Saturday, August 31, 2019

The Holocaust and Book Title Night

Night â€Å"Today everything is possible, even the crematoria. (Night, Wiesel 59) This compound hyperbole describes Elie Wiesel memoir of all the treacherous events that took place during the holocaust. Elie witnessed the whole experience first-hand. Weisel titled the book Night, evoking both literal and symbolic description of his dark ordeal as a holocaust victim and survivor. â€Å"That’s it, God is no longer with us. † (Wiesel 42) In this excerpt Elie Wiesel used syntax to figuratively exaggerate the despair the Jews faced.Although all Jews felt that God was either no longer there or simply did not exist, this quote was used as a hyperbole to make a seemingly inferior race feel the heat of a religious upheaval. â€Å"Never shall I forget that first night in camp, which has turned my night into one long night seven times sealed. † (Wiesel 32) By using hyperbole, this excerpt lets Wiesel express this symbolic complex sentence to exaggerate the agonizing feelin g of the holocaust being one long and dark quandary. â€Å"Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my god and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. (Wiesel 32) By giving the personification that his dreams were turned to dust helps us as readers understand the full extent of the gruesome nature that had changed the lives of millions forever. This book is a perfect example of Man’s inhumanity to man. Babies were shot and burned right in front of Elie. This could be like someone kicking a puppy in front of you and knowing you can’t do anything to stop it. The book title Night helps us as readers understand the dark, outstretched gloomy nature of the holocaust, and the symbolic side of the emotion being felt during war.The holocaust was full of remorseful and dark memories like the night sky is black. Elie’s book titled Night truly shows how terrifying this war was. â€Å"Over there, that’s where you’re going to be taken. That’s you ’re grave. Over there. † (Wiesel 38) This literal compound sentence was an excerpt from the book. Its literal effect on readers helped us understand that the thought of death could not be escaped. There was no place the Jews could go, and nothing Jews could do to escape the horrific thought of a horrifying death. Whether this be starvation, a bullet to the chest, or the rematorium, the thought of death haunted them all. What was described as one of the scariest things happening during this time were men turning on family members. Between killing for a piece of bread and abandoning parents or children for being weak, the holocaust had men acting not as men, but as wild animals. Also on the literal side the excerpt â€Å"Never shall I forget that smoke. † (Wiesel, 32) The smoke that represented where he could have died, and the smoke that turned innocent infant children into nothing more than a diminishing pile of ash.During the holocaust men were not treated as su ch. To the eyes of German SS soldiers Jews were merely dirt. Wiesel’s symbolic side of the book was shown through personification, hyperbole, syntax and a variety of various sentence structures such as using ways to describe how dark and gloomy his â€Å"long nights† stay at camp was. The title also brought out the more literal side like the smoke he swore never to forget. The symbolic and literal nature of the title Night was a description like no other of Elie Wiesel’s journey through hell.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Distinguish between Power and Authority

Power is the ability to coerce or force someone to do your will even if in some cases they may not want to. Authority is the skill of making people willingly do your will. It also the right to give orders, enforce obedience or make decisions.2. Compare and contrast the features of the leadership of bands, tribes, chiefdoms and state societiesA chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or houses. These elites form a political ideological aristocracy relative to the general group.3. Compare and contrast rank based societies and stratified state societies Power or privilege for some groups over the other it is called social stratification. It is a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy social stratification is based on four basic principles.4. Discuss the dimensions of social stratification and how these dimensions define state society  refers to a system by which categories of people in society are ranked in a hierarchy. For example of the Titanic to show the consequences of social inequality in terms of who survived the disaster and who did not. Four principles are identified which help explain why social stratification exists. First, social stratification is a characteristic of society and not merely of individuals. Second, social stratification is universal but variable. Third, it persists over generations. And, fourth, it is supported by patterns of belief.5. What means are used in various societies to maintain social control? Cite  example to support your generalizations Societies have developed both informal and formal means of dealing with conflicts and the disorder that results from conflict. Informal means of social control include ridicule and ostracism. Formal means of social control include formalized laws and sanctions. Methods for judicial settlement of such laws range from the formal song duels of the Inuits to the formal court system of the United States.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Abstracts 4 Articles Decision Making

Reading 1. 3 Jackall, R. (1988) Theories of decision-making process deliver to managers many essential tools such as risk and cost/benefits analysis, etc. which in tern routinizes administration. These tools cannot be used appropriately to manage of incalculable entities. The functional rationality approach is when activities precisely planned and estimated to reach some goal. This method is unlikely to be used by top managers because another important factors are involved such as ego or personal altitude.If there is no special procedure for a particular problem, manager should focus on how to turn a situation into the right way in accordance with expectations from their boss. Some managerial people cannot make their own judgments. Instead, they are looking up and looking around for someone else’s opinion and finally they rely on it because of personal fears or inexperience. Another example of it is the mid-level decision-making paralysis in many American companies when a mana ger is trying to avoid of making a decision. In the case of inevitable decision, he or she would engage as many colleagues as possible for self-protection.Many examples of recent administrative and economic problems within American companies have showed the tendency that managers are oriented to the short-term period when making decisions. This is due to the fact that MBA programs provide tools which are focuses mostly on a short-term attitude. The second reason would be that managers are under pressure for annual, quarterly, monthly and daily results and these factors push they out of thinking about the future, even though they realise that today’s minor difficulties could be tomorrow’s big crises.Managers are also aware of blame time and when things go wrong it is necessary to be protected from consequences. This is the reason why they gravitate towards this fear being punished rather than reflecting critically. Bureaucracy disrupts working processes into parts and t he results of the work therefore disconnected with the decisions, which had been made. Manager’s productivity depends on the position within management circle or their supervisors. There is no codes or systems for tracking personal responsibilities to be established.To be successful manager means to move quickly within the levels of managerial hierarchy. It protects from going into problems too deeply at every level. Example I worked for four years as an instrument engineer in the Natural gas industry in Russia. I was involved into the decision making process associated with planning resources and finances for further projects and discussions about engineering-related difficulties. Firstly, when the question was complicated and involves financial resources, I checked the parameters of equipment many times and sent the results to my boss.When I received the confirmation from him, I printed it out and managed the necessary signatures on it. I did not want to be responsible for any inconvenience because my boss has to carry out this kind of responsibility. It was extremely important for me as a lower-level manager to have the document that proves that all things are done in time and approved by middle-level manager. In case of inconveniences such as the late commissioning phase of facilities I showed the documents that all the steps were completed by me on time. Reading 4. 2 Â  Reason, J. (1990)The general view on accident’s causes within complex technological systems includes theoretical framework which is not only provides the data on how dangerous factors could be combined themselves, but also where and how to predict these tendencies and take necessary measures beforehand. There are many elements of production, which are also involved into accident causation. Fallible high-level manager’s decisions are a major contributing factor to an increase in risk, followed by the lack of line management, which in turn causes dangerous preconditions and unsafe acts (intended and unintended).The latter are based on human’s psychological characteristics and conditions and are described as a combination of both potential hazards and errors, which could cause injury or damage. Likewise, a trajectory of an opportunity includes all these factors plus safeguards and productive events. Each of these has a window of opportunity in terms of an accident incidence. Therefore damage is highly possible when this trajectory is crossing all the windows at all the stages of production. The safe operation control consists of two features – feedback and response.The theory points out that the most successful approach to manage the safety is by taken into consideration the failure types rather than the failure tokens. According to Westrum (1988) there are three groups of auctions – denial, repair and reform. The successful organization is taken actions in responding to safely data from the reform (bottom level). The fundament al distribution error relates to a personal incompetence of employee while on the other hand the fundamental surprise error is the situation when personal observation differs to a reality.Thus, taken into consideration these terms and experience from the past major accidents such as Chernobyl, the nature of a malfunction has to be considered not only as pure technical but also as socio-technical. The people’s contribution to accidents is dominating the machine failure risk. Example I investigated many serious accidents related to the natural gas transportation process. For instance, one emergency stop of the 3. 2-megawatt gas turbine was caused by the malfunction of a frequency meter. After an analysis of reports I concluded that technical maintenance of this device was conducted improperly.A responsible worker forgot to finish one procedure related to the metrology accuracy of this piece of equipment. Another example is when other gas turbine was stopped by alarm during norm al working cycle. The reason for that was unplanned and uncoordinated upgrade of its automatic control system (ACS). From my point of view, the modern technology is very reliable and ACS is highly faultness but social factors as well as poor decision making are of the major reasons for emergency situations. For instance, social factors in Russia are included a low salary and the lack of a proper education. Reading 6. Beach (1993) A descriptive Image theory focuses on people’s individual decisions rather than group ones, and it is directly opposite to prescriptive classical theory of making decisions. There are also three decision-related images (structures), which have to be possessed by a decision maker. The value image is based on personal principles, behavior and beliefs. These are the source for generating goals. Thus, the ultimate criteria for this is when the decision maker consider the values to be relevant. Therefore potential goals and actions, if they are inconsiste nt with the relevant principles, will be refused.The second image, which is called the trajectory image, includes potential goals, which have to be set and the third one, the strategic image, focuses on actions and plans that have to be performed for achieving targets. The important parts of the third image are tactic and forecast, which would be a crucial factors for monitoring a realisation progress of a particular goal. Decision-making process consists of two types of decisions such as adoption and progress which include the implementation of the compatibility and profitability tests.The compatibility test is based on both types of decisions and compares candidates to three images, whereas in contrast the profitability test relates to the adoption decision only and uses the outcome after performing the compatibility test. For instance, the compatibility test selects few candidates, who successfully crossed through a selection criteria and the profitability test therefore chooses the best candidate from the previous sorting. Another important part of the Image theory is the process of framing decisions which is the action when the goal is identified and the plan is alled back if one exists. The data from the practical research suggests that it is unlikely that the decision maker tend to change the selection criteria without changes in principles, goals and plans. Example I was involved into the process of interviewing new workers within the Natural gas industry. I had to employ personnel with sufficient technical knowledge and skills because they have to work within hazardous areas and on potentially dangerous equipment. As a team leader I was hoping to find highly qualified workers with extensive experience for an average amount of salary.After performing several meetings and consultations with potential staff within this salary category I concluded that no one was able to pass the criteria and possess theoretical knowledge and practical achievements from p revious work experience. Because of that I decided to change the working images by changing the criteria. Therefore, I focused on workers who possess theoretical knowledge with engineering ideas in complex. Although they did not have extensive experience, they satisfied basic criteria and were able to perform tasks within their role (maintenance and repair).And after this correction of principles I recruited staff for my team successfully. Reading 7. 3Â  Janis (1971) Groupthink is a way of thinking when members behave with a high level of concurrence and tend to adopt a soft line of criticism on colleague’s ideas or even on every critical issue. This is why they make inhumane decisions easily with serious consequences such as the huge number of people’s deaths. The more cohesive the group, the more the risk that the decision will be proposed without the deep analysis of other choices.There are eight major symptoms of groupthink such as invulnerability, irrationality, ignorance of moral principles, stereotyped and unrealistic positions, group pressure against any critical views, member’s self-censorship, unanimity tendency within a group and the mind guard which is to protect the decision from any kind of the feedback. These indicators are typical for a bad decision making process which in tern may results the inhumane decision with serious consequences. Several steps could be adopted to prevent any group from group thinking.In this case criticism should be accepted not only by members but also by a leader. Wide range of alternatives should also be taken into account as possible options. In a case of vital decisions several groups with different leaders should be established to work on the same problem. Before the final decision is made each member should discuss considerations in its unit of organisation and then provide a final response to the group. An outside expert should be invited to all meetings. One decision-maker within the group should criticise a position of the majority.In the case of consensus the group should organise the final meeting for listening and discussing any doubts against the final decision. Although these actions have also drawbacks. For instance, when growing crisis requests an immediate solution there is no time for discussions and implementing many steps for decision making. Another example might be that the risk of the leakage of vital information would significantly increases when outside specialists are involved. All in all, it seems to be clear that top priority should be given in the prevention of any policymaking unit from the group thinking.Behavioral scientists should also be involved into these processes. Example During my work in Russia a groupthink was played a crucial role because of many factors. Firstly, my colleagues were really close to each other and the company’s social policy was developed for this purpose. Therefore, we spent some days playing games and sports altogether. This resulted in the number of small close-connected teams within the group. Another point is that my boss had a top role during all the process of discussion. Therefore, I had een many examples of bad decision-making. For instance, the only criticism from experienced and old colleagues was taken into account despite obvious things that were given by young professionals. Another factor is that the small teams did know how to play games within this environment and how to speculate. From my point of view, taking into consideration the long-term period, most of the final decisions were satisfactory but insufficient. It means that the projects were performed according to the rules and practices within timelines.But it can be clearly seen that due to the lack of criticism, for example, the total cost of the projects was increased. This way if the rules and steps of good decision practice were implemented, the cost and efficiency would significantly increase. Reading 8. 2Â  C allon (1987) The development of the technology has been explained by many social scientists using different available methods but they have not taken into account the point that the issue of the technology itself can also be represented as a sociological tool for an analysis. This also leads to the changes in understanding the dynamics of technology.There are two sociological views on the dynamic of consumption, which were developed by sociologists Touraine and Bourdieu. Touraine showed that French consumers’ behavior mostly dictated by large monopolies and industry, whereas in contrast Bourdieu pointed out that competition between social classes within French society taken the first place in terms of consumption of goods and services. Therefore these theories were shown by battle between engineers of two powerful French companies in the early 1970s: Electricite de France (EDF) and Renault.Despite the fact that both of them successfully proposed the concept of an electric car (VEL), the EDF’s theory failed because of unsolved technological difficulties related to the area of science and economy of the VEL, but the Renault did survive in the market because it focuses on not only the technological factors but also on rational views. This is the controversial result, because from the sociological point of view Renault’ specialists won this battle by a chance nor by implementing genius technological ideas.This experience of engineers-sociologists is possible to use as a new methodological tool for exploring large sections of society as well as researching within the value of role of social movements in the progress of consumption. There is also a helpful tool which is named the actor network. It is the case when company’s technological strategy supported by many sections of society. It describes the dynamics of society in completely different way without using sociological explanations.Firstly, in the case of implications of radical inn ovations within a technological sector engineers must mix technical and scientific analysis with sociology. Secondly, the actors network approach is efficient because it takes into account outside factors, which are related to common concepts of systems. Example I was responsible for implementing the concept of using compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel for private cars and municipal buses instead of regular petrol. I was focused on the public transport such as buses because of the potential reduction of pollutions as well as the decrease of the total cost of fuel consumption.Moreover, it was easier to install the necessary equipment on buses because the government agreed to subsidise the cost of these modifications. Whereas in contrast I concluded that private car owners would not agree with this idea because the Siberian region in Russia is a large area and the number of CNG filing stations was limited to only 7. Thus, it was clear for me that using CNG fuel people could not trave l between major cities which is crucial factor. This approach was based on social behavior of people and their habits. Therefore, the main target for our new policy was a municipal transport within major cities.

One-Way Analysis of Variance with SPSS Coursework

One-Way Analysis of Variance with SPSS - Coursework Example Using results from the Tukey HSD test, it is observed that there are several comparisons listed in the table. For instance, in the first row, we can see the comparison between group 1 and the other two groups. Following this table across, we see that the difference of means between group 1 and the other two groups is significant. However, the difference in means between group 2 and 3 is not significant (p-value = 0.999). The results are consistent with our findings based on the ANOVA test in which the p-value was significant as it is less than 0.05. The significance of the p-value (from the ANOVA test) is observed due to the significant difference of means between groups 1 and 2 and 1 and 3. Using results based on main effects and post-hoc statistical test, in this case Tukey HSD test, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a significant difference between the three groups. In other words, there is a difference between the means of the three

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Read the attachment carefully Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Read the attachment carefully - Assignment Example e is competition; other companies like Schlumberger and Halliburton also operate in the same industry producing almost similar products to the market. All their products are consumed by the same consumers making competition a great external factor in the task environment. It always keeps the company in check to produce more and quality equipments and services (Kew &John, 11). Customers demand products based on their quality making the companies compete in producing the best qualities. The better the quality, the higher the consumption rate, thus, more profit to the business (Slaton & Hunter, 321). To be efficient in their production quality is important leading to the next task environment that is resources. Resources include skilled workers, raw materials, and finance. These factors must exist for efficient operation of the company in orders to produce quality services and equipments. Without them, the company cannot operate, and if they are limited, the level of production is reduced and the company can collapse. The last important element in the task environment of the National Oil Well Varco Inc is the technology. It enhances smooth operations within the company and production of technical tools. Since most of its products are used by other firms like drilling companies, advanced technology is essential to producing efficient equipments and services. Technology also helps it keep up with the competition in the global market at large. In the Oil Gas Drilling Industry, Diamond Offshore Drilling is one of the companies operating in that sector. Some of its task environments are similar to those of the National Oil Well Varco Inc. For example, it is faced with completion from other companies like, Noble Corp, and Ensco plc that also drill oil gas. Another similar critical task environment element is technology. For effective and efficient operation of the company, advanced technology is necessary. Its activities require sophisticated and advanced technology to

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Thematic critical analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Thematic critical analysis - Essay Example The novel takes place in a seventeenth century Puritan community, when it is discovered that Hester has been unfaithful to her long gone husband. As punishment she is forced to wear the letter "A" on her forever. Wearing the letter "A", symbolizing for adultery, was the real punishment in the Puritan community; however even in history there is never any mention of the letter being of red color. The main focus of the story is how Hester is forced to wear the scarlet colored letter on her all the time. Hawthorn specifically made sure that the letter was of the color red. He chose the color red purposely, his inspiration with British History had a hand in this as well. "In Northumberland's lament appears a reference to the day of judgment as an occasion when a person's sins are exposed and judged-the record described as a type of list, or bead-rolUXmt 116)^ and as a "black booke" to be "vnclaspt" at that time (118). This reference to a book of judgment and damnation presents nothing less than a source for the imagistic link in The Scarlet Letter between the embroidered letter worn by Hester-as well as the transgression which brought her such punishment-and the book of the "Black Man," in which the letters of the sinner's name would be inscribed in the scarlet hue of their own blood (Canadas 45). It is explained here by Canadas that the color red was chosen due to its association with blood and the severity of the crime. In the "Black Man" the names of the sinners will be written in their own blood. Sinners have committed unforgivable offenses for which it must be shown to the world, through their own blood, that harshness of their offence. In this same manner Hawthorn shows that Hester must wear the letter in the color red. It is a symbol of her offence against her marriage, her husband and most of all the pureness and innocence of the community. Which brings us to the next point, the social standards of this community are very narrow. This shows the influence of the environment in which Hester resided. If adultery had been committed in the twenty-first century, no one could have even though about physically punishing Hester. It still would have been looked down upon, but it would be her private life. Lets take a closer look at time frame and setting of this novel. It is mid-seventeenth century, Boston, Massachusetts. When Hawthorn this novel it was 1840 in Salem, his story takes place only two hundred years prior to the actual time. Let us also keep in mind that Hawthorn himself was from the Puritan descendants and therefore his literary flair was limited. "According to Nathaniel Hawthorne's biographer, Henry James, Jr. Hawthorne's heritage as a descendant of the "clearest Puritan strain" served to restrict his literary talent to the exploration of one theme: the "consciousness of sin""(Taylor 135). The main focus of the Pur itans was the sin and how to erase it. Obviously this kind of breeding led to Hawthorne only being able to write about this subject. The conscious sin refers to the sin that is committed even after obtaining the knowledge that this behavior is forbidden and will be condemned. However even after having this knowledge and understanding the consequences when one still commits a sin, it is referred to as

Monday, August 26, 2019

Digital tools and architectural visualization Term Paper

Digital tools and architectural visualization - Term Paper Example The report has found out that technology has changed the way designing used to be done. There is a whole lot of digital tools and computer software’s in use currently that have eased the work of an architect. Architects are using animation technologies and software’s that are projecting building in an almost real manner. The report analyses in detail the use of technology in the profession and its significance in future world of architecture. Table of Contents 1.0 INTRODUCTION 4 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 5 3.0 ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURE 10 4.0 Digital Visualization Technical Overview 13 Benefits of the transition to digital Architectural Visualization 15 5.0 CONCLUSION 16 Revit 16 ArchiCAD 16 SketchUp 17 Rhinoceros 3D 17 AutoCAD 17 Works cited 19 1.0 INTRODUCTION Architecture is probably ranked among the world’s oldest professions of all time, it is an art in itself and only people with unrivalled creative genius were associated with the professio n. Many buildings and monuments have been built through this science right from the medieval times. Architectural design is among the professions in the world that have direct effect on us, we probably would not be seeing the kind of buildings that pride our skylines today were not for this profession. A while back architects performed their trade through sheer creativity and drawing. It called for individuals who are highly creative, good in drawing and men who were good in mathematics. We can say, it called for artists who are above the basic level, to come up with sketches and designs, it required for calculation and good drawing capability since architects did not have the advantage of technology assisted designs during their time. This is a profession that requires at most care in order not to make mistakes that will be threatening to the whole process of construction. Technology has come up with tools to help in the development of architectural designs which are more accurate and deliberate on quality to cut down on costly mistakes. All said and talked about, architecture has not gained the necessary audience and not many people care to understand the ropes. Therefore despite the improvement in technology some segments of architects have refused to move with technological tide deciding instead to maintain the traditional way of doing things. The researcher hence found it necessary to bring to light all the gains made in the architectural world primarily focusing on technology and tools available to architects to make their work stand out while improving on quality. It should be understood that the current complex designs seen in the first world countries would not have happened without complex digital technology to birth a design. Currently it is possible to build structures that seem to defy gravity and structures which respond positively to environment thanks to improved technology on architecture. Without architects great structures cannot be created, hence the researcher found motivation with the kind of progress that has taken place and needs to be known. In this report the researcher meant for it to address the following points while making them the main objectives points-: Types Digital tools used in architecture focusing also on available software’s What is visualization and how it has helped in designing The impact of technology on arc

Sunday, August 25, 2019

The product development process Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The product development process - Article Example Such demands go in details from quality, affordability, reliability, durability and likeability amongst others. The product development process is such that it is inclusive of all the possible features a potential customer in any part of the world may desire. This paper shall analyze how to develop a product at the Apple Inc. The chosen product is phone line for various models of iPhone. Product development process is a critical area in manufacturing that determines the extent to which a firm may be competitive in its target market. Apple’s products go through the normal development process that many businesses also go through. Before the company launches a product, the product passes through pre-development, development, and post-development. At the predevelopment stages, the company has to go through strategic development, marketing analysis and business plan. To begin with, strategic planning revolves around product project plan. For instance, Apple’s strategic product planning takes into consideration what other competitors are offering. It compares its features against those of other manufacturers in a bid to come up with a new product that meets the market demand. Taking a case study of iPhone 6, it is observable that the pre-development stage maintained some features of the previous version as it improved on some features. All that reflects customers’ desire. For instance, the desire for a slimmer device has not changed. Internal memory is another issue that Apple considers. One of the most important features that Apple considerers is the IOS used in the device. The choice of the IOS enables the product to support features that give it a competitive advantage over its competitors. Whereas it is a common practice for companies to design their new products to conform to the budgetary allocations in the manufacturing and the financial departments, Apple’s

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Research Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Research Project - Essay Example These sources of energy, particularly oil, have also been associated with water pollution as well as destruction of marine life and diversity through oil spills in oceans, seas, rivers and lakes among others. Even most of the existing renewable sources energies such as geothermal, wind and hydroelectric have been extremely expensive to install. In addition, these sources of energies are normally extremely affected by changes in weather conditions. Also, their abundance as compared to that of the solar energy is limited. Due to the problems associated with the available sources energies such as fossil fuels, nuclear, wind, hydroelectric and geothermal, the use of solar energy is becoming popular in most parts of the world, particularly in China and Africa (House-Soremekun & Falola 2011). The solar energy seems to the source of energy that is more sustainable as compared to other sources of energy (Richards 2010). This paper, therefore, aims at discussing the use of solar energy in Afr ica and basics of this source of energy. Africa receives more solar radiation than any other continent in the world, thereby making it the continent with the greatest potential than any other continent in the world. Sun shine in Arica is virtually uninterrupted, and one of the most abundant energy resources in the continent. However, this precious source of power has not been fully exploited in the continent for number years. Despite the abundance of this energy resource, it is estimated that about 2 billion individuals (people) in world (most of them from Africa) either struggle or fail to meet their daily energy requirements due to scarcity of supply of energy (Richards 2010). Even though there has been reluctance in the harvesting of solar energy in Africa, the situation seemed to have change to day since a number of organizations in Africa as well as African governments have been turning their attention towards renewable and sustainable sources of energy. Amongst the renewable s ources of energy that have been greatly focused by the African countries is solar energy. Africa as continent has made number of milestone towards harvesting solar energy. For example, the headquarters of United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) based in Nairobi (Kenya) is fully powered by solar energy (House-Soremekun & Falola 2011). Further according to House-Soremekun & Falola (2011), South Africa and Ghana are also planning to build amongst the biggest solar power plants in the world. Solar energy is also known as the radiant light, and it is referred to as heat energy from the sun (Richards 2010). This energy can be converted by different transducers to produce different sources of energy. For example, solar energy can be converted directly to electric energy by use of solar cells (also known as Photovoltaic). This particularly important for small scale energy requirements such as for watches and calculators. The solar energy can also be directly used to heat water for both domestic and industrial use. In addition, solar energy can be used to produce large amounts of solar energy through the use of solar radiation concentrators such as parabolic troughs. We have discussed how solar energy is converted into electric energy or used as heat energy to heat water among others (Hantula 2010). The question that might probably be lingering in the mind of the reader is how this precious energy is formed

Friday, August 23, 2019

LEGAL SYSTEM Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

LEGAL SYSTEM - Essay Example The legal system comprises of the various concerned parties of the legal framework namely the court of laws, the lawyers, the plaintiffs, the official staffs of the court of law, the judges and also the society at large as often the judgment are held as records for future purposes and it becomes binding among the people. It was believed that the civil justice system in the United Kingdom was one of the best systems in the world. But like many other nations, any court case called for extensive use of scarce resources like time and money. In order to avoid those, a committee under the chairmanship of Lord Woolf came up with certain recommendations, popularly known as Woolf Reforms, which envisaged reducing the use of time and money in the legal system. This paper aims to provide a critical view of the legal system of United Kingdom especially of the civil justice system with respect to the Woolf Reforms. The United Kingdom comprises of three different jurisdictions namely England & Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, all with different court system and distinct court system. The civil justice procedure, for which Lord Woolf had elaborate recommendations commences with the County Courts at the bottom of the system. The High Courts of the United Kingdom are basically divided into three divisions like Queens Bench, Family and Chancery. High Courts act as the court of appeals for minor cases as well as court of first instance for major cases. One can appeal the cases also to Court of Appeal (Civil Division). In the United Kingdom, it is the House of Lords that act as the supreme court of appeal where the Law Lords or the thirteen judges designated for the appeal hear the cases. The other indispensable part of the legal framework also comprises of the civil court Judicial Committee of the Privy Council that looks after the matters of the civil justice that arises in the overseas territ ories of United

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Wake Up America! Essay Example for Free

Wake Up America! Essay Nowadays the issue of food is very important in American society as many people suffer from obesity, whereas others suffer from stomach pains and indigestion problems. Therefore, Americans should pay more attention to their everyday meals. As it is claimed, â€Å"the destiny of nations depends on the manner in which they are fed†. So, the popularity of slow food is increasing among nation because fast-food meals make people sick and, consequently, national character is changing as well. Eating shouldn’t be simply fueling up; moreover, it shouldn’t be done quickly and anonymously. People should refuse from French fries, fried beef and, certainly, Coke as all these products are health killers. Our food decisions influence us personally and even globally. Fast-food affects the country not only environmentally, but also politically and culturally. Eating health food shouldn’t be only elitist preoccupation; the government should pay more attention to make health food affordable for all people. (Walker 2006) It is interesting to note that even Presidents don’t pay attention to the food they are eating. The picture of Dixon when he pours ketchup on his cottage cheese is terrifying. In his turn, Bill Clinton instead of paying attention to doctor’s advises, neglects them and eats Big Macs. Our Presidents should be our example and they should be the first to promote health slow food. Maybe, we still lack awareness of the inevitable consequences of eating fast foods. (Trillin 2006) Meanwhile, there are people who suffer from hunger, while we are talking about fast food and slow food. They don’t have such choice as they can’t afford to but food, though they are provided with right to eat and to live. Brazil government feels responsibilities for these people and they have declared the health food course.America should do the same to improve the overall health situation in the country. (Lappe 2006) References Lappe, France Moore. (2006, August 24). A Right to Food? Retrieved October 29, 2007, from http://www. thenation. com/doc/20060911/fmlappe Trillin, Calvin. (2006, August 24). Presidential Eating Preferences. Retrieved October 29, 2007, from http://www. thenation. com/docprem. mhtml? i=20060911s=trillin Walker, Alice. (2006, August 24). Slow Food Nation. Retrieved October 29, 2007, from http://www. thenation. com/doc/20060911/waters

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Involving others in assessments Essay Example for Free

Involving others in assessments Essay The assessment process in a beauty college involves many different people. Starting with the students that need to be assessed and who need be told the criteria which they are being assessed against so that they can try meet these needs. The teachers of the students need to be provided with a curriculum to teach and have access to various forms of information related to their subject matter so they can draw on these for course notes or offer extra material for students to give them a broader understanding of the subject. The assessors themselves need to know what facilities the college has with regards to where the tests are obtained from, what time frame is allocated, what different forms of assessment need to be conducted, what setting is in place be it a classroom or practical room or a simulation of a salon with a member of public coming in to be the client. They need to know who else in the college is qualified to assess should they have any questions and who the internal verifiers are to report to. Employers at the college need to provide assessment opportunities and find ways of networking with the staff through newsletters or internal meetings to identify good practice in assessing across the board and to maintain consistency throughout the staff. The internal verifiers are there to check the quality of assessing and to measure and improve further quality of assessments. External verifiers are needed to check that the internal verifiers are doing their job properly and check the quality of the work being done. They are usually given a selection of pre assessed papers so they can re-assess them to check for accuracy in assessing and to be able to check the standard of a college and report back to the awarding body that a college is able to claim certification for their students, or if the college needs to amend certain criteria before claiming certification. So in my college experience I was taught my course material by various teachers, assessed by teachers by written tests or projects or in the practical classroom. The teachers had to report to the principal of the college for our results and the principal often came into the assessing rooms while we were busy with class or doing tests. An external examining body from the international guild of beauty therapy was asked to do our final assessments and we were given lists stating what the examiner would be looking for. We were assessed according to the international level set by the beauty guild and only if we passed with a stipulated percentage were we awarded our qualification. Peer and Self assessment: Self assessment allows the student to work out their own strengths and weaknesses and tailor their own learning plan to best suit themselves. This works well when you have a motivated student who is willing to admit their own setbacks to themselves and strive to address these and move forward in the right direction with a better sense of what they want to achieve and how to do that. Peer assessment can be very helpful in that students get to go over their own knowledge of the subject being assessed while they assess their peer therefore doing revision and also being more aware of what they may not know or of how their peer does something better than they would have done and learning from them. I find self and peer evaluation very helpful in a beauty college especially as it is such a practical course and a lot of time is spent practicing treatments on your peers or being the client to be practiced on. When a student is being the therapist they can carry out a treatment and assess themselves on how well they have learnt the procedure and where they get stuck and need help. They will be more confident in asking their peer for help or to give them feedback about their treatment and in-turn be able to use this feedback to modify their work and learn from this. When a student is being the client this is a great opportunity for them to really feel what different types of pressure feel like and what feel good and what doesn’t and use that to adapt their own techniques. They learn what it feels like to be on the therapy bed and be aware of the sounds around them that the student therapist makes or the questions they ask and what makes sense and works and what doesn’t. This is an invaluable way that students can improve themselves and be able to help their peers improve by giving them accurate feedback. How assessment arrangements can be adapted to learners: Students learn best in slightly different ways depending on what approach works best for them. A widely used model of learning style is Flemmings’ s (2001) Visual Auditory Kinesthetic (VAK) model. If students are visual learners, they prefer to use images, pictures, colors, and maps to organize information and communicate with others. They work well from worksheets and the whiteboard and do their best on more theory based assessments like short questions, multiple choice, true and false or essays. In their practical assessments they will do well when needing to chart information the client has told them and write up skin diagnosis or plan future care appointments. If they are auditory learners they are the students who retain information better when the information is reinforced through sound. So they prefer class lectures rather than being given textbooks to read. These students do much better when their assessment are asked with short oral questions during class or explaining to an examiner why they are performing a certain treatment or using a certain method to perform a task. Being able to read their questions out aloud to themselves will also help them registered better what is required from them in the assessment. If they are kinesthetic learners then they prefer to be involved in activities. They learn through applying their knowledge practically by writing out notes during lectures or telling another person what they have learnt or performing practical treatments. Studying beauty therapy is a great choice for kinesthetic learns as much of the course involves taking part and learning through movement and a big part of your grading comes from performing treatments and demonstrating your skills to the assessors. For these learners doing theory assessments they can be kept motivated by doing diagrams or plotting graphs or doing oral reports so they are fulfilling their need for movement in learning.

Reality In The Movie Mulholland Drive Film Studies Essay

Reality In The Movie Mulholland Drive Film Studies Essay In order to write this paper, I have looked for several definitions of reality, and I rapidly got confused among all the meanings, the perceptions and the concepts around it. However, for the purpose of my analysis of David Lynchs movie Mulholland Drive, I picked the following one: The first part can be seen as a dream that has some ingredients of the typical Hollywood movie with suspense, drama and musicals: this dream is an attempt of the protagonist (Betty/Naomi Watts) to delete from her memory, or to delete from her reality, what happened to her in her Real Hollywood experience in order to become an actress (how Diane/Naomi Watts wishes her life could have been). The second part is dark, almost desperate, and can be seen as an expression of the sublime through which the spectator falls into the Real part of the movie. In this second chapter, Diane remembers all her failures through the character of her ex-lover (Camilla), falls into depression and paranoia that will lead her to commit suicide. Going back to Lacan, the first part of the movie refers to the Imaginary register and is characterized by a abundance of enigmatic events and mysterious signs (a man with a monstrous face behind Winkies restaurant, body of a dead woman lying on her bed, a small blue box, etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) that are here to maintain a certain suspense in the story but they also show us abnormalities and deficiencies. These signs can be seen as sublime objects that underline the lack of Real. And when, at the end of the first part, Betty and Rita manage to open the mysterious blue box, the spectator thinks he is close to discover the truth about the whole story, but there is only there is emptiness. However, this emptiness is meaningful: it brings us to the Real, which breaks with the first part of the movie. Therefore, the second part of the movie starts and several things becomes clearer. The monster behind Winkies restaurant is a premonitory sign of Rita/Camilla murderer (command by Betty/Diane in the same restaurant), the dead body lying in the bed is the one of Diana after she committed suicide (when Betty saw the body in the first part in the apartment, it was an anticipation of her own death), etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ An interesting scene that announces this rupture between the Imaginary and the Real in Mulholland Drive is the one that takes place in the cabaret Silencio: this scene announces the end of the first part and the imminent end of Bettys dream in a very brutal way. The magician in the cabaret warns us that everything is illusion and the song interpretation (playback) by Rebekah del Rio comes like a reminder to reality. The song, Llorando treats about an unhappy love story (Diane and Camilla?). Before the end of the song, Rebekah del Rio falls and faints, that can be seen as the death of Camilla. Betty and Rita cry while listening to that song, like they knew that the dream was about to end. Rita cries like she sensed that she was about to be Camilla again, and go back to the kingdom of the dead where Diane sent her. Betty shakes and cries like she sensed she was about to be Diane again, a woman distorted by pain trying to forget she made kill the woman she loved, before committing suici de. On the topic of the perception of reality, philosopher, John Searle asserted that: The thesis that there is a reality independent of our representations identifies not how things are in fact, but rather identifies a space of possibilities External realism articulates a space of possibilities for a very large number of statements. Into just such a space, a dual scenario film like Mulholland Drive can emerge. Both parts of Mulholland Drive make use of key aspects of fundamental ontology people, places, events, and reinterprets their external reality through the lens of Dianes subjective reality. While youre watching Mulholland Drive, both of its parallel narratives seem equally plausible, but its only after stepping back from them at the completion of the film that you realise that they are in fact two subjective statements on external reality paradoxically related, and indicative of the ability that we all have to place broad interpretations on real life events. Mulholland Drive effectively provides both a commentary on the nature of subjective reality as its depicted on film, and as we experience it in real life. Mulholland drive is also about interpretation of the Real. Nietzsche wrote that there are no facts, only interpretations. With a Hollywood background, Lynch first exposes us to the fake, the doubt, the part of belief and mirages and then awakes the conscience of his characters and his spectators. Nietzsche also thought that there was no absolute distinction between dreaming and waking consciousness. This is applied to Mulholland Drive on different levels. First, it forces the spectator to challenge himself intellectually and see the movie several times if he is willing to think about it and understands its mysteries. Second, that we can conceive most of the film as a dreamed interpretation of a reality that is only revealed the last half an hour. Third, the movie as a whole is an interpretation of the dream/reality and finally if we try to analyze, psychoanalytically, the dream itself not only as a reconstructed fantasy of the Real but also as the expression of an impulsive world.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Comparing and Contrasting the Sublime Essay -- Williams Shelley Trave

Comparing and Contrasting the Sublime What can be said about the sublime? Class discussion led to the definition of sublime as the element found in travel literature that is unexplainable. It is that part of travel literature where the writer is in awe of his or her surroundings, where nature can be dangerous or where nature reminds a human being of their mortality. The term "sublime" has been applied to travel texts studied in class and it is hard not to compare the sublime from texts earlier in the term to the texts in the later part of the term. Two texts that can be compared in terms of the sublime are A Tour in Switzerland by Helen Williams and History of a Six Weeks' Tour by Mary Shelley and Percy Bysshe Shelley. There are similarities and differences found in both texts concerning individual perspectives of travel and the sublime. The main focus of this commentary will be comparing and contrasting the perspectives of Williams and Shelley within their respective texts, the language of the sublime and the descriptio ns of the sublime. Both Shelley and Williams write from a personal perspective. Both travel to and make observations on the area that interests them. Williams travels to Switzerland while Shelley travels through Geneva to Chamonix. In the introduction of Williams's text she immediately reveals the reason why she wishes to visit Switzerland while Shelley assumes that the reader recognizes that he is a traveler who wants to go from point A to point B. Williams's introduction reveals that she has already dreamed about what it would be like to visit Switzerland and she shares with her readers that 'I am going to gaze upon images of nature; images of which the idea has so often swelled my imagination, but whic... ...ering more leeway to understanding the sublime. On a more personal note, comparing how Williams and Shelley write about the sublime has made the idea more clear in my mind on how to approach readings that contain the sublime, it is much easier to understand and furthermore, it offers more than one way of looking for and at the sublime. Works cited Extracts from: "The Shelleys at Chamonix:1816." Mary Shelley and P. B. Shelley History of a Six Weeks' Tour. London: T. Hookham, 1817. Romanticism: The CD-ROM. Ed. By David Miall and Duncan Wu. Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 1997. Williams, Helen Maria. A Tour in Switzerland; or, A view of the present state of the Government and Manners of those Cantons: with comparative sketches of the present state of Paris. 2 Vols. London: G. G. and J. Robinson, 1798.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Elizabeth Bishop And Her Poem filling Station Essay example -- essay

Elizabeth Bishop and Her Poem "Filling Station" Elizabeth Bishop's skill as a poet can be clearly seen in the thought- provoking poem entitled Filling Station. She paints the different language levels of poetry with the skill of an artist-- she seems to have an eye for detail as she contrasts the dark and dim reference of a filling station to a more homey, pleasant atmosphere. Bishop aptly arranges her words and expressions through the language devices of voice and metaphor. In Filling Station, Bishop uses tone of voice brilliantly, through the use of phonetics, to create the poem's initial atmosphere. The opening seems to be offering a straightforward description of the filling station: "Oh, but it is dirty!/ -this little filling station,/ oil-soaked, oil-permeated/ to a disturbing, over-all/ black translucency". A closer inspection of the passage reveals quite a visual oil-soaked picture. This is created in large part by the oily sounds themselves. When spoken out-loud the diphthong [oi] in oil creates a diffusion of sound around the mouth that physically spreads the oil sound around the passage. An interesting seepage can also be clearly seen when looking specifically at the words "oil-soaked", "oil-permeated" and "grease- impregnated". These words connect the [oi] in oily with the word following it and heighten the spreading of the sound. Moreover, when studying the [oi] atmosphere throughout the poem the [oi] in doily and embroidered seems to particularly stand out. The oozing of the grease in the filling station moves to each new stanza with the mention of these words: In the fourth stanza, "big dim doily", to the second last stanza, "why, oh why, the doily? /Embroidered" to the last stanza, "somebody embroidered the doily". Whereas the [oi] sound created an oily sound of language throughout the poem, the repetitive [ow] sound achieves a very different syntactical feature. The cans which "softly say: /ESSO--SO--SO--SO" create a wind-like blowing effect from the mouth. Each SO allows for a sort of visual metaphor to be seen-- cars or the personified "high-strung automobiles" as they pass on by. Not only are [oi] and [ow] sounds effectively used in this poem to create a unique tone but so is th... ...can be that small part in us that still searches for hope and normalcy. We each need a "comfy" filling station. And although judgmental onlookers, or as Bishop writes the "high-strung automobiles", may only want to see the dirtiness of an individual character, a family or situation, they need to realize that if they look deep enough, light will shine through. "Somebody loves us all" if we are only to give the thought and time. Afterall, even an automobile needs oil every once in a while to continue down its path. In conclusion, it can be clearly seen that Elizabeth Bishop in the poem Filling Station has wonderfully played with different levels of language like voice and metaphor. The reader becomes actively involved in questioning their own filling station and the care they give toward it. Is he or she the station, one who drives by the station or one who gives to the station? Bibliography Bishop, Elizabeth. "Filling Station." An Introduction to Poetry. Eds. Dana Gioia and X.J. Kennedy. Eighth Edition. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1994.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

George Frederick Handel :: essays research papers

George Frederick Handel   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  George Frederick Handel was born on February 24, 1685 in Halle, Germany. One of the greatest composers of the late baroque period (1700-50) and, during his lifetime, perhaps the most internationally famous of all musicians. Handel was born February 24, 1685, in Halle, Germany, to a family of no musical distinction. His own musical talent, however, expressed itself so clearly that before his tenth birthday he began to receive, from a local organist, the only formal musical instruction he would ever have. Although his first job, beginning just after his 17th birthday, was as church organist in Halle, Handel's musical tendencies lay elsewhere. Thus, in 1703 he traveled to Hamburg, the operatic center of Germany; here, in 1704, he composed his own first opera, Almira, which achieved great success the following year. Once again, however, Handel soon felt the urge to move on, and his instincts led him to Italy, the birthplace of operatic style. He stopped first at Florence in the autumn of 1706. In the spring and summer of 1707 and 1708 he traveled to Rome, enjoying the backing of both the nobility and the clergy, and in the late spring of 1707 he made an additional short trip to Naples. In Italy, Handel composed operas, oratorios, and many small secular cantatas; he ended his Italian visit with the stunning success of his fifth opera, Agrippina (1709), in Venice. Handel left Italy for a job as court composer and conductor in Hannover, Germany, where he arrived in the spring of 1710. As had been the case in Halle, however, he did not hold this job for long. By the end of 1710 Handel had left for London, where with Rinaldo (1711), he once again scored an operatic triumph. After returning to Hannover he was granted permission for a second, short trip to London, from which, however, he never returned. Handel was forced to face his truancy when in 1714 the elector at Hannover, his former employer, became King George I of England. The reconciliation of these two men may well have occurred, as has often been said, during a royal party on the River Thames in 1715, during which the F major suite from Handel's Water Music was probably played. Under the sponsorship of the duke of Chandos, he composed his oratorio Esther and the 11 Chandos anthems for choir and string orchestra (1717-20). By 1719 Handel had won the support of the king to start the Royal Academy of Music for performances of opera, which presented some of Handel's greatest operas: Radamisto (1720), Giulio Cesare (1724), Tamerlano (1724), and Rodelinda (1725).

Saturday, August 17, 2019

African American Religion Essay

Before Africans were brought to America during the slave trade, they had their own culture and society. They had their own language and dance. They also had their own religion. History tells us that the Europeans justified their abuse toward the Africans as helping them become more civilized because the Africans lifestyle appeared primal to them and not as developed and industrialized as theirs. What is often overlooked is that even though Africans were taken from Africa and Americanized and have been stripped of their religion, culture, language and even their name, the very essence of the African as a people did not go away. Some African American slaves rejected Christianity’s religion because they saw it as the â€Å"white man’s religion†. History tells us American Slave Masters abused the Africans by whipping them like animals and by treating them inhumane. The fact that these slave masters wanted the African American to worship their god was unacceptable for some because they could not fathom why they should worship a god who allowed people to be so badly treated. Some Africans accepted Christianity’s religion and faith by identifying with Jesus Christ, the son of God who according to the Bible was innocent of sin and yet he was beaten, bruised and crucified for the sins of the world. Some African Americans wanted to remain faithful to their heritage yet did not agree with the conjure practices. Seth Holly’s character is a good example of conforming to the economic prosperity of America which was founded by Christians. White Christians enforced Christian beliefs, values, and some practices based on the Euro American Christian interpretation of Christian text. Seth developed a kind of hatred for his own people proving that he has adopted the practices of white America in the early 1900s. â€Å"Niggers coming up here from that old backwoods†¦ coming up here from the country carrying Bibles and guitars looking for freedom. † Seth says. â€Å"They got a rude awakening† (6). Seth signifies the African American who resents assimilation to the white American culture. But, at the same time, he too attempts to connect with his heritage by simply allowing Bynum to live in his home and bless it with his conjures rituals. Seth also participates in an African dance ritual called the Juba. Bynum’s character is introduced by practicing conjure rituals. He cuts open pigeons and spreads its blood onto him as a type of cleansing to communicate with spirits. Bynum represents the African American who chose to remain faithful to the religion of his heritage. Others who have chosen the faith of Christianity view conjure rituals as evil, witchcraft, or demonic. Some African Americans wanted to remain faithful to their heritage yet did not agree with conjure practices anymore. Loomis walks in on the juba dance and goes into a trance after dinner at the boarding house. He had a vision of skeletons emerge from a body of water. â€Å"Loomis: I done seen bones rise up out the water. Rise up and walk across the water. Bones walking on top of the water† (53). Loomis recognizes through the vision, his state of ignorance to the knowledge that will lead him to the new way of thinking. Bynum serves as a supporting character reacting to Loomis’s trance. â€Å"Bynum: They walking around here now. Mens. Just like you and me. Come right up out the water† (56). Loomis’s trance and Bynum’s interpretation of it is a turning point in the story. The skeletons coming from the bottom of the sea in Loomis’s vision represent the slave ships, the disorientation experienced by the slaves during emancipation, and the confusion of his release from Joe Turner. Both Loomis and Bynum have tapped into their ancestral religion. The difference between the two is that Bynum represents the African who never renounced his religion and Loomis is the African-American who turned from conjure religion and converted to the faith of Christianity. After Joe turner took his life away from him, Loomis questioned his Christian faith and his identity. By walking in on the ancestral ritual of the Juba dance, Loomis literally walked into what he had actually been looking for, his religion, consequently, his ancestral identity and this is why he fell into the trance. Throughout the play conjures is encompasses four generations; Bynum’s father, Bynum, Loomis, and the neighbor boy Reuben. Reuben’s vision is of Seth’s mother by the pigeon coop, she encourages Reuben to release the caged pigeons. Wilson writes in a way that leads the reader to believe that Loomis needs to find his missing wife. Martha Pentecost is not the one who was lost; Loomis was the one who was lost, wondering around from town to town, searching. Loomis came into the state of belief when Bynum helped him translate his vision. That vision represented Loomis going back to his ancestral conjure religion. Loomis needed to find Martha Pentecost simply to say good-bye to her and their life former together. Up until this point of the story, I believed that Loomis needed to find his wife so they could live out the rest of their lives as a happy free family with their daughter. However, it is made pretty obvious this was never Loomis’s intentions. â€Å"That goodbye kept me out on the road searching,† Loomis says, â€Å"now that I see your face I can say my goodbye and make my own world† (90). Martha Pentecost, a woman of Christian faith, represents the African who assimilated into white America’s culture and Loomis needed to find her to say good-bye to her and the Christian faith. Martha stands by her Christian faith by accusing Loomis â€Å"you done gone over to the devil† (91). White man’s religion believed that conjure was evil or the way of the devil. Loomis finds it easier to reject her for her Christian beliefs. â€Å"Loomis: Great big old white man†¦your Mr. Jesus Christ. Standing there with a whip in one hand and a tote board in another, them niggers swimming in a sea of cotton† (92). Loomis proves with his statement, his version of a bible story that differed from other African Americans but was similar to that of the white man who believed that they were on a level below God and the African’s were beneath them, African’s were one third of a person. Loomis now believes that if African’s are going to be free then they have to take charge of their own destiny. Martha Pentecost represents the African American’s religion, she identifies that Loomis needs to â€Å"be washed in the blood of the lamb† (92) and â€Å"you done gone over to the devil. (91) Through class lessons I learned that African American slaves compared themselves with stories in the bible to instill hope of a life free from oppression, violence, and bondage. Jesus according to the bible was innocent of sin and yet he was beaten, bruised and crucified for the sins of the world. The hope of reigning in heave with Jesus is considered the ultimate reward for suffering life’s trials and tribulations. It is the faith of the African Americans who accepted Christianity religion. Blacks trusted in the Lord instead of man. America was Egypt in the exodus story and as long as the enslaving and oppressing took place America would face the same wrath as Egypt. â€Å"Stand still and see the salvation of the Lord. † The bible was depended on in justifying and motivation rebellion for the blacks and used as a tool to keep blacks enslaved by the whites. African Americans used sermons, song, and prayer to convey and teach their message of travail and triumph of Israel. Some African Americans could not get past the treatment from the white people that called themselves Christians and as a result they rejected Christianity. Selig’s role suggests that the link between characters is the acquisition of material goods. Selig admits that his ancestors have always made their living pursuing African Americas; his great grandfather transported slaves from Africa, his father captured runaway slaves and returned them to their masters for a reward, and Selig locates displaced people for a fee. Selig attains his ecstasy through consumer capitalism, through the selling of material goods. African Americans are objects for exploitation and exchange in the new economy. He binds African Americans to the economic system, demanding payment of his services and products which necessitates subsistence labor by taking them from one construction site or work site to another, similar to a temporary employment agency today. You pay for an employee to work for some time, but Selig is getting paid by the person looking for work or a ride to a chance of freedom. Selig cannot find a person that has not purchased a dustpan from him because he keeps the names of his customers. Seth is determined to achieve material success, he has very little patience for African Americans migrating north looking for the same prosperity that he desires. Seth is very demanding of his patrons, insisting on advance payment in full, and is preoccupied with maintaining a respectable house. â€Å"It’s hard enough now without all that ignorant kind of acting. Ever since slavery got over with there ain’t been nothing but foolish-acting niggers. Word get out they need men to work in the mill and put in these roads†¦ and niggers drop everything and head north looking for freedom. †(5, 6) Seth wants to blend in with the white man’s world; therefore he keeps a link with Selig by negotiating the manufacturing and sale of dustpans. Seth does not have any idea of what it would be like to be a slave, as he was born free in the North and was educated. He demonstrates his education with his math calculation when dealing with the boarding house patrons and the quick notation of him letting Selig know that he is trying to overcharge him for the dust pan materials. Educational differences played a role in tension with Southern blacks, most of who were forbidden from learning to read, saw religion as a matter of oral tradition and immediate experience and emotion. Northerner blacks, stressed that one could not truly be Christian unless they was able to read the Bible and understand it. This play denies individual worth and identity for some of Wilson’s characters. To be defrauded of the products of one’s labor or to see that creation diminished, like with Jeremy and the guitar contest, is to be denied a reflection of individual worth and identity. If people have been separated from this truth of individual worth and identity through oppression their capacity to bond with one another, form friendships, or couples, families are undermined. Social alienation in Wilson’s characters are expressed in their stores of broken relationships, uncertainty, or suspicion that they feel toward one another. â€Å"Seth: Something ain’t setting right with that fellow, Bynum. He’s one of them mean-looking niggers look like he done killed somebody gambling over a quarter. †(20) Connection between oppression, alienation from self and inability to form bonds with others is displayed in the character of Loomis. Joe Turner’s ability to oppress Loomis carried a judgment of non-worth. â€Å"Loomis: He told me I was worthless. Worthless is something you throw away. Something you don’t bother with† (73) Turners judgment of worthlessness forced Loomis to accept the reality of the white man’s power; he was marked as â€Å"one of Joe Turners niggers and forced to forget his song. †(71) Being alienated from himself and displaced with his relation to the world, Loomis is unable to establish bonds with people around him. The oppression encountered by Wilson’s characters is material or economic, that oppression is spiritual as well in the capacity to deprive the individual of a sense of himself or his unique song. The reawakening of Loomis after his encounter with cultural wisdom is not the self discovery of an average African American but creation of a new source of cultural wisdom, a new African holy man. Wilson uses many metaphors throughout the play. The song is a metaphor for Loomis’s identity and the African American cultural identity. Music is a large part of African American identity, so it makes since that in search of one’s identity they are searching for their song. The boarding house serves as an inn for traveling folk, but the tenants actually receive a form of healing during their stay. Tenants get direction and guidance from Bertha and Bynum. The shiny man that Bynum is in search for signifies African American independence. The man that Bynum met on the road was an independent African American, just as Loomis was freed by his past when he cleansed himself in his own blood. â€Å"Bynum: Herald Loomis, you shining! You shining like new money! †(94) Loomis has dismissed that the blood of Christ can wash away his sins and make him the man he used to be, but by washing himself in his own blood he has sacrificed the old life to begin his new journey on his terms. Bynum’s shining man has been found, meaning his work is complete; he has passed his powers on to the next generation, Loomis. â€Å"They tell me Joe Turner’s come and Gone† is a song that is sung by Bynum, when I first read the story I thought that the meaning was came and now he is dead however, the second time I read the play I realized that it meant that Joe Turner has come and snatched the men and now he is now gone. August Wilson uses symbolism in the play as a very important part in conveying the meaning of the story. Wilson’s use of symbolism is demonstrated through Mr. Wilson’s use of the road, Martha Pentecost, and Herald Loomis. Symbolic importance is give to the word freedom. The word freedom has instilled hope into the lives of African Americans: during slavery, hope for the release from bondage; after emancipation, the right to be educated, employed, and to move about freely; twentieth century, social, political, and economic justice. Freedom has always stood for the absence of any restraint, because God made all men from his image. There are a number of characters that travel around searching for their place in the world. Mattie, mentions that she keeps on looking, seems like she just keeps starting over, I ain’t never found no place for me to fit. † (76) Reuben tells Zonia, when he finds out that she is leaving the boarding house in search of her mom, â€Å"when I get grown, I come looking for you. †(84) Jeremy does not seem to care much when he loses his job because, â€Å"don’t make me no difference. There’s a big road out there, I can always get my guitar and find me a place to stay. I ain’t planning on staying in one place for too long noway. † (64) Martha & Reverend Tolliver moved the Church up north because of the trouble the church was having. When the Civil War finally brought freedom to previously enslaved African Americans, the task of organizing religious communities was only one element of the larger need to create new lives, to reunite families, to find jobs, and to figure out what it would mean to live in the United States as citizens rather than property. August Wilson’s play, Joe Turner’s come and Gone, examines African Americans search for their cultural identity following slavery. Bibliography Murphy, L. G. (2000). Down By the Riverside. New York: New Yourk University Press. Wilson, A. (1988). Joe Turner’ Come and Gone. New York: Penguin Group.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Principles of Economics Essay

Suggest how an economist would approach the problem of alcohol abuse. Economics is about scarcity and choice. It is assumed that all human beings are rational thinkers hence would always choose to consume products that would give them maximum satisfaction or utility. Mankiw (2011, p. 6) argues that rational people ‘systematically and purposefully do the best to achieve objectives given available opportunity.’ Given a choice among alternatives and with scarce resources, one would evaluate the benefits and costs of consuming an extra unit of a product and would only take a decision only if marginal benefit is greater than marginal cost. In this case, to solve the alcohol abuse problem, one has to consider marginal benefits and marginal costs derived from consuming an extra unit of alcohol and since excessive drinking has more costs than benefits, one would refrain from alcohol. The opportunity cost foregone by choosing to abuse alcohol is too high compared to satisfaction derived; money spent on alcohol can do many other things such as feeding the family, education for children, and investments among others. Besides, the person may have health problems thus adding to the costs. By considering all these factors, a rational person would refrain from alcohol abuse. Heyne (2000) acknowledges the role played by incentives in directing behavior. For him, rational people usually respond to incentives or are induced to act by them. Assuming alcohol abusers are rational, imposing taxes on alcohol substances would eliminate the problem. This would follow the law of demand which states that other things being constant, if the price of a good increase, the quantity demanded of the good decreases. Taxes have the effect of increasing alcohol prices and this would automatically mean that the abusers would desist from alcohol consumption or cut their consumption. Analyze how prescription drugs affect the demand and supply of other products  and services in this country. Prescription drugs are drugs prescribed by a medical officer to a patient and are regulated by legislation unlike the over-the-counter drugs which can be old to anyone. If a patient is under prescription drugs, he/she buys the drugs despite the price of the drugs. An increase or decrease in price of the drugs therefore has little or no effect on the quantity demanded by an individual (McCarthy & Schafermeyer, 2007). The drugs are provided by the National Health Insurance and have no close substitutes. The increase in price of the drugs thus affects all the sectors of healthcare industry such as patients and private insurers. Due to increased costs, the private insurers are forced to increase the cost of their services in case they have to offer such drugs and this may lead to low demand for their services. The patients are also required to get medical prescriptions before obtaining the drugs thus the demand for the medicine may be low compared to over-the-counter drugs. Use of prescription drugs also has an effect on demand for other healthcare services such as hospitalization. The prescription drugs also affect supply of generic products as manufacturers have patents to supply the new drugs for some years. Formulate a reason why elasticity of demand is an important consideration when analyzing the impact of a shift in supply and why the elasticity of supply is an important consideration when analyzing the impact of shift in demand. The price elasticity of demanded which is percentage change in quantity demanded over percentage change in price shows consumers responsiveness to price changes. (McKenzie & Lee, 2006). It is an important consideration when analyzing the impact of a shift in supply and in determining if the firm should raise or lower its price. The supply curve is upward sloping showing a positive relationship between price and quantity supplied other things held constant. However, in long-run, those factors do change causing a shift in supply curve. Such factors include; input prices, technology, expectations and number of sellers in the market. For example, an increase in input prices such as labor would lead to a decrease in supply thus shifting the supply curve to the left. This results in low output which is  not able to satisfy the market demand thus pushing the prices up. An increase in prices according to the law of demand would lead to a fall in demand leading to excess supply and consequently fall in prices until an equilibrium is reached (Mankiw, 2011). However, the fall in quantity demanded will be determined by elasticity of demand. If the product has inelastic demand, an increase in price as a result of shift in supply would have no effect on demand thus suppliers would get more revenue. If demand for the product is elastic, an increase in price would lead to a massive reduction in quantity demanded and consequently lowering of prices and revenue. Shifts in demand curve are caused by other factors that affect demand except price. These include; income, price of related goods, tastes and preferences, expectations and number of buyers (Mankiw, 2011). Elasticity of supply shows the producers’ responsiveness to changes in price and is important in evaluating the impact of a shift in demand. For example, an increase in income would lead to an increase in demand depending on the type of the good thereby shifting the demand curve to the right. If it is an inferior good, an increase in income would lead to decrease in demand shifting the curve to the left. In this case, the good is normal. A shift in demand curve to the right would lead to an increase in price and quantity supplied. However, this is determined by elasticity of supply. If the good is elastic, a small increase in price would lead to a large increase in quantity supplied. This would in effect lead to excess supply forcing the prices to fall thus inducing an increase in quantity demanded but if the supply is inelastic, an increase in price would lead to a small increase in quantity supplied not enough to offset costs hence fall in revenue. Provide two examples of increasing-cost industries in your state and propose why they would have a positively sloped supply curve. According to McEachern (2010) increasing-cost industries occur as a result of entry of new firms due to increase in demand. An increase in demand results in high production costs and the average long-run average cost curve of each firm to shift upwards. The market is competitive and thus new firms enter the industry to share in the abnormal profits made by existing firms. However, as new firms enter, they compete thereby pushing up the production costs leading to low  profit or some firms are forced out of the market. This depends on how far the market supply curve shifts to interact with demand curve. The industry would have a positively sloped supply curve as an indication of the increasing costs. Examples of increasing-cost industries are housing construction and mobile companies which bid up prices for labor and raw materials. Suggest how, under certain conditions, a perfectly competitive market is economically efficient. A perfectly competitive market can’t innovate, because all products are homogeneous and can’t take advantage of cooperation. But if you define efficiency in a particularly useless way and choose only one definition of â€Å"economic efficiency† as well then there are certain conditions under which a perfectly competitive market is â€Å"economically efficient†.

Organizational Culture at Krispy Kreme Essay

Organizational culture is defined as â€Å"a system of shared meaning held by members† of an organization which effectively sets it apart from other groups or organizations (Robbins, 2005). The system referred to in the definition is in reality a group of characteristics which are valued by the members of an organization, in particular, and the entire organization, in general. These characteristics, which are found to be predominant in an organization, are actually advocated and promoted by the founders of the organization. By and large, organizational culture has seven general characteristics which generally describe a certain organization. These are: â€Å"innovation and risk taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, and stability† (Robbins, 2005). Innovation and risk taking refers to the tendency of management to adopt a policy which permits or encourages its workforce to seek out and introduce new methods and approaches even if some amount or risk-taking is involved. Aggressive companies are aptly described by this characteristic. Attention to detail, on the other hand, means that management insists that employees exhibit absolute accuracy in every facet of operation. This is prevalent among companies engaged in the production of precision instruments and devices. Outcome orientation is an organizational characteristic which simply means that the owners of the business are willing to sacrifice adherence to prescribed rules, regulations, and procedures if by doing so optimal results are achieved. Concern for the safety and well-being of its workers are the primary objectives of an organization which is characterized as being people oriented. For this type of an organization, outcome or even profit take secondary position to the welfare of workers. This means that no matter how profitable a decision could be for the company, it could get sidelined if evidence suggests that the safety of the employees would be compromised. Meanwhile, team orientation should be interpreted as the inclination of an organization to organize work activities around work teams rather than individual workers. In other words, the organization believes that teams perform better than individuals. Aggressiveness refers to the management policy of not only tolerating an aggressive attitude among its workers but also encouraging competition. This characteristic also implies that the organization has the tendency to resort to expansion without waiting for stability to be firmly established. Finally, stability is the opposite characteristic of aggressiveness. The company prefers the stable, profitable status quo over hasty expansion plans. An organization characterized by stability is not in a hurry to strive for growth and expansion and is usually contented with the present so long as its desired profit is realized. In the case of Krispy Kreme, its statement of objective clearly made known its aggressiveness, i. . : â€Å"As we enter the 21st Century, Krispy Kreme is not slowing down† (Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Inc. , n. d. ). This statement depicts a company in a hurry – a characteristic which is very admirable as far as an aggressive individual is concerned. Data available in the company website support this declaration. After the initial public offering of its stock in the year 2000, the first international outlet near Toronto in Canada was inaugurated in December 2001. The Canadian expansion started the company’s thrust towards international growth. Today, barely eight years later, Krispy Kreme products are already available in Mexico, Puerto Rico, the United Kingdom, Kuwait, Dubai, Hongkong, Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Australia (Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Inc. , n. d. ). The other appealing characteristics of the company are: innovation and risk taking, and team orientation. The company took its first calculated risk as early as 1950 when it decided to be innovative and sought to improve its doughnut-making process by designing its own doughnut-making equipment. Their objective was achieved through the efforts of a team of equipment engineers that it organized, thereby putting emphasis on the importance of team orientation. The collaboration of the engineers allowed Krispy Kreme to become the first company to serve hot doughnuts to their customers. Their engineering team is also continuously improving their hot doughnut technology to preserve the company’s leadership status in the hot doughnut business (Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Inc. , n. d. ) The culture at Krispy Kreme could also be characterized as people oriented because the organization is customer-responsive. The workforce is composed of employees who are recruited because of their innate friendliness and service-oriented tendency. Moreover, employees are not bound by hard and fast rules in their dealing with customers. There exists a rather low level of formalization in the company and in its stores that allows employees to make the necessary adjustments that would enable them to deal satisfactorily with different kinds of people who come from all walks of life. Management refers to this policy as empowerment because it allows Krispy Kreme employees to do what they think is necessary in order to make their customers happy and satisfied. Being people oriented (particularly customer-responsive), Krispy Kreme has made it clear that employees should be painstaking in their efforts to please their customers and ensure that they keep coming back (Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, n. d. ). By cultivating and sustaining a strong culture, the management has effectively informed its employees exactly what the company expects of them. Foremost among these is for the engineering team to keep on discovering new technologies that would improve their doughnut-making capability and preserve company leadership in the industry. Then its army of chefs should assume adequate vigilance in the preparation of their products so that customers are always satisfied with Krispy Kreme doughnuts and coffee, among others. Finally, store front-liners are expected to go out of their way to satisfy customer needs – to be sincerely friendly, helpful, and accommodating, thereby generating customer loyalty (Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Inc. n. d. ). As Robbins (2005) has specifically prescribed, a strong culture should have a â€Å"high degree of sharedness and intensity [which] creates an internal climate of high behavioral control. † At Krispy Kreme, only applicants who are perceived to fit the bill are hired. Then the culture of the company is drilled into them from day one, thereby effectively shaping the organizational behav ior of every worker.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Family Nursing Diagnoses Essay

Conducting a family assessment is a challenging and important step in the care of the client. It is essential to identify problems and situations inhibiting a family from practicing healthy behaviors and developing healthy habits to thrive in the home and community. Identifying problems then deciding the family nursing diagnosis and planning interventions beneficial to the family is the next step in the client’s care. Three Family Nursing Diagnoses The three family nursing diagnoses identified to assist SS and her family are anxiety related to several short- and long-term stressors, delayed growth and development related to CS’s handicaps, and chronic pain related to SS’s rheumatoid arthritis. These nursing diagnoses were most appropriate for this family. Healthy People 2020 Indicator The indicator chosen that links to the nursing diagnoses mentioned above is social determinants (â€Å"Healthy People 2020†, 2012). This indicator is relevant to the identified family nursing diagnoses because of numerous reasons. CS has a disorder that has caused him to have developmental delays and numerous health issues. He reports getting bullied at school periodically, is in special needs classes, and will not be able to live independently. The indicator is also relevant because of the number of stressors SS has identified through the family assessment that affects the family’s lives daily. Researching information on Healthy People 2020 and  specifically the social determinants indicator reveals that assisting the client and her family with healthy behaviors, physical activity, assistance with dealing with stress-related issues leads the family to being successful members of the community and being successful in tasks necessary for improved health and longer life expectancy. Linking the indicator to the family nursing diagnoses will also provide the family with strategies to deal with school, community, and workplace issues that are barriers to accomplishments within the family. Opportunities for Community Health Nursing Interventions One opportunity where I can make a positive impact with community health nursing interventions would be providing a lecture at CS’s high school about bullying. This would be beneficial for students in many high school communities. The lecture should include information about why children bully each other, strategies for how to deal with bullies, and why bullying is wrong. Another way to influence in a positive way is provide SS and her family ways to deal with the issues that cause the most stress in the family, whether it is financial concerns, time management issues, or health concerns. Conducting family meetings to share responsibilities for chores around the house, making the children aware of what can be afforded monetarily month to month, and ensuring the family is keeping regular health check ups are a few techniques that may be beneficial. Making sure SS is aware and takes advantage of workplace assistance for a variety of reasons is another opportunity to make a posit ive impact on her family and on the social determinant indicator. Health Education Topics There are a number of topics related to health education that would be beneficial to SS and her family as well as any community. One topic SS may find helpful deals with emotional wellness, which is a subject I have spent time discussing with SS and her family. Finding a balance between everything going on in one’s life, such as school, work, sports, or other activities is necessary in protecting emotional health. Another topic relates to stress, which is another area of concern for SS. There are different levels of stress and they can be short-term and long-term  stressors as SS has identified within the family assessment. Stress does not have to be bad, but how to deal with it is what makes the difference. Developing and learning coping strategies are helpful in managing stress. Here is where the emphasis in education should be. Nutrition and physical activity is another health education topic beneficial for everyone. SS’s oldest son who is in college could be a target of this topic, as college students are not known to have healthy eating or sleeping habits. Diet teaching and assistance with developing a physical activity plan would be a focus of the education (â€Å"Health Education Center†, n.d.). Conclusion A family assessment is a vital step in diagnosing what potential problems and areas for improvement a client may have. Evaluating aspects of the family unit including family history, support system, stressors, and social structure will aid in determining and prioritizing the family diagnoses. Family involvement in decision-making of what diagnoses to conquer and intervention planning will help the success of the plan. What is learned through the family can help develop topics the general public could be educated on and benefit from. References Health Education Center. (n.d.). Retrieved from Healthy People 2020. (2012). Retrieved from Nursing Diagnosis List. (2012). Retrieved from Stanhope, M. (2012). Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community (8th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection. Family Assessment I. Family Demographics a) Family Name-Sindle b) Family Composition-mother, 3 sons c) Type of family form (single parent) d) Cultural Background-English, German, and Cherokee†¦.great., great,  great grandmother was Cherokee Indian e) Religious Affiliation-Baptist and Presbyterian f) Social Class Status-low income class g) Family’s recreational or leisure-time activities-soccer, 2 of 3 boys very involved with soccer teams. Watching movies, riding bikes. II. Developmental Stages and family history a) Family’s present developmental stage-one child in college, one in high school and one in middle school. Mom taking classes part-time to earn nursing degree. b) Nuclear Family History-SS’s parents are originally from Franklin, NC. Mother is of English and German descent and dad is English and Cherokee Indian. I II. Environmental Data a) Characteristics of home-reside in a 2 story home in a single-family dwelling subdivision. Approximately 300 homes in the neighborhood. b) Characteristics of neighborhood and larger community- There is a community park with a small playground used for gatherings. They have neighborhood watch in their subdivision. Gloucester is considered a rural community. It has a large shopping center that has a Walmart, Home Depot, Lowes, Applebees, Chick-fil-a, Pizza Hut, McDonalds, Hardees and Wendy’s. Several churches of various denominations, one free medical clinic, a wellness center, one small hospital, a boys and girls club, several parks with baseball fields, soccer fields, and playground equipment. Family-owned shops on main street with restaurants and banks, a bookstore and antique stores. Volunteer fire stations and rescue squads throughout the county. c) Family’s Geographic mobility- SS was born and raised in Williamsburg, VA. Lived in Tappahannock, VA for a year and then moved to Gloucester, VA where she have resided for 25 years. Her sons have lived in Gloucester since they were born. d) Family’s associations and transactions with community- Her boys participate in parks and rec activities. They go bowling as a family and to the movies occasionally. Attend annual Daffodil festival that is held in the community every spring. e) Family’s social support network-SS has aunts, uncles and a few friends that help out sporadically. Her two youngest boys go to Florida every summer to spend time with their grandparents. SS sees her work environment and peers as a support system as well. Her oldest  child has a support system through his soccer teammates and friends at college. IV. Family Stress and Coping a) Short and long-term familial stressors and strengths: Short term- SS is trying to finish classes so she can start nursing school. Also trying to balance work and school and getting children where they need to go for activities. Long term- son (CS) with special needs-what will he do after he graduates high school in 2 years. Has Williams Syndrome and has cognitive and developmental delays. Finances. Getting oldest son through college. Single parent (children’s father passed away in 2009, he and SS were divorced prior to that). SS has recently been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. CS’s health-worry about his cardiac issues as he gets older, hypertension, and GI issues. b) Extent of family’s ability to respond, based on objective appraisal of stress-producing situations- This family has been able to respond to the stressors that have been placed on them relatively well. They have had their ups and downs, but are a very close family and they rely heavily on ea ch other and help each other out. SS’s sons are very protective of their mother. c) Coping Strategies Utilized by all members of family-They work together as a family to get things accomplished. The boys have had to grow up quick. Working through one issue at a time. Make time for fun and for the 2 boys to participate in soccer. V. Family Functions a) Family’s need-response Patterns (affective function)- Very close knit family. They watch out for each other always. They go to soccer games together as a family to watch the 2 boys play. Take at least 2 family vacations each year with SS’s parents. Watch a lot of family movies together. Watch professional sports on TV. b) Socialization Function (child rearing practices, who is socializing agent for children, cultural beliefs that influence family’s child-rearing patterns)- SS is primary socializing agent. Discipline for bad behavior depends on what the infraction is, ranges from no TV to no friends over for bad grades or if school work not completed. c) Adequacy of home environment for children’s needs to play- have a large fenced-in backyard with an above-ground swimming pool. Pool table, ping-pong table. Bikes, soccer net  and balls, tennis rackets, TV room with xbox 360, DVD player, Computers. d) Health care function-SS has health insurance through her employer. Middle child now 18 and qualifies for Medicaid. The family sees a physician yearly for physicals. CS sees many different specialists. JS has frequent bouts of strep throat which makes him miss several school days each year. SS sees a rheumatologist for her RA.