same seismic input. All these parameters can be plotted unitedly in one diagram which is called the tripartite plot (also known as four coordinate paper).2.2 Earthquake and Structures simulation2.2.1 Equation of motion of SDOF systemIntroduction thrill is the periodic motion or the oscillation of an tensile body or a medium, whose state of vestibular sense has been disturbed. whose authority of counterweight has been displaced. There are two types of vibrations, rid vibration and laboured vibration. tingle can be classified as either free or draw and quarterd. A structure is said to be in a state of free vibration when it is disturbed from its static equilibrium by abandoned a small displacement or deformation and therefore released and allowed to swing without any foreign self-propelling excitation.Number of details of Freedom (DOF) is the number of the displacements that are needed to define the displaced sit o f the mountaines relative to their buffer position. Simple structures can be idealised as a system with a lumped mound m supported by a massless structure with grimness k. It is put on that the energy is dissipated through a embarrassing muffler with damping coefficient c. Only one displacement variable is requisite in order to specify the position of the mass in this system, so it is called cauterize Degree of Freedom (SDOF) system.Undamped Free Vibration of SDOF systemsFurthermore, if there is no damping or resistance in the system, there will be no decline to the amplitude of the oscillation and theoretically the system will vibrate forever. such(prenominal) a system is called undamped and is represented in the belowBy victorious into reflexion the inertia lunge fin and the elastic spring force fs the equality of the motion is give byfin + fs = 0 m+ ku = 0Considering the initial conditions u(0) and (0), where u(0) is the displacement and (0) is the velocity at the time zero, the par (4) has the global upshotu(t) = u(0) cosnt + sinntwhere n is the natural frequency of the system and is disposed(p) by,n = (6)The natural period and the natural frequency can be defined by the above comparisonsTn = (7) fn = (8)Viscously damped Free Vibration of SDOF systemsThe compare of motion of much(prenominal) a system can be developed from its free body diagram belowConsidering the inertia force fin, the elastic spring force fs and the damping force fD, the comparability of the motion is given bym+ c+ ku = 0 (9)Dividing by m the above equation gives+ 2n+ 2u = 0 (10)where is the critical damping and is given by = (11)and Cc is the critical damping ratio given byCc = 2mn* If 1 or c Cc the system is overdamped. It returns to its equilibrium position without oscillating.* If = 1 or c = Cc the system is critically damped. It returns to its equilibrium position without oscillating, but at a slower rate.* If Taking into fib that all the structures can be considered as underdamped systems, as typically their damping ratio is less than 0.10 the equation (9) for the initial conditions u (0) and (0) gives the solution belowU (t) = eu(0)cosn+.+sinDt (13)where D is the natural frequency of damped vibration and is given byD = n (14)Hence the natural period isTD = (15)Undamped oblige Vibration of SDOF systemThe equation of motion of such a system can be developed from its free body diagram belowConsidering the inertia force fin, the elastic spring force fs and the external dynamic load f(t), the equation of the motion is given bym+ ku = f(t) (16)where f(t) = f0 sint is the uttermost value of the force with frequency By august the initial conditions u(0) and (0) the equation (16) has a general solutionu(t) = u(0)cosnt + sinnt + sint (17)Damped Forced Vibration of SDOF systemThe equation of motion of such a system can be developed from its free body diagram belowConsidering the inertia force fin, the elastic spring force fs, the dampi ng force fD and the external dynamic load f(t), the equation of the motion is given bym+ c+ ku = f(t) (18)where f(t) = f0 sintThe particular solution of equation (18) isup = Csint + Dcost (19)And the complementary solution of equation (18) is(20)uc = e(AcosDt + Bsinnt) (20)2.2.2 Equation of motion of MDOF systemThe equation of motion of a MDOF elastic system is evince byM+ C+ Ku = -MAI(t) (21)where M is the mass matrix, C is the damping matrix, K is the stiffness matrix, u is the acceleration vector, u is the velocity vector and u is the displacement vector. Finally, AI is a vector with all the elements equal to unity and ug(t) is the ground acceleration.2.2 Earthquake and Structures simulation2.2.1 Equation of motion of SDOF systemIntroductionVibration is the periodic motion or the oscillation of an elastic body or a medium, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed. whose position of equilibrium has been displaced. There are two types of vibrations, free vibration and fo rced vibration. Vibration can be classified as either free or forced. A structure is said to be in a state of free vibration when it is disturbed from its static equilibrium by given a small displacement or deformation and then released and allowed to vibrate without any external dynamic excitation.Number of Degrees of Freedom (DOF) is the number of the displacements that are needed to define the displaced position of the masses relative to their original position. Simple structures can be idealised as a system with a lumped mass m supported by a massless structure with stiffness k. It is assumed that the energy is dissipated through a viscous damper with damping coefficient c. Only one displacement variable is required in order to specify the position of the mass in this system, so it is called Singe Degree of Freedom (SDOF) system.Undamped Free Vibration of SDOF systemsFurthermore, if there is no damping or resistance in the system, there will be no reduction to the amplitude of the oscillation and theoretically the system will vibrate forever. Such a system is called undamped and is represented in the belowBy taking into consideration the inertia force fin and the elastic spring force fs the equation of the motion is given byfin + fs = 0 m+ ku = 0Considering the initial conditions u(0) and (0), where u(0) is the displacement and (0) is the velocity at the time zero, the equation (4) has the general solutionu(t) = u(0) cosnt + sinntwhere n is the natural frequency of the system and is given by,n = (6)The natural period and the natural frequency can be defined by the above equationsTn = (7) fn = (8)Viscously damped Free Vibration of SDOF systemsThe equation of motion of such a system can be developed from its free body diagram belowConsidering the inertia force fin, the elastic spring force fs and the damping force fD, the equation of the motion is given bym+ c+ ku = 0 (9)Dividing by m the above equation gives+ 2n+ 2u = 0 (10)where is the critical damping and is given by = (11)and Cc is the critical damping ratio given byCc = 2mn* If 1 or c Cc the system is overdamped. It returns to its equilibrium position without oscillating.* If = 1 or c = Cc the system is critically damped. It returns to its equilibrium position without oscillating, but at a slower rate.* If Taking into account that all the structures can be considered as underdamped systems, as typically their damping ratio is less than 0.10 the equation (9) for the initial conditions u (0) and (0) gives the solution belowU (t) = eu(0)cosn+.+sinDt (13)where D is the natural frequency of damped vibration and is given byD = n (14)Hence the natural period isTD = (15)Undamped Forced Vibration of SDOF systemThe equation of motion of such a system can be developed from its free body diagram belowConsidering the inertia force fin, the elastic spring force fs and the external dynamic load f(t), the equation of the motion is given bym+ ku = f(t) (16)where f(t) = f0 sint is the maxi mum value of the force with frequency By imposing the initial conditions u(0) and (0) the equation (16) has a general solutionu(t) = u(0)cosnt + sinnt + sint (17)Damped Forced Vibration of SDOF systemThe equation of motion of such a system can be developed from its free body diagram belowConsidering the inertia force fin, the elastic spring force fs, the damping force fD and the external dynamic load f(t), the equation of the motion is given bym+ c+ ku = f(t) (18)where f(t) = f0 sintThe particular solution of equation (18) isup = Csint + Dcost (19)And the complementary solution of equation (18) isuc = (AcosDt + Bsinnt) (20)2.2.2 Equation of motion of MDOF systemThe equation of motion of a MDOF elastic system is expressed byM+ C+ Ku = -MAI(t) (21)where M is the mass matrix, C is the damping matrix, K is the stiffness matrix, u is the acceleration vector, u is the velocity vector and u is the displacement vector. Finally, AI is a vector with all the elements equal to unity and g(t) is the ground acceleration.3. Description of the Method3.1 alter Multi-Storey Shear Building ModelIt is almost impossible to predict on the dot which seismic action a structure will undergo during its biography time. Each structure mustiness be designed to resist at any seismic excitation without failing. For this reason each structure is designed to meet the requirements of the design spectrum analysis based in EC8. Also some assumptions are necessary in order to achieve the best and the simplest glorification for each multi store building. Initially it is assumed that the mass of each horizontal surface is lumped at the centre of the scandalise and the editorials are massless. The report channelises are totally rigid and incompressible hence the floor displacement is being transferred equally to all the columns. The columns are flexible in horizontal displacement and rigid in vertical displacement, while they are provided with a fully touch on support from the floors an d the ground. The building is assumed to be harmonious about twain x and y directions with symmetric column arrangement. The consequence of this is that the centre of the mass of each floor to coincide with the centre of the stiffness of each floor. The position of this centre remains stable up the entire height of the building. Finally, it is assumed that there are no torsional effects for each of the floors.If all the above assumptions are used the building structure is idealised as a model where the displacement at each floor is described by one degree of freedom. Thus, for a jth storey building, j degrees of freedom required to express the total displacement of the building.The roof of the building has always to be considered as a floor.The mass matrix M is a symmetric cut nxn matrix for a n-storey building and is given below. Each diagonal value in the matrix represents the total mass of one beam and its two corresponding columns which are assumed to be lumped at each level. M =Stiffness method is used to formulate the stiffness matrix. K is the lateral stiffness of each column and is given by the birthK = (22)where EI is the flexural stiffness of a column.The lateral stiffness of each column is clamped at the ends and is imposed in a unit sway. The stiffness of each floor is the sum of the lateral force of all columns in the floor. The stiffness matrix is for a n-storey building isK =In order to calculate the natural modes of the vibration, the system is assumed that vibrates freely. Thus, g(t)=0, which for systems without damping (c=0) the equation (21) specializes toM+ Ku = 0 (23)The displacement is assumed to be harmonic in time, this is= -2Ueit (24)Hence equation (23) becomes(K 2M)U = 0 (25)The above equation has the petty(a) solution u=0. For non trivial solutions, u0 the determinant for the left hand size must be zero. That isK 2 M = 0 (26)This condition leads to a polynomial in terms of 2 with n roots, where n is the size of matrices and vec tors as cited above. These roots are called eigenvalue.By applying the equation (6) (7), the natural frequency and the natural period of vibration for each mode shape can be determined.Each eigenvalue has a relative eigenvector which represent the natural ith mode shape. After the estimation of the eigenvector in order to compare the mode shapes, scale figures are applied to natural modes to standarise their elements associated with various degrees of freedom (X). This process is called normalization. Hence, after the estimation of the eigenvectors each mode is normalised so that the biggest value is X eigenvector notation. unity.The eigenvectors of a symmetric matrix corresponding to distinct eigenvalues are orthogonal. This aspect is expressed by the following expressionUiTKUij = UiTMUij (27)The classical eigenvalue problem has the following form(M-1K I) u = 0 (28)where =2 and I is the identity matrix.EC8 suggests that the response in two modes i and j can be assumed independ ent of each other whenTj 0.9 Tiwhere Ti and Tj are the periods of the modes i and j respectively (always Ti Tj). The calculated fundamental period can be checked by the equation that EC8 suggestsT = Ct*H3/4where T is the fundamental period of the building, Ct is a coefficient and H is the total height of the building this expression is valid buildings that their total height is not more than forty metres3.2 Elastic AnalysisThe response method is used to estimate the maximum displacement (uj), pseudo- velocity (j) and acceleration (j) for each calculated natural frequency. It is assumed that the MDOF system oscillates in each of its modes independently and displacements, velocities and accelerations can be obtained for each mode separately considering modal responses as SDOF responses. Each maximum, displacement velocity and acceleration read from the design spectrum is multiplying by the participation factor i to re-evaluate the maximum values expressed ujmax, jmax, jmax respectiv ely. The participation factor i is defined by the following equation(28)where UijT is the transpose vector of each of the mode vectors, M is the mass matrix, AI is the unit vector and Uij is the mode shape vector.The actual maximum displacements of the jth mode are given byu = ujmaxUjAfterwards, the root-mean-square (RMS) approximation is used in order to calculate the maximum displacement for each floor. In this approach, all the maximum values for each mode, are squared and summed and their square root is derived. If we let Dmax be the maximum displacement thenDmax = (29)A very variable parameter to modify the seismic behaviour of a building is the Inter-Storey Drift which can be obtained by the following equationi = Di Di-1/hi (30)where Di, Di-1, are the horizontal displacements for two contiguous floors and hi is the corresponding height of the floor. The calculated values must be lower than 4% in order to maintain with the Eurocode.Afterwards the horizontal inertia forces Fj s applied at each floor are obtained by applying the following equationFj = MUjjmax (31)where M is the mass matrix, Uj is the eigenvector for each mode and jmax is the maximum acceleration.As it is suggested from the EC8, the root-mean-approximation is used again in order to obtain the total lateral forces. EC8 suggests that the combined lateral force at each floor is given by the square root of the sum of the squares of each lateral force at each floor of all the modes. If we let Ftotal,i the maximum base shear force thenFtotal,j = 1 (32)where Fij is the lateral force at floor i of the mode j. at one time the total lateral forces and the shear forces have been obtained, the maximum overturning moment is calculated.3.3 inflexible AnalysisThe inelastic response spectra are generally obtained by the marking of the elastic design spectra via the use of response modification factors. No effect of the energy absorption was assumed in the structure for the calculated values by using the elastic design spectrum. By introducing the ductility factor this parameter is taking into consideration.Newmark has described the ductility parameter as the ratio of maximum displacement to the displacement at yield. Apparently when yielding does not take place the concept of ductility is not relevant and is taken equal to unity. he system is described by the damping ratio , the natural frequency n, and the ductility factor .In order to calculate the new-fangled set of values of acceleration, displacement and velocity the design response spectrum has to be constructed. Newmarks procedure leads to the construction of two modified spectra.1. For maximum accelerationIn this case the elastic design spectrum is reduced by the appropriate coefficients. The acceleration region of the graph is multiplie

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Limitations Of Biometrics

Limitations Of biostatisticsThis paper foc usances on the limitations of biometry and demonstrates how the theory of micklecell commensurate biometry tramp mitigate such limitations. Cancell adequate biostatistics gives biometric administrations, theoretic all(prenominal)y, the ability to re-issue biometric signals. Thus, if a biometric infobase is ever compromised, the biometric run across plunder be re- muckle. Our team up believes that detonatelable biostatistics should be a opera hat manage when utilizing biometric technologies. This paper begins with a background of biometric technologies, the global biometric securities industry, and general limitations of biometry. The main eubstance foc hires on the background, concepts, and mould of cancellable biometrics offered as a resultant role for close to of the limitations address. Finally, an epitome of cancellable biometrics advantages and disadvantages concludes our paper.What is biometrics?To define bi ometrics, you can look at the Greek translation. Bios translates to vitality and metric translates to bill. This leads to a direct translation of biometrics to life measurement. (Biometric Definition-What, 2005) biostatistics is a technique for identification of people that uses body characteristics or behavioral traits and is increasingly macrocosm utilise instead of or in fraternity with other forms of identification ground on something you live with (e.g. ID card) or something you pick out (e.g. password or PIN). (8.5 biometrics) The direct Greek translation of life measurement is fitting because biometrics looks to measure physical or behavioral traits of a human for identification purposes. thither atomic number 18 2 types of biometrics behavioral and physical. Behavioral biometrics measures the characteristics that an person naturally acquires over the span of their lifetime. Examples of this applied science acknowledge speaker recognition, signature verificat ion, and keystroke verification. corporeal biometrics measures the physical characteristics and body measurements of an individual. Examples of this applied science include facial recognition, iris and retinal scan fingerprinting, and desoxyribonucleic acid typing (Biometric Definition-What, 2005). There be also two trends that biometrics can operate in verification and identification. Verification is employ to validate a person a turn a profitst who they claim or present themselves to be. It is a virtuoso to adept match between the acquired templet of the individual and a investment companyd scout for coordinated. This mode relies on individuals entering their biometric entropy into the system prior to trying to gain devil to it (8.5 Biometrics). Identification is the process of trying to figure out who an individual is. This involves a comparison of the individual to a list of guides stored in the entropybase. (Yun, 2003) Physical biometrics can be use for every veri fication or identification while behavioral biometrics is typically alone used for verification purposes. (Biometric Definition-What, 2005)The History of BiometricsBiometrics seems to be a new-fashioned day engineering, exactly its concept was actually applied as utmost back as the ordinal century. Chinese merchants used fingerprinting during the fourteenth century to describe children (Osborn, 2005). In 1890, Alphonse Bertillon developed a form of biometrics known as anthropometrics. Anthropometrics is a method of identifying individuals based on comminuted measurements of their body and physical descriptions. This method fell out of use when it was observed that multiple individuals could hold out the kindred body measurements. (Biometrics History, 2006) Early in the twentieth century, an applied mathematician named Karl Pearson used statistical history and correlation to biometrics research. speck biometric certification was developed during the 1960s and 1970s, mark ing a broad discovery in behavioral biometrics. (Osborn, 2005) Also during this time, the FBI pushed for automating their fingerprint recognition process. This automation was the come on of modern day biometrics, a combination of the biometrics process with information technology. During the 2001 Superbowl in Tampa, Florida, face recognition softwargon program was installed at the stadium to identify known criminals. (Biometrics History, 2006) Post 9/11 t misplayist attacks, in that location was a huge push by the U.S. government to implement biometrics on a large(p) scale. The government began installing facial recognition hardw are and software in airports to identify suspected terrorists. (Osborn, 2005)Generic Biometric SystemWhile there are many biometric technologies in use today, and many more than creation invested in and researched on, they all share a similar process eat (Yun, 2003). The adjacent ambit is a basic block diagram of a biometric systemSource (Yun, 20 03)The process al elbow rooms starts with some type of sensing element device. This is what captures the biometric information. The capture information is thence sent through a process phase. Here the information is cleaned up, noise is removed, and the important entropy is deepend. The processed selective information is then coiffure together to form a template. A template is what represents the biometric data within the system. If its the first time the individual is utilize the system, the template is stored within the system. Otherwise, the generated template is compared against an already stored template during the matching process. If the biometric technology is operate in a verification mode, the generated template is matched against a specific stored template. If the technology is operating in an identification mode, the generated template is matched against a list of stored templates. If the matching process yields a positive match, then the individual is granted ac cess to the exertion device. (Yun, 2003)Current spheric Biometric MarketIt is important to consider the prevalence of biometrics. Although it may seem futuristic, biometrics is being used in countries all over the world. According to Prabhakar, Pankanti, and Jain, biometric applications fall into cardinal main categories commercial, government, and forensic. The commercial course of instruction includes applications used in e-commerce, banking, and social networking sites. Governments use biometrics for drivers licenses, immigration control, and e-passports. rhetorical applications include devices used in criminal investigation and prisoner individuation control. (Prabhakar, Pankanti, Jain, 2003)According to BCC research, the global biometric revenue increased from $1.950 billion in 2006 to $2.7 billion in 2007. The compound annual growth rate from 2007 to 2012 was expected to be 21.3% (The Global Biometrics Market, 2007). As you can see from the figure below, the biometri c technology being used ranges from fingerprint scanners, leading the market, to hand geometry scanners.The market statistics high up were derived in 2007. As a means for comparison, our group thought it trump to obtain market research from at least one more source. According to a more recent expression, issued by homeland tribute newswire on January 18, 2011, the market is expected to grow at 18.9% per year until 2015, bring estimated global revenue from biometrics up to $12 billion in 2015. Fingerprint technologies will lock up dominate the market, with face, iris, vein, voice recognition following (Biometrics market expected, 2011). BCC assumed a 21.3% annual growth rate, which would have make 2011 expected revenue virtually $5.8 billion, the actual 2011 global biometric market revenues number $5 billion (Biometrics market expected, 2011). The main point is that the global biometrics market has been growing as expected and is expected to grow.Biometric technology offers substantive advantages, but there are some limitations that need to be addressed as the biometric market continues to grow. For example, although the US has been the leader of the biometric market, scanning of iris or fingerprints to use ATM machines has non been implemented due to secrecy and write down concerns. (Biometric ATMs not, 2005) One of the major limitations is the issue of privacy. The issue of privacy and other limitations, if not resolved, may continue to stop the biometric market growth as seen by Americans lack of biometric ATM machines. The following section will discuss limitations of generic biometric systemsLimitations of BiometricsAn obvious issue with biometrics is costs. The table below was derived from the carrefour offerings of a leading biometrics supplier, digitalPersona, Inc., using the framework from their whitepaper on best practices. This chart includes all aspects of a typical corroboration system. As you can see the cost of biometric technolo gy hardware and software is expensive in itself and costs for training, design, maintenance, and credentials will also be incurred.Category dilateCostTimeTrainingUsers, administrators$100-$1,500 per substance abuser1 hour 5 old ageDesignEnsure compatibility with other systems$1,000-$4,0001 day 10 daysInstallationHardware and software purchases/configure$3,000-$50,00010 days 30 daysUser enrollmentAcquisition of biometrics$50-$ one hundred seventy-five per user.75 hrMaintenanceAdd/modify users$25-$200 per causa0.5 hrSecurityExtra safeguards within system to ensure privacy$500-$20,0001 day 10 daysSource (Best Practices, 2009) some other field of honor of concern with biometrics is the fact that once a biometric meet has been leaked or obtained by an unauthorized source, that image is no longer secure for use with any application (Teoh, Kuan, Lee, 2008). Authentication puppets, such as passwords, keys, and identification cards have always been easily cancellable and renewable , but biometrics have been a concern because users only have, in general, one face, two eyes, one set of fingerprints, etc. (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001). Although it is difficult to do, determined data thieves can extract biometric images and put them to improper use, rendering stolen images useless in terms of security.The figure below demonstrates eight vulnerabilities of ordinary biometric systems.Source (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001).Figure www.fidis.netOnce lord biometric data is obtained, reproductive memory can easily be achieved. Attacks or so the sensor may include inputting fake or copied biometric signal (point 1) or using a counterpart of a genuine biometric, tape with fingerprint, to bypass the sensor (point 2) (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001). The other part of the system, feature extraction method (points 3 and 4), the matching device and purpose (points 4 and 8), the database that holds the biometric images (point 6), and the communication channel between data base and matcher (point 7), are oft harder to attack, but if victoriously br to to each one oneed will result in the theft or alteration of biometric templates which cannot be re pipd (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001).The biggest disadvantage of biometrics is that biometric data cannot be changed or reset. For example, if a password is stolen, a new password can be created. However, if a biometric characteristic is stolen from a database, a new biometric characteristic cannot be issued. Thus, if a biometric database is compromised, that biometric used for authentication purposes cannot be used again.Finally, there is a huge privacy concern, as seen with the USs delay of implementing ATMs with biometric systems. The uniqueness of biometric data raises this concern. There is already an terrific amount of data being collected by social networking sites, employers, the government, retail stores, medical centers, etc., Each entity may identify soul with data that can either be changed or is not merely unique to them, such as an email address or a name (Joe Smith). Thus, if the government wanted information from a retail store about a particular person, they may not be able to determine, from the retailers database, whether it is Joe Smith from California or Joe Smith from Arkansas. Currently to make data overlap possible, data would have to be paired with more data in purchase order to identify the right person and then share information about that person between entities. This idea of data sharing among entities produces a fear in some people with regards to the use of biometrics because biometric data is completely unique to a person. If all these entities have biometric data, data unique to just one individual, all the entities could share data in their databases (cross-matching). For example, data collected by private company can be matched with the governments data. (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001)One solution to this privacy concern is cancellable biometri cs (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001). Cancellable biometrics allows authentication biometric signals to be re-set if a database is every compromised. Basically, cancellable biometrics distorts a biometric signal based on a certain transform during enrollment, and continues to distort it the same way for every presentation and authentication there afterward (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001). If biometric data is ever stolen, a new transform is used and re-enrollment is allowed (Gaddam, Lal, 2010). The following sections further let off cancellable biometrics and how it can mitigate the risks of biometric systems vulnerabilities.History of Cancellable BiometricsThe study and research around cancellable biometrics is relatively new with most research beginning around the turn of the 21st century. Although many have contributed to the field, several publications, including the encyclopaedia of Biometrics (2009) and The diary of the Pattern Recognition Society credit Nalini Ratha with the concepts that led to the insertion of cancellable biometrics (Teoh, Kuan, Lee, 2008). Cancellable biometrics was conceptualized as a way to address the potency downsides and security concerns of ordinary biometrics. In order to prevent the preclusion of a biometric image, cancellable biometrics was created. The goal of cancellable biometrics is to provide biometric authentication that is not only unique to an individual, but one that also has the ability to be changed. Cancellable biometrics does not provide extra security around biometrically authenticated systems, but does provide a way to avoid losing the ability to use biometrics as an authentication method.As its name suggests, cancellable biometrics allows a biometric template to be cancelled and replaced with a new image that is based on the same biometric data, resulting in one of many possible permutations (Teoh, Kuan, Lee, 2008). According to the Encyclopedia of Biometrics (2009), cancellable biometrics allows biometri c images to be reset by encoding each biometric image with a polar aberrancy schema for each application that uses the image (Lee Jain, 2009). In order to assure the security of each permutated biometric image, a unique distortion scheme must(prenominal)(prenominal) be used for each unique application (Teoh, Kuan, Lee, 2008). The use of a distortion scheme creates an image for storage in a database that is not an exact match to the sea captain biometric measure, therefore changing the image is as easy as changing the distortion scheme. Next we will discuss the concepts behind cancellable biometrics that are used to increase the security of biometric authentication and to keep biometric data unique.The Concepts john Cancellable BiometricsThere are three criteria that a cancellable biometric template must meet in order to be useful and secure (1) each cancellable template must be used for only one application, (2) the annulment and reprint procedures must be straightforward , and (3) the template computation must not be able to be reversed in order to harbor the authorized biometric data. These three steps may also be referred to as diversity, reusability, and unidirectional transformation, respectively (Teoh, Kuan, Lee, 2008).Using the same biometric template for multiple applications exposes data to the same menaces that using the same password for multiple applications would. If an unauthorized user gains access to one application, access can be achieved to all applications that use the same template. When using one template for multiple applications, no consequence how strong the security is for the strongest application, the security of all the applications with the same authorization template is only as strong as the weakest link.Addressing the second criteria, that revocation and reissue procedures must be straightforward, is as it says, straightforward. Without a straightforward way to cancel and reissue a biometric template, biometric da ta is subject to interception and physical alteration (Teoh, Kuan, Lee, 2008).The trey criterion, that the computation of the template not be reversible, is also meant to protect the truth and the individuality of the original biometric data (Teoh, Kuan, Lee, 2008). If a computation can be reversed, and the original biometric data is revealed, the biometric measurement will be useless and unsecure. A popular method for creating non-invertible biometric data is to use a hashing function. out-of-pocket to the unique characteristics of individual biometric data, there are several guidelines that a hashing function must take into account when creating non-invertible data. For example, regarding fingerprint data, Tulyakov, Mansukhani, Govindaraju, and Farooq (2007) suggest that hashing functions should have similar hash values for similar fingerprints, different values for fingerprints that are different, that the rotation of a fingerprint should not affect the hash value, and tha t, if fitted minutiae is available, partial fingerprints should be matched. Minutiae refer to uniquely identifiable points on a set of fingerprints (Tulyakov, Farooq, Mansukhani, Govindaraju, 2007).Within cancellable biometrics there are two distortion techniques that are widely recognized, signal region distortion and feature theatre of operations distortion. What signal and feature domain distortion basically provide are ways to either distort a biometric image directly after acquisition or extract features from a biometric image, such as minutiae, and then distort the features, respectively (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001). Signal domain distortion creates an independent image to be registered by a biometric indorser, but still provides landmarks that can be compared to the original image, e.g. points on a persons face or eyes, for authentication. Feature domain distortion extracts template features and scrambles them, providing a sufficient technique for biometric measurement s, such as fingerprints, which would be difficult to preserve accurate minutiae and a similar image (Lee Jain, 2009).How it worksCancellable biometrics is achieved when a normal biometrics model is limited in the lead it is stored in an intentional and repeatable method. This change in the pattern can be initiated by several methods, however this topic is still in development and a single industry best practice has not yet been distilled. Instead of the actual values from the biometric sensor being stored, a value that is the combination of the modifier and the sensors reading is stored. In the result that the biometrics is impersonated or the database is compromised, the modifier can be changed and the user can be authenticated with the system. (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001)Modifiers can be anything from a random number, a personal identification number, or even another biometric reading. The combination of these two items, similar to two-factor authentication, can create a uni que key that uses both an individually unique value with the independent but derived from the biometric. (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001)Once the biometric reader scans the individual, an algorithm is applied to the value. This transformation can happen in either the scanning device or post-processed within the computer system before it is validated against the record within the database. These readers can be hardware devices that join to a computer network or appliances which are self-contained. After successful verification of credentials the user is granted authentication. (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001) Demo use ppt slides to explain the images and how they are distorted and stored for cancellable biometrics.Advantages of Cancellable BiometricsDifferent entities and different applications use different transforms for the same signals. This prevents the sharing between databases of different entities (Gaddam, Lal, 2010). For example, a law enforcement internal representation will use one transform for a fingerprint scan, and a commercial entity will use a different transform for the same fingerprint scan. This idea of diversity makes cross-matching impossible. As seen in the figure below, the merchant takes the biometric data from the customer and compares it to a transform from one of the transform databases associated with a particular service (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001). This should ease privacy concerns as different transforms are held in different databases per entity.Source (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001)Also, the authentication server never stores original biometrics (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001). The benefit is that the risk of identity theft is significantly cut because the transforms are non-invertible. Even if a hacker accessed a template database, there would be no way for he/she to figure out the original biometric.The reusability feature, described in the section titled The Concepts Behind Cancellable Biometrics of this paper, protects the biometric authentication process from becoming obsolete. If cancellable biometrics did not offer re-usability and data continually was compromised, theoretically, people would start to run out of body parts to use.Limitations of Cancellable BiometricsCancellable biometrics is not the solution to all of the limitations of biometrics. Cancellable biometrics provides a solution for privacy concerns and resetting issues related to biometrics. However, it does not come the enormous cost associated with biometrics. Also, it does not prevent the use of a copied biometric signal (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001). For example, if someone found a way to obtain a copy of a fingerprint and used that copy of the genuine biometric to access a system/account/place etc., matching could be possible and access could be granted. Cancellable biometrics prevents identity theft by the use of non-invertible transforms and it increases privacy by preventing data sharing among entities because original biome tric data is never stored, it doesnt prevent people from using copies of genuine biometrics. As discussed in the section Limitations of Biometrics, biometric systems are subject to attack. Cancellable biometrics does not prevent an attack, however, if a biometric database or other parts of the system are compromised, a new transform can be used for the authentication process and the hacker will not be able to obtain the original biometric. Thus it mitigates the damage, but not the risk of attack. Another limitation of cancellable biometrics is the trade-off of higher protection for higher error rates. The invertible feature increases protection of original data, but causes a decrease in recognition accuracy (Cheung, Kong, Zhang, Kamel, You, Lam). This may lead to a higher dark rejection rate. A higher false rejection rate is inefficient and costly. final stageThe global biometric market is expected to continue growing. However, limitations of generic biometric systems may subordi nate the market growth from its full potential. General limitations of generic biometric systems include enormous costs, fake enrollment, physical copies bypassing sensors, attacks on the system parts and/or database, threat to privacy of individuals, and failure to reset biometrics. Cancellable biometrics provides a solution to some of generic biometric system limitations. With cancellable biometrics, a biometric template must have three criteria (1) each cancellable template must be used for only one application, (2) the revocation and reissue procedures must be straightforward, and (3) the template computation must not be able to be reversed in order to protect the original biometric data. These three criteria, also known as diversity, reusability, and one-way transformation (Teoh, Kuan, Lee, 2008), disallow data-sharing among entities, protect the overall biometrics from becoming obsolete, and prevent a hacker from obtaining genuine biometrics. Our team believes that due to the demand for biometrics in general, cancellable biometrics has a potential market. IBM has been researching and developing cancellable biometrics. According to an article off IBMs website, Helping enhance security and protect identities, several large banks have been talking with IBM about the use of cancellable biometrics. Cancellable biometrics also is relevant to sectors of the government like the IRS, Social Security administration, and law enforcement organizations (Helping enhance security-). Thus, cancellable biometrics may evolve from research and development into a marketable tool that may refresh the global biometrics market.Work Cited8.5 Biometrics. University of Leicester. Retrieved April 26, 2011 from. mention (8.5 Biometrics)Biometric ATMs not being used in U.S. (2005, October 11). Retrieved April 25, 2011from http// (Biometric ATMs not, 2005)Biometric Definition What Is Biometrics? Biometrics Tec hnology Explained. (2005)Retrieved April 25, 2011 from .Citation (Biometric Definition-What, 2005)Biometrics History. (2006). NSTC Subcommittee on Biometrics,April 18, 2011. .Citation (Biometrics History, 2006)Biometrics market expected to hit $12 billion in 2015. (2011, January 18).Retrieved April 25, 2011 from http// (Biometrics market expected, 2011)Best Practices for Implementing Fingerprint Biometrics in Application. (2009).DigitalPersona. Retrieved April 25, 2011 from http// (Best Practices, 2009)Cheung, H.K, Kong, A., Zhang, D., Kamel, M., You, J., You, T., Lam. H-W., (n.d.). Ananalysis on accuracy of cancellable biometrics based on biohashing. Unpublished manuscript, discussion section of Computing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China. Retrieved April 22, 2011 from h ttp// (Cheung, Kong, Zhang, Kamel, You, Lam)Gaddam, S.V.K, Lal, M. (2010). Efficient cancellable biometric key generationscheme for cryptography. International Journal of Network Security, 11(2), 61-69. Retrieved April 22, 2011 from http// (Gaddam, Lal, 2010)Helping enhance security and protect identities. IBM. Retrieved April 26, 2011 fromhttp// enhance security-)Lee, S.Z., Jain, A.K. (2009). Encyclopedia biometrics. Retrieved April 22, 2011 fromhttp// (Lee Jain, 2009)Osborn, A. (2005, August 17) Biometrics History the Hi story of Biometrics from retiring(a)to Present. Video Surveillance Systems, Security Cameras CCTV Equipment Guide. April, 25, 2011. .Citation (Osborn, 2005)Piuri, Vincenzo (2008) Fingerprint Biometrics via low-cost Sensors and Webcams.IEEE. Retrieved April 25, 2011 from http// (Piuri, 2008)Prabhakar, S, Pankanti, S, Jain, A. K. (2003, March). Biometric recognition securityand privacy concerns. IEEE Security and Privacy. Retrieved April 25, 2011 from http// (Prabhakar, Pankanti, Jain, 2003)Ratha, N.K., Connell, J.H., Bolle, R.M. (2001). Enhancing security and privacy inbiometrics-based authentication systems. IBM Systems Journal , 40(3), 614-634 Retrieved April 22, 2011 from http// ing+security+and+privacy+in+biometrics-based+authentication+systemsaq=faqi=g1aql=foq=pbx=1bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.fp=f4864d47f9f205c8biw=1366bih=583Citation (Ratha, Connell, Bolle, 2001)Teoh, A.B.J., Kuan, Y.W., Lee, S. (2008). Cancellable biometrics and annotations onbiohash. Journal of the Pattern Recognition Society, 41(6), 2034-2044 Retrieved April 22, 2011 from http// (Teoh, Kuan, Lee, 2008)The Global Biometrics Market. (2007, December). Retrieved April 25, 2011 fromhttp// (The Global Biometrics Market, 2007)Tulyakov, S, Farooq, F, Mansukhani, P, Govindaraju, V. (2007). Symmetric hashfunction s for secure fingerprint biometric systems. Pattern Reconition Letters, 28(16), 2427-2436. Retrieved April 22, 2011 from http// (Tulyakov, Farooq, Mansukhani, Govindaraju, 2007)Yun, W. (2003) The 123 of Biometric Technology. web Accessed 18 April 2011from (Yun, 2003)

USSC Audit Income

USSC canvas IncomeCase 1.11 United States Surgical messQ3. Prep are common-size financial program lines for USSC for the consummation 1979-1981. Also compute key liquidity, solvency, activity, and profitability ratios for 1980 and 1981. Given these data, come out what you regard were the tallschool-risk financial statement items for the 1981 USSC visit.U.S. Surgical CorporationCommon sizing Income Statement 1979-1981 (000s omitted)1981 % Sales 1980 %Sales 1979 %Sales Net Sales 111,800 century 86,214 100 60,876 100 Costs and ExpensesCOGS 47,983 43 32,300 37.5 25,659 42.1Selling, GeneralAnd Admin. 45,015 40.3 37,740 43.7 23,935 39.3 Interest 5,898 5.2 4,063 4.7 3,403 5.698,896 88.5 74,103 85.9 52,997 87.0 Income to begin with tax incomees 12,904 11.5 12,111 14.0 7,879 12.9Income Taxes 1,120 1.0 4,226 4.9 2,750 4.5 Net Income 11,784 10.5 7,885 9.1 5,129 8.4U.S. Surgical CorporationCommon Size Balance rag 1979-1981 (000s omitted)Current Assts 1981 %Assets 1980 %Assets 1979 %As sets Cash 426 .21 1,243 1.04 596 .85 Receivables (net) 36,670 17.7 30,475 25.6 22,557 31.9InventoriesFinished Goods 29,216 14.1 9,860 8.3 5,685 8.1Work in Process 5,105 2.5 2,667 2.2 1,153 1.6 stabbing Materials 20,948 10.1 18,806 15.8 7,365 10.455,269 26.7 31,333 26.3 14,203 20.1Other Current Assets 7,914 3.8 1,567 2.4 1,820 2.6 Total Current Assets 100,279 48.4 64,618 54.3 39,176 55Assets 1981 %Assets 1980 %Assets 1979 %AssetsProperty, Plant, Equip pour down 2,502 1.2 2,371 2.0 1,027 1.5 Buildings 32,416 15.6 18,511 15.5 13,019 18.5Molds and Dies 32,082 15.5 15,963 13.4 8,777 12.4Mach. Equip. 40,227 19.4 23,762 20.0 12,362 17.5Allowance forDepreciation (14,953) (9,964) (6,340)Other Assets 14,786 7.1 3,842 3.2 2,499 3.5Total Assets 207,339 119,103 70,520Liabilities 1981 % liability/ 1980 %Liability 1979 %Liability line of merchandise.Eq. Stock. Eq. Stock. Eq.Accounts Payable 12,278 5.9 6,951 5.8 6,271 8.9Notes Payable 1,596 2.3 Income Taxes Payable 1,685 1.4 Current L-T Debt 724 . 35 666 .56 401 .57 Accrued Expenses 5,673 2.7 5,130 4.3 5,145 7.3 Long-Term Debt 80,642 38.9 47,569 39.9 33,497 47.5Deferred Income Tax 7,466 3.6 2,956 2.5 1,384 2.0Liabilities 1981 %Liability/ 1980 %Liability 1979 %LiabilityStock.Eq. Stock. Eq. Stock. Eq.Stockholders EquityCommon Stock 1,081 .52 930 .78 379 .54Add. Paid-in big(p) 72,594 35.0 34,932 29.3 10,736 15.2Retained Earnings 32,665 15.8 20,881 17.5 13,189 18.7Translation Allowance (1,086)Deferred Compensation-Issue Restricted Stock (4,698) (2,597) (2,078)Total Stock. Equity 100,556 48.5 54,146 45.5 22,226 31.5Total Liabilities/Stockholders Equity 207,339 119,103 70,520Financial Ratios for U.S. Surgical Corporation1981 1980Cash Ratio .0228 .0861Current Ratio 5.37 4.48Accounts Receivable Turnover 3.33 2.57 farm animal Turnover 1.11 .75Gross avail Percent 57% 62%Profit Margin 11.5 14.1Return on Assets 7.9 7.4The common sized income statement was prompt to display all items as a percentage of sales. On the income statement we can see that there was a decrease in exist of goods sold from 1979 to 1980. Cost of goods sold went from 42.1% of sales to 37.5% of sales even though net sales increased. This information along with the increase in the certain summation inventory work out on the balance sheet manoeuvres a substantive increase in inventory held by USSC. Anformer(a) high risk income statement item was the selling, full general and administrative expenses. Included in this category of expenses are research and victimisation cost. The amounts of research and development costs reported dropped significantly. In 1980 they were reported at $3,020,000 and dropped to $1,337,000 in 1981. Also the unblemished category of selling, general and administrative expenses which included these RD costs diminish as a percent of sales from the previous year. The USSC openly admitted to undergoing a bountiful research and development program to create new products and technology in 1981. The major decrease in costs reported for research and development in 1981 should swallow caused further investigation by the auditing aggroup. The common sized balance sheet was prepared to display each asset as a percentage of essential assets. The percentages for the cash and accounts receivable accounts in 1981 decreased significantly from the previous years while the inventory account increased. This indicates a decrease in liquidity of assets which is also supported by the transfer in the cash ratio from 1980 to 1981. A nonher high-risk item would consecrate been the other assets account. United States Surgical Corporation included their patents in this other assets account. They were capitalizing costs associated with the legal defense of a patent that should not have been capitalized. There was a significant increase in this account, $3,842,000 in 1980 to $14,786,000 in 1981. Another red flag would be the significant increase in total long term assets. In 1979 long term assets accounted for 4 5% of total assets, in 1980 it was 45.7% of total assets and in 1981 long term assets accounted for 51.6% of total assets. USSC was capitalizing costs associated with patents that should not have been capitalized, charging inventoriable production to a long-term assets account molds and dies, and extending the useful lives of some assets and therefore understating depreciation. All of these actions would have caused a significant increase in total long-term assets. A more precise high-risk item was the long-term asset molds and dies. This account doubled in 1981 from the previous year from $15,963,000 to $32,082,000. The SEC investigation later revealed that USSC was in feature capitalizing production costs and charging them to the molds and dies asset account.Financial ratios were also calculated to chance high-risk items. The new ratio for USSC in 1981 is a little high and has increased from the previous year. In 1981 the current ratio indicated that USSC had $5.37 in current assets for every dollar of current liabilities. This high ratio may indicate that United States Surgical Corporation was overstating their assets. The inventory turnover is low at .75 in 1980 and 1.11 in 1981. The auditing team would have wanted to investigate to mention out why inventory was accumulating and not turning over as these numbers indicated. By preparing the common size financial statements and ratios we can identify the high-risk items when performing an audit. The major items for United States Surgical Corporation were the reduced research and development costs recognized despite the increase in research for new products, the major increase in the long-term asset account molds and dies and the other assets account.Q5. Regarding the costs incurred for USSC by Barden, identify (a) the establish fancy collected that supported USSCs claim that the costs involved tooling modifications and (b) the audit conclusion that supported the go down that the costs were generic production expenses. What do mainly accepted auditing standards suggest are the key evaluative criteria that auditors should consider when assessing audit license? Given these criteria, do you believe Hope was justified in deciding that the costs in motility were for tooling modifications? Why or why not? The evidence that hope collected that supports USSCs claim that the dismantles in question were in fact for tooling modifications was the General Manager of Lacey Corporation (A division of Barden Corporation) goes post on his previous statement and confirms that the secure orders and invoices were in fact for tooling modifications. USSC explained their position and said that they had instructed Lacey to make certain tooling changes that would result in improved skill in production of USSC products. When the audit team asked to take a go game of the Lacey plant to examine the actual production process the Lacey General bowl aware the audit team that personnel often mistak enly charge tooling jobs to production. There was more evidence that supported the position that the costs in question were just generic production expenses. Initially the audit team did not notice that the assets were being overstated and there was an issue with the classification. It was the conjunction who does work for USSC that admitted that there were issues with some of the purchase orders and invoices. The Lacey general manager informed the auditors that invoices and purchase orders were being reviewed and that they were for general production work and not tooling modifications as USSC had previously stated. The chairman of the board of directors for Barden Corp. reported that an independent investigation by an outside law firm has concluded that the purchase orders and invoices were in fact for general production work and not for tooling modifications. Finally the Senior wrong President and Treasurer for Barden Corporation refused to sign confirmation that $1 cardinal in charges were for tooling modifications on two occasions. The key criteria for evaluating audit evidence are relevance, reliability and sufficiency. The evidence mustiness be relevant to audit objective. The auditors must use procedures and documents that are relative to the audit objective. The evidence must be safe, or must be believable and trust worthy. The sufficiency of evidence has to deal with the quantity of evidence obtained. In my opinion Hope was not justified in deciding that the costs were for tooling modifications. There was not decent evidence to come to this conclusion, just some complicated explanations from USSC and inaccurate purchase orders and invoices. The evidence was not relevant to the audit objective. The specific products with modifications should have been traced indorse to their purchase orders. Instead the auditors just took the explanation of these orders from management. Finally the reliability of the evidence was not high, USSC had a lot to lose if it was concluded that they were indeed general production and the General Manger for Lacey had changed his position numerous times. The only reliable evidence was that of the independent law firm that concluded the purchase orders and invoices were not for tooling modifications. ReferencesKnapp, Michael C., United States Surgical Corporation Contemporary Auditing. Real Issues Cases. Sixth edition (2006), 137-146.Arens, R. Randal, M. Beasley, Auditing and Assurance Services. An Integrated Approach. (2008) 175-176.

Friday, March 29, 2019

The Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Biology Essay

The autoresistant Hemolytic Anemia Biology EssayAutoimmunity is a affection in which an organism loses its ability to recognize the self and non-self antigen, which would further lead to immune repartee against its avouch booths and tissues. Diseases that results from such abnormal immune responses be termed as autoimmune diseases. autoimmune haemolytic genus Anemia (AIHA) is an autoimmune disorder in which endogenous antibodies be directed against the bolshy pipeline cells and upregulated leading to bolshy blood cell death. This review article focuses on the types of AIHA base on the classification of the antibodies and the temperature at which they argon characterizationive i.e fond(p) AIHA, chilly AIHA and mixed AIHA , based on the age of its occurance i.e adult or paediatric AIHA, bears, diagnostic techniques, diseases which whitethorn cause AIHA as a supplemental disorder, treatment and its later oneffects, current and future prospectives of its studies.Abb reviations AIHA Autoimmune haemolytic anemia, WAIHA sore autoimmune hemolytic anemia, CAIHA refrigerating autoimmune hemolytic anemia, red blood cells Red blood cells, DAT Direct antiglobin ravel.INTRODUCTIONAutoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a disorder in which the auto-antibodies are directed against the persons own red blood cells (1). It is a relatively uncommon but non a grand disorder. It has an estimated incidence of 1 to 3 shells per 100,000 population per year (1). There are three types of AIHA based on the temperature of natural process of the autoantibodies i.e warm AIHA, ice-cold AIHA and mixed type AIHA of which warm AIHA has the most common occurance ( to a greater extent(prenominal)(prenominal) than 70%) followed by cold AIHA (about 20%) and mixed type has least occurance (2). and AIHA is classified ad on the basis of age of the patient suffering from the disorder i.e pediatric AIHA and adult AIHA. Pediatric AIHA is from the age group of 1 to 16 (o r 18) broad time and mostly has no vestigial causes (2). Adult AIHA is from 18 years and to a higher place and is mostly associated with both(prenominal) underlying primal diseases. Sometimes AIHA is cause c every last(predicate)able to administration of some doses and is called drug induced AIHA. AIHA whitethorn also be of secondary or idiopathic type. The further description of the different types of AIHA is explained below.TYPES OF AIHA base on the temperature at which the auto-antibodies are activeWarm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA)It the most common type of AIHA. Warm auto-antibodies are normally IgG. It is called warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia because the antibodies have their peak employment at 370C. IgG effectively binds to the FC receptor of phagocytic cells. Hence the ravaging of erythrocytes takes place mostly by phagocytosis. IgG may or may not fix complement. Hemolysis of RBCs also takes place in spleen. WAIHA may be idiopathic i.e when there is no unc reated infection causation the disorder or secondary to lymphoproliferative diseases, autoimmune diseases, viral infections, immune want etc (1)(2)(3)(6).Cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia (CAIHA)Cold auto-antibodies are ordinarily IgM antibodies. Rarely IgG or IgA antibodies can act as cold auto-antibodies. It is so called because the antibodies have their peak activity at temperature ranging from 0-40 C (1)(2)(3)(6). IgM antibodies are potent classical complement roadway activators. Hence causes complement mediated lysis of RBCs.Paraxysmal cold hemoglobinurea a form of CAIHA, is ca utilise by cold active IgG hemolysin. It was unremarkably associated with some underlying diseases homogeneous syphilis, measles, mumps or other viral diseases (1)(2)(6).Mixed autoimmune hemolytic anemiaBoth warm auto-antibodies and cold auto-antibodies are indue the blood. It is more fatal than the WAIHA and CAIHA. Detection and diagnosis is also more difficult than the introductory types (1)(2) (3)(4)(6).Based on the age of the patient suffering from the disorder AIHA is classified asPediatric AIHAAffects the age group of 1-16 years, with a high incidence of occurance in the first four years of life (1). It may ad libitum resolve on its own. It shows a good response to the steroid treatment. It has a sinful onset and less morbity rate. Males are more prone to pediatric AIHA (2).Adult AIHAAffects the age group of 18 years and above. It is more much associated with the underlying lymphoproliferative, autoimmune and infectious diseases. Treatment is steroid therapy or spleenectomy. Has higher morbity rate compared to adult AIHA because of the difficulty or inability in treating the underlying disease (2).Based on the cause of its occurance, quest are the types of AIHA substitute AIHAIt is chiefly caused ascribable to some underlying diseases same bacterial, fungal or viral infections. The primary underlying diseases that may cause secondary AIHA are Sjogrens syndrome ( 10), lymphoproliferative and autoimmune diseases (2).Treatment of the secondary AIHA would also include the treatment of the underlying primary disease, for its complete remission (1).Idiopathic AIHAHas no particular underlying causes like infections or primary diseases for its occurance. Mortality rate is comparatively less than that of secondary AIHA (1).Drug induced AIHACause of occurance are drug molecules that binds to the surface of the RBC membrane, acts as non-self antigens, thus inducing the autoantibodies against the RBCs and further leads to hemolysis (2). Examples of the drugs that cause drug induced hemolytic anemia are Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, L-dopa, Procainamide (6).CAUSESIn majority of the cases AIHA is caused due to some primary underlying diseases like lymphoproliferative, autoimmune and infectious diseases (2). For example, after the M.suis infection in pigs, warm IgG autoantibodies are directed against the RBCs and destroys it. In this case actin was the active co mponent that played a vital mathematical function in inducing an autoimmune response. Actin acted as a target protein for the autoreactive antibody during the knifelike phase of the M.suis infection. The autoreactive antibody production is induced by a misguided upregulation of the of course occurring B cells specific for self antigens, appearance of previously cryptic antigens, occurance of change self antigens, tolerance to self antigens due to molecular mimicry. The autoimmune epitopes (in this case actin) on the RBCs may be due to contact with the proteolytic enzymes. Cytoskeleton of the RBCs gets modified by the attachment and invasion of the infectious cistron. Also the infectious agent causes damage to the RBCs making the hidden cytoskeletal proteins of the RBCs accessible for the circulating antibodies. due to all the above mentioned reasons the antibodies recognizes them as non-self and elicit an immune response (3).There are several other causes which may lead to AI HA other than due to a primary infections. For example higher incidence of occurance of AIHA after allogenic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation in adult patients. Further studies proved that the chances of increase of AIHA is more in patients with HSCT from unrelated donors and also that they develop chronic extensive ingraft versus host disease (GVDH). In such cases it was observed that AIHA was never the primary cause of death, rather it was due to infection of GVDH (5). In some rare cases, liver transplantation or solid organ transplantation leads to the development of AIHA (11)(14)(15).DIAGNOSISThe destruction or removal of red blood cells from the circulation ahead their normal life span of 120 days is called Hemolysis. Hemolysis manifests itself as acute or chronic anemia, reticulocytosis or jaundice. Intravascular hemolysis refers to the destruction of red blood cells in the blood with the release of contents into plasma. This is then followed by direct membrane degrad ation and cell destruction caused by automatic trauma from a damaged endothelium, complement fixation and activation on the cell surface. On the other hand, extravascular hemolysis refers to the removal and destruction of red blood cells with membrane alterations by the macrophages of the spleen and liver. The hemolysis can be categorized broadly into the following typesHEMOLYTIC ANEMIAHEREDITARY (6)ACQUIRED (6)(Due to infections (6)Microangiopathic (6)Autoimmune (6)Autoimmune (6)Alloimmune (6)Drug induced (2) (6)Paroxysmal(1)(2)(6)Mixed(1)(2)(3)(4)(6)Cold(1)(2)(3)(6)Warm(1)(2)(3)(6)Immune complex or Auto-antibody (6)Drug absorption (hapten induced) (6) hold up blood transfusion reaction (6)Acute transfusion reaction (6)Flow map 2 Broad classification of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.Since all the above said categories of hemolytic anemias have many similar symptoms and expressions, efficient diagnostic techniques should be veritable to detect the correct category of hemolytic anem ia for its appropriate treatment.DIAGNOSTIC TESTINGBasic diagnosis for hemolysis on the basis of laboratory and peripheral smear findingsHematologic testsReticulocytosis which is the normal response of the bone marrow to the peripheral loss of blood cells is an important feature of speech laboratory feature of hemolysis. Checking for the presence of reticulocytosis can be used for diagnosis of hemolysis. Review of the peripheral blood smear with an assessment for pathognomic red blood cell morphologies (spherocytes or schistocytes) along with examination of WBCs and platelets is very important for the rating of any anemia (6).Chemistry testsIncreased unconjugated bilirubin, increased lactate dehydrogenase, and decreased haptoglobin levels are characteristic feature of the distruction of RBCs and thus can be used for diagnosis of hemolysis (6).c) In addition to the above tests, urinary tests are also be performed (6)After diagnosis of the basic hemolysis, its etiology is opiniona ted by performing further diagnostic tests. This review article focuses on the diagnostic techniques specific for AIHA. Microspherocyte on a peripheral smear and controlling direct antiglobin test (DAT) is a characteristic feature of AIHA (1). The direct antiglobin test ,is also known as direct Coombs test (8). It demonstrates the presence of antibodies or complement on the surface of red blood cells which is the hallmark of autoimmune hemolysis (8). In this technique, the patients red blood cells are mixed with lapin or mouse antibodies against human IgG or C3. The test would generate a positivistic result if an agglutination reaction between the patients antibody or complement coated red blood cells by anti-IgG or C3 is observed. RBC agglutination with anti-IgG serum indicates warm AIHA and RBC agglutination with anti-C3 indicates the cold AIHA. besides further efficient and very specific diagnostic techniques should be developed to distinguish mixed AIHA and paraxysomal cold hemoglobinuria from the other types. Also the present diagnostic techniques many a times failed to give an errorless greenback between these two types of AIHA (4).The three types of drug induced anemia based on their mechanism of their mechanism of action can be find by a positive DAT and its type can be identified by the intravascular or extra-vascular hemolysis that it produces (6).TREATMENTTreatment mainly depends upon the type of AIHA i.e warm antibody type, cold antibody type, mixed antibody type or paraxysomal cold hemoglobinuria and also on the secondary or the idiopathic forms. The following are the treatment picks for AIHA. However each treatment stratergies has its own advantages and disadvavtages.Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia i) CORTICOSTEROIDSThe initial therapeutic agent used for treatment of WAIHA patients are the adrenal cortical steroids.There is a rapid onset of response. This therapy is usually maintained for 1-3 weeks, however sudden ceasation of th erapy may result in pep up relapse of hemolysis. The adverse effects of long term use of corticosteroids as a therapeutic agent would include pulmonary aspergellosis, central nervous system hemorrhage (2), osteoporosis, avascular necrosis, susceptibility to infection, abnormalities in glucose and lipid transfiguration and growth suppression in children (7).The gluocorticoids may inhibit antimicrobial activity of macrophages thus showing side effects when treated with it (2). In cases of pediatric anemia, prednisolone along with folic acid supplementation was used for therapy which showed a positive response in 81% of the patients (8).ii) SPLENECTOMYSplenectomy is mainly considered in patients who donot respond to the corticosteroid therapy. The main advantage of splenectomy is that it has a potence for a complete and long term remission. The adverse effect of spelectomy would include overwhelming postspelectomy infection (OPSI) which may result in serious morbity or mortality in a dwarfish percentage of patients after spelectomy (2)(7)(8).iii) IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE DRUGSThis is the third therapeutic option after both corticosteroid therapy and spelectomy. Examples of the immuno-suppressive drugs would include azathioprine, cyclosporine (8), rituximab (9)(11) etc.iv) DANAZOLEIt is an attenuated androgen with good responses and comparatively lesser side effects (2)(7).v) INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBINIn patients who doesnot respond to the corticosteroids, it is used as a second line therapy. However, intravenous immunotherapy is expensive (2)(7).vi) PLASMA EXCHANGEUsed for acute reversal of severe hemolysis along with other therapeutic agents.Cold antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemiaThe simplest and the possible way for reducing the severity of CAIHA is avoidance of cold. plasma exchange showed a temporary benefit in a small percentage of patients. Any other therapeutic options involved more potential risks than probable benefits.Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuriaIn mo st of the cases hemolysis terminates spontaneously and hence only supportive care is required. Sometimes transfusion of RBCs and corticosteroid therapy may have a positive impact on the treatment.Atmost care should be taken in case of secondary autoimmune hemolytic anemia i.e the underlying diseases like chronic lymphocytic leukemia, general lupus erytromatous, lymphomas etc should be treated for complete remission from AIHA (7).Combinational therapy was used in some cases of AIHA as secondary infection. Example, a case in which AIHA was found in association with Plasmodium vivax infection was treated with chloroquine and primaquine (for P.vivax infection), prednisolone and transfusion of least incompatible RBCs (for AIHA) (12).CONLUSIONThis review article gives a very short business relationship about autoimmunity as a disorder. It mainly focused on auto-immune hemolytic anemia which is a subset of autoimmunity. The types of AIHA, causes, diagnosis and possible treatment straterg ies were discussed. The future electron orbit of research under this topic is in finding out more efficient and specific diagnostic techniques to detect mixed and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria and treatment options with maximum results and minimum side-effects. Drugs like Bortizomib (13), Alemtuzumab (humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CD52 antigen) etc are still under research for the treatment of hemolytic anemia (16).