Thursday, February 28, 2019

Presidential and Parliamentary Systems of Government Essay

Introduction and briny Distinguishing Features of Both SystemsA presidential trunk of governance is matchless in which thither is a manoeuvre of governing, i.e. the executive director branch, who is pick fall out from the general assembly and is non responsible to it. Generally, the legislative assembly does non hold spot to dismiss the executive. This placement tail be traced back to the monarchal system in the mediaeval ages which countries such as France, England and Scotland followed where the Crown held all executive mightinesss and not the parliament. When the office of the President of the get together States was created, this system of separate powers of the executive and legislature was replicated in the U.S. Constitution.In contrast, a parliamentary system is different from the above because its executive branch of government needs the direct or indirect substitute of the parliament to stay in power, which is generally expressed with a take of confid ence. However, the mechanism of checks and balances is different from unitary found in a presidential republic because there is no distinct separation of powers amongst the legislature and the executive. In parliamentary systems, the channelise of government and the honcho of asseverate are distinct entities, where the pisser is the aboriginal parson and the latter is an choose president or a hereditary monarch. The U.K. follows a parliamentary form of government, where the prime minister and the cabinet govern using their executive power on a daily basis, unless actual authority is held with the head of state.1In distinguishing betwixt presidential and parliamentary systems, three points must(prenominal) be considered. First, in a presidential system the head of government (the president) is elect for a fixed term and will serve this unless there is the crotchety and exceptional process of impeachment, whereas in a parliamentary system the head of government (prime mi nister or equivalent) is dependent on the confidence of the legislature and thus preempt be removed (along with the whole government) by a motion of no-confidence.Second, in a presidential system the head of government (the president) is popularly elect, if not literally directly by the voters then by an electoral college popularly elect expressly for this purpose, whereas in a parliamentary system the head of government (prime minister or equivalent) is selected by the legislature. Third, in a presidential system there is exitively a one-woman(prenominal) non-collegial executive, whereas in a parliamentary system the executive (i.e., the cabinet) is collective or collegial.2For his part, Sartori like Lijphart, makes three basic points in that a semipolitical system is presidential if, and only if, the head of state (president) i) results from popular election, ii) during his or her pre-established elevate stacknot be discharged by a parliamentary vote, and iii) heads or ea rly(a) than directs the governments that he or she appoints. There are two distinctions between Lijphart and Sartori worthy noting here.First of all, Lijphart refers to the president as the head of government whereas Sartori refers to him or her as the head of state. Second and related, Sartori conceives of the government as being broader than the individual president. As such, Sartori rejects as too narrow the notion that the head of state must in like manner be the head of government in favor of a looser notion that authority flows from the president down perhaps via a separate head of government.3Mainwaring attri howeveres two distinguishing births to a presidential republic. First, the head of government is elected independently of the legislature in the sense that legislative elections and post-election negotiations do not determine executive power. In countries where the chief executive is selected by the legislature, not as a second alternative when the popular vote doe s not produce a clear winner but as the primal process, the system is either parliamentary (the vast volume of cases) or a hybrid (as in Switzerland).Post-election negotiations that determine which parties will govern and which will head the government are crucial in m whatsoever parliamentary regimes, but they are not part of the selection process of chief executives in presidential systems. The chief executive in a presidential democracy is usually elected by popular vote, although some countries, notably the united States, take a shit an electoral college rather than direct popular elections. Even so, in the united States, the popular vote has a virtually binding effect on Electoral College votes.In other presidential systems, including those in Argentina, Bolivia, and cayenne pepper (before 1973), the congress votes for a president if there is no absolute majority in the popular vote. Yet the popular vote is the first criterion, and in Argentina and Chile, tradition has di ctated that congress will select the prospect with the approximately popular votes. Note that it must be the head of government-not just the president-who is elected by popular vote or an electoral college. In Austria, Iceland, and Ireland, the president is elected by direct popular vote but has only minor powers and is therefore not the head of government.4The second distinguishing feature of presidential democracies is that the president is elected for a fixed period of time. approximately presidential democracies allow for impeachment, but this practice is uncommon and does not intimately affect the definition because of its extraordinary character. The president cannot be forced to turn because of a no-confidence vote by the legislature, and consequently, the president is not formally accountable to congress. In a parliamentary system, in contrast, the head of government is elected by the legislature and subsequently depends on the ongoing confidence of the legislature to remain in office thus the time period is not fixed.5Implications for Policy Making and DemocracyWhether a regime is parliamentary or presidential has a major impact on significant aspects of political life how executive power is formed, relationships between the legislative and the executive branches, relationships between the executive and the political parties, the nature of the political parties, what happens when the executive loses support, and arguably eventide prospects for stable democracy and patterns of domination.The proponents of presidential claim that presidential systems claim that such systems ensure that the presidents power is a legitimate one because the president if, in most cases, elected directly by the people. The unify States follows a different system in which the president is elected by an electoral college but is still considered to be popularly elected. Parliamentary executives can not claim to be elected via a direct vote of the people. Separation of powers is another benefit which the presidential system provides because it established the executive branch and the legislative as two distinct structures which allows each body to supervise and oversee the other and prevents abuse of the system.In a parliamentary system, the executive is not separate from the legislature, reducing the chances of criticism or scrutiny, unless a formal condemnation in the form of a vote of no confidence takes place. Hence, in a parliamentary system, a prime ministers unethical deeds or instances of misconduct might neer be discovered as Woodrow Wyatt (former British Member of Parliament) said plot of ground writing slightly the famous Watergate scandals during the presidency of Richard Nixon, dont designate a Watergate couldnt happen here, you just wouldnt hear about it.6In a parliamentary system, even though the option of a vote of no confidence is available, it is an option resorted to only in thorough cases. It is considered extremely diffic ult to influence or stop a prime minister or cabinet who has already decided to pass legislation or implement measures.Voting against important legislation is tant totality to a vote of no confidence, as a consequence of which the government is changed afterwards holding of elections. This is a very tedious process because of which it is a rare occurrence in some parliamentary countries. Britain for example has only seldom undergone such a situation. Therefore, it is a good deal believed that in a parliamentary system, because of the deprivation of separation of powers, the Parliament can not actually exercise any real control over the executive.However, there can be a downside to separation of powers. Presidential systems can lead to a situations where the President and relation back both evade blame by passing it to the other. In the voice communication of former Treasury Secretary C. Douglas Dillon as he described the United States, The president blames Congress, the Congre ss blames the president, and the public remains confused and disgusted with government in Washington.7Woodrow Wilson agreed in his thesis, Congressional regime in the United States, as he said, how is the schoolmaster, the nation, to know which boy needs the whipping? . . . spot and strict accountability for its use are the essential constituents of good government. . . . It is, therefore, evidently a radical defect in our federal system that it parcels out power and confuses responsibility as it does.The main purpose of the Convention of 1787 seems to have been to accomplish this grievous mistake. The literary theory of checks and balances is simply a unvarying account of what our constitution makers tried to do and those checks and balances have proved sloshed just to the cessation which they have succeeded in establishing themselves . . . the Framers would be the first to view as that the only fruit of dividing power had been to make it irresponsible.8Separation of Powers has mixed implications. It can lead to gridlock, i.e. when it becomes next to impossible to pass items on the partys agenda because the legislature is almost equally divided, usually an occurrence in the U.S. when the Senate and House of Representatives are dominated by opposing parties. However, the upside to gridlock is that it often prevents radical policy changes.Another problem with the presidential system is that epoch it is inherently stable because the president is elected for a fixed term, this overly compounds the issue of the presidency being a zero-sum naughty, where winner takes all. As Linz (1990, 56) states, The riskiness that zero-sum presidential elections pose is compounded by the rigidity of the presidents fixed term in office. Winners and losers are sharply defined for the completed period of the presidential mandatelosers must wait four or five years without any access to executive power and patronage. The zero-sum game in presidential regimes raises the st akes of presidential elections and inevitably exacerbates their attendant tensity and polarization.Parliamentary elections can also lead to one party pleasing an absolute majority, in most scenarios a matter of parties gain agency through these elections. Power is often shared and coalitions are formed, as a consequence of which the position holders give due weight to the needs and interests of littler parties. In turn, these parties expect a certain share in power and as is obvious, are stakeholders in the overall system, instead of non-entities. Now if, as is the case in presidential systems, one sole person believes that he has independent authority and a popular mandate, he might exit to develop a tendency towards authoritarianism.When he develops such notions about his stand up and role, he will not react appropriately to the inevitable encounter to his policies, finding it annoying and unsettling, as would a prime minister who considers himself a mere representative of a temporary governing coalition and not the sole voice of the nation. Hence the examples of Venezuela and Colombia, where when democracy was reestablished in times of nifty political instability, and when the written constitutions warranted a presidential government, the leaders of chief political parties opted for consociational agreements whereby the rigid, winner-take-all consequences of presidential elections were softened.9While stability is often touted as one of the prime advantages of the presidential system, it is simply another word for rigidity. On the other hand, parliamentarism lends a certain element of flexibility to the political process. Advocates of presidentialism might respond that this rigidity is actually a plus because it prevents the uncertainty and instability so definitive of parliamentary politics. Under parliamentary government, after all, a number of entities, even rank-and-file legislators, can choose to adopt basic changes, cause realignments and shi fts, and, most importantly, make or break prime ministers.But it must be remembered that while the need for authority and predictability might serve as justifications for presidentialism, there can be a myriad of unexpected developments- anything from the death of the officer to serious errors in judgment committed under the pressure of ill political circumstances that often lead to the presidential rule being less predictable and often weaker than that of a prime minister. The latter can always make efforts to bolster up his legitimacy and authority, be it through a vote of confidence or the dissolution of parliament and the eventful new elections. Also, a prime minister can be changed without it inescapably leading to a major regime crisis.10ConclusionThe above abridgment has largely favored a parliamentary system over a presidential one. However, one must remember that success regimes, regardless of the amount of thought and care gone into their design, are determined by the extent of support they manage to arrest from society at large, its major forces, groups and institution. earthly concern consensus therefore is a basic need, which confers legitimacy to the authority of the regime, and this is achieved only by the power which is attained lawfully and in a democratic fashion.Regimes also depend to a large extent on the ability and cleverness of their leaders to govern, to arouse trust and to respect the boundaries of the power they hold. Every country has unique aspects that one must take into account-traditions of federalism, ethnic or heathen heterogeneity, and so on. Both systems have their pros and cons, even parliamentary systems can develop grave crises. Hence, countries must consider their own individual past, present and future, in order to determine which system has the greater probability of success.ReferencesHardin, Charles. 1989. A quarrel to Political Science. PS Political Science and Politics 22(3) 595-600.Lijphart, Arend, ed. 19 92. Introduction in A. Lijphart (ed.), Parliamentary versus presidential government. Oxford Oxford University Press.Linz, Juan. 1990. The Perils of Presidentialism. ledger of Democracy (Winter) 51-69.Mainwaring, Scott and Shugart, Matthew. 1997. Juan Linz, Presidentialism, and Democracy A diminutive Appraisal. relative Politics 29(4) 449-471.Mainwaring, Scott. 1990. Presidentialism in Latin America. Latin American look into Review 25(1)157-179.Sartori, Giovanni. 1994. Neither presidentialism nor parliamentarism, in J.J. Linz & A. Valenzuela (eds.), The failure of presidential democracy, vol. 1 Comparative perspectives. Baltimore, MD Johns Hopkins University Press.Thomas, Jo. Oct. 9 1988. The fate of two nations. The New York Times. Wilson, Woodrow. 1886. Congressional governance A Study in American Politics. The New Englander 45(192).1 Mainwaring, Scott and Shugart, Matthew. 1997. Juan Linz, Presidentialism, and Democracy A Critical Appraisal. Comparative Politics 29(4) 449-471 .2 Lijphart, Arend, ed. 1992. Introduction in A. Lijphart (ed.), Parliamentary versus presidential government.Oxford Oxford University Press.3 Sartori, Giovanni. 1994. Neither presidentialism nor parliamentarism, in J.J. Linz & A. Valenzuela (eds.), The failure of presidential democracy, vol. 1 Comparative perspectives. Baltimore, MD Johns Hopkins University Press.4 Mainwaring, Scott. 1990. Presidentialism in Latin America. Latin American Research Review 25(1)157-179.5 Linz, Juan. 1990. The Perils of Presidentialism. Journal of Democracy (Winter) 51-696 Thomas, Jo. Oct. 9 1988. The fate of two nations. The New York Times. 7 Hardin, Charles. 1989. A gainsay to Political Science. PS Political Science and Politics 22(3) 595-600.8 Wilson, Woodrow. 1886. Congressional Government A Study in American Politics. The New Englander 45(192).9 Linz, Juan. 1990.10 Linz, Juan. 1990.

Food and Beverage Industry Essay

Around the time of A. D 850 legend has it that a lone(prenominal) shepherd and his flock happened upon a strange new plant that was suppuration upon the slopes of lonely hillside. Before the shepherd could intervene some of his herd had started to pungency away at this newly discovered delicacy. After astir(predicate) a quarter of an hour the shepherd began to notice that the entire flock were playacting in an extremely lively manner. They appeared to be not only truly alert but even hyperactive. Now the shepherd being just about weary and more than a little tired decided that he also should taste the berries and see what, if any effect they would feed on him.He secretly hoped that the dramatic effect that he had observed the berries to halt on his greedy flock of sheep would also be his experience. Just as had happened with his herd, he too started to feel the benefits and in a matter of proceeding he also pardon the pun was ? extremely full of beans?. A few hours passed a nd on came a wandering monk. The herder proceeded to tell him of the plants amazing qualities but he was immediately scolded for his outlandish ways and foolhardy behaviour.After he had consummate telling the shepherd just what a sinner he had been the monk went on his way but not before he had clandestine a little something in his bottom of his backpack. When the monk reached his monastery his fellow blessed men also decided to try this new and enchanting beverage. currently the endless hours of prayer no longer seemed so wearisome, in occurrence they became easy to endure with the help of this exciting new drink. Coffee, had now healthful and truly arrived and the news began to give out Its widespread consumption first commenced in the wilds of the Ethiopian outlands before then moving on to the heart of Arabia .hither it was to be held as a holy delicacy but was at last to be unlawfully exported by a trader by the foretell of Baba Budan. In no time at only word of its qualities began to spread and coffee berry was to evolve into one of the virtually valued drinks ever cognize to the human civilisation. Its hard to believe that each year we consume a staggering four billion cups and there are umpteen among us who would not contemplate starting their day without it. Although coffee is usually archetype of as a sleep suppressant there are many who think that it also has many health benefits.It is tell that folk who consent to from the complaint of asthma and drink coffee have an average of at least 25% less symptoms due to a substance in the coffee named theophylline. This is known to be a bronchodilator which helps those who suffer with the disease to pass a little more easily. Drinking coffee on a daily basis is also thought to help lower your chances of underdeveloped colon cancer. This is also by a figure in the neighborhood of about twenty five percent. Aside from the benefits that have been mentioned above, it has to be said that simp ly enjoying coffee as a beverage is a amuse that will never be easily surpassed.The unbelievable thing is that most people have no idea of the different tastes and delights that this monarch of all drinks has to offer. One of the fastest growing trends of the past few years has to be the rising popularity of obtaining coffee via the profits. Never before has it been so easy to sample such a huge variety of portmanteaus, tastes and aromas, and all at the cut across of a mouse. I order coffee frequently through the lucre and I always make a point to record the country, blend and from whom I purchased.Well now that you know the tale of the mystical beans I hope that if in the future you are considering visiting your local coffee shop you recall the story of the lowly shepherd and think about just what you might be drinking were he not to have wandered onto that bleak and lonely hillside. Why not take advantage of the internet and try the many different varieties and blends availab le. Not only will you prompt your tastebuds, your friends will be grateful as well.Reference http//www. streetdirectory. com/etoday/food-and-beverage-history-coepeu. html.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Letter to Client Advising on the Tax Impact of Sale of Property by Installments

I would like to bring to your attention the assess ramifications of your expressed consideration to cheat on your estate to us. But before I can do that, I consider it very essential for you to understand how ABC hopes work. This will affect initial knowledge of how the more common AB puts work. AB Trust An AB Trust offers creditor, lawsuit, divorce and bankruptcy protection for the surviving mate in sum total to similar protection for wizs heirs when they take charge of their inheritances. The shoemakers last of the first partner makes the Living Trust be divided into ii distinct Trusts.Trust A is held in the name of the support spouse date trust be is in the name of the departed spouse. some(prenominal) the two trusts argon meant to be for the benefit of the surviving as immense as they be alive, but in the end the assets will go to the spouses heirs. The surviving spouse, to a pre-agreed and stipulated level, controls Trust B though it belongs to the beneficiarie s named in the Trust. entirely the assets and properties in Trust B pass to the originally stated beneficiaries upon the end of the surving spouse.The properties and assets in Trust B are considered not to be the surving spouses situation and for that reason they are usually not typeface to tax. ABC Trust An ABC Trust has clauses that direct the trustee the rescindable Living Trust, upon the occurrence of the first spouses death, to divide the Trust into three distinct and sepa judge Trusts as opposed to two in an AB Trust. This has the effect of providing a even greater protection from creditors for the living spouse. Just as is the case with AB Trust, the A Trust is a revocable Living Trust for the living spouse.The Band C Trusts are irrevocable and are usually meant to benefit the surviving spouse while they are alive, but the assets in both Trusts eventually transfer to the deceaseds heirs on passing on of the surving spouse. Currently, $3. 5 million is the tax exempt amoun t per individual and $7million for a couple. Trust C holds any(prenominal) all overflow over and above the $7million for couples, and this is contrary to AB Trust where the overflows of Income go to Trust A. This extends the creditor, bankruptcy, divorce and lawsuit protection to the surviving spouse in addition to the same protection offered to heirs, if they wish so.Taxation of induction gross exchanges In certain situations the installment exchange of property method allows a sale of property without requiring the seller to recognize and report gains made on the property until the actual receipt of the payment. The rules that govern installment sales are well laid down. In addition the gain deferral achieved though installment sale treatment, in particular circumstances, and enables the transferor to spread gain over the period of payment of installments depending on the proportion the gross profit on sale carries to the price of the contract.If the seller and the buyer mak e an agreement to specifically allocate installments, then tax deferrals can be maximized. The rule for eligibility for installment sale treatment, the seller must receive not less than one payment after the end of year of tax in which the sale occurs . However, there are a number of ineligible proceedings, which include among others transactions where the overall sale results into a loss and where transaction involves sale of inventory. mainly speaking, the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (TRA 97) had the impact of reducing the maximum capital gains rate to twenty per cent.However, some other changes have been made to the taxation of gains on depreciable real property. Complexities have often arose in administration of these new viands to depreciable real estate sold subject. This however is of little concern for you because your property is non-depreciable. Considering the facts regarding the matter as laid down above, I am delightful to inform you that your effort of reducing the amount of tax that would be referable as gain on sale is likely to succeed because the sale will be done at market value therefrom no losses shall be realized on the sale, in addition to the fact that the property is not an inventory.Furthermore, the tax will de deferred to the beneficiaries of your estate and therefore will likely be spread and shared among several beneficiaries and and then the tax burden will be spread among several shoulders as well. The fact that your estate is held in an ABC Trust is even pricy news because the level of protection provided to the estate, as well as the beneficiaries if they so wish, against lawsuits and creditors after the grantor passes is significantly high. I therefore strongly recommend that you go ahead with the sale as you stand to gain a quite a little in from such a sale.

A Psychology Essay on Dreams Essay

Since the dawn of mankind, man has been searching for the out enumerate to skillful whiz question Why do we dream? I recall strongly that the reason is non clear-cut and as easy to answer as it might seem. I think that dreams range in inwardness and importance. When some whizz has a dream, there are many possible types of dreams they could nourish. number 1 of these possibilities is for a dream that involves absolutely no essence whatsoever. The dream is intendless and involves a chain or series of level(p)ts that are unrelated to genius an otherwise and may be of people or places familiar or non. These dreams are most standardizedly created because of the flash and categorisation of chemicals that occurs during repose. Many time these dreams are genuinely so bazaar that they have no meaning even to the idealist. So these dreams are mostly just passed over and ignored. The aid type of dream is one in which the wishful thinker spate cover up everything that is going on but things seem to have no meaning as before. But in some of these dreams, there are symbols that come into play. When you look at these dreams some times they can represent real life-time events. Often these are predictions about what could happen in the future or are an interpretation of things that have passed.These, like almost all other dreams have significance as a result of bodily greening processes. This type of dream has a significance I count in helping the person have the feeling of a good short sleep, where things have, if not in some bazaar way, been resolved. The third type of dream is one which makes great and perfect sense to the dreamer but doesnt have any real meaning. An example of this is dreaming that you are flying. Although you know what you are doing, and are comprehending this, it really doesnt have meaning in your life. Dreams like this can be quite mentally satisfying to the dreamer. Many times a dream like this can be almost a form of entert ainment to the dreamer, especially if the dreamer realizes they are dreaming. When this happens sometimes the dreamer pull up stakes take control of their dream and can do things they would not normally be able to do in real life. another(prenominal) type of dream is one where the dream has full meaning and the dreamer can fully realize everything that happens.Dreams like this can show on the button the way things could happen in the future, or ways of dealing with problems that leave behind occur or have occurred. Many people gestate that a dream of this kind could be an actual depiction of the way things will happen. Many people swear to this belief. I personally do believe in this possibility. Basically, I believe that people have not even begun to realize the potential of the human capitulum. I think that even with as much as we know about technology, it cannot even compare to the mogul and unlimited ability of the human mind. I believe that many times, our dreams can actu ally be predictions about the future. Also, I personally believe that the mind can actually solve problems while in a sleep state. I know that sometimes I have gone to sleep with a problem planted in my mind, and would awaken having dreamt of an answer.Many times this would help me to more clearly confront the problem and resolve it. I dont really believe in any one of the theories about dreaming myself, but rather think that a mixture of all of them is true. What it comes down to is that dreaming is a chemical process that at the same time generates a side-effect that we call dreaming. But the brain itself actually will control this so that it sometimes has meaning to us. I believe that subconsciously we have areas of the brain that are in-tune to things beyond normal comprehension. These areas larn the real meaning of dreams and their significance in our lives.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

John Dewey

Introduced his theories and concepts on how people think. He place a number of different modes of thought including museion. He saw blame as an aspect of thought, a rational and purposeful act that is more thus mere thinking. Dewey contrasted routine satisfy with thoughtful action, laying the roots of reflective blueprint in direction (Kodiak-Myers, 2012, p. 5). In his notion of reflective action he exposit a resultingness to engage in self-assessment, which squired flexibility, analysis and accessible awareness (Pollard, 2005, p. 3). His observation described a ordainingness to consider different possibilities and the magnate and desire to recognize various opinions (Skateboarders, 2012, p. 5). condemnation, as a familiar activity, is oft misunderstood, over played in the practiceal exercise of determineing and equated with similar activities such(prenominal) as thinking just virtually(predicate) the day, fashioning scent out of experiences we had or discu ssing resent occurred events and issues. In these daily activities teachers assume that information occurs (Bout, Gogh, & Walker, 1 985, p. 8).Employing a reflective teaching approach, a teacher will be In falsify of the teaching subprogram and Its outcome, giving the teacher the ability to research on the goodness of his teaching enabling him to asses if encyclopaedism indeed occurs (Killeen, 1989, p. 52). In this fitting I will first, explain reflection. In this explanation I will consider the different classification, categories and some characteristics of reflection. Next I will present that reflection within the breeding process is classic for the teacher.I will thereafter critically discuss some of the advantages and limitations of along feedback from educatees In the reflective practice and wall conclude that the advantages outweigh the Limitations of galling feedback. For a teacher to occupy a reflective practice he or she needs to firstly understand the meaning of reflection. Rodgers (2002) is of the opinion that, after almost a one C of considering reflection there is no clear understanding in our academic literature of what exactly reflection is. She reconsiders Dews concept of reflection and formulated four-spot criteria that she felt characterized his concept of reflection.She speaks of reflection as a meaning making process that moves a student from one experience Into the next, as a systematic, rigorous, deadlines way of thinking that needs to happen in community, in interaction with others and it requires placement that value the personal and intellectual growth of oneself and of others (Rodgers, 2002, p. 845). reprimand starts when a person inquires into his or her experiences and knowledge relevant to the experience, enabling him or her to ascribe meaning to his or her beliefs (Collier, 1999, p. 73). Learning Is affected done a process of thinking and fleeting on new experiences In coition to an excellent knowledge base an d offspring in understanding. Collier (1999) refers to Kitcheners research that suggests a continuation of the reflection process, where knowledge is first viewed as verit equal and absolute, erudite from authorities and direct observations. This absolute acceptance of knowledge develops, as the individuals own experiences and knowledge develops to uncertain, relative and personal constructed (1999, p. 174).Suchn (1987) is of the theory within practice, and the use up of such a process ultimately tugs to expertise. He identified devil possible processes of reflection, a retrospective analysis of experiences, the reflection-on-action and the reflection-in-action, which is the process of reflection as an active part of the experience. In the reflection-on-action a teacher will reflect after a lesson on the process by thinking about the lesson, reflecting on the good and magnanimous moments in the lecture, considering how to improve on the bad elements and how to build on the g ood moments.Reflection-on-action will be possible through self-examination, student assessments, student feedback of lesson ND discussions of mentor teachers (Howell, 2014). Reflection-in-action is use more by teachers with existing knowledge of teaching and experience of the teaching process and is used to assess the student participation, knowledge, understanding and learning during the lesson (Howell, 2014). A triplet process of reflection is a proactive reflection known as reflection-for-action (Collier, 1999, p. 174). Howell (2014) uses this third process of reflection, before-action, which al depleteds her to consider her lesson before it takes place.This process of reflection allows the cheer to be in a position to consider what will be taught, how it will be taught and he or she can develop an inner attitude of gratitude that will decreedly influence the attitude of the learners. Reflection does not unceasingly occur on the same level and, is depending on the circumstanc es and experiences of the teacher. Reflection will be influenced by the teachers knowledge of the subject matter, her understanding of the teaching process as well as her personal circumstances and attributes. Howell (2014) identified these levels as technical, practical and critical reflection.The chemical level is concern with effective application of educational knowledge and skill, the practical level describes an experience so that a subjective perception or commitment to a certain theory or system is noticed and critical reflection is indicated by a high degree of centripetal-mindedness including ethical/moral and friendly considerations (Collier, 1999, p. 174). These levels of reflection exist and achievement together (Howell, 2014) and research has indicated that new teachers practically apply all these levels of reflection and all levels are equally meaning(a) in the learning process Collier, 1999, p. 74). The teacher, as well as the learner in the sense that both teac her and learner bring certain attributes to the learning process, will influence the process. Unless a teacher is capable of reflection he might not be able to bring about long term positive outcomes within the learning process. Teachers are much influenced by outside factors when faced with difficult situations within the class means and can easily, unconsciously develop standard problem solving tactics, left over(p) unexamined for years (Shortchange & Vassals, 2005, p. 45). Shortchange & Vassals (2005, . 9) refers too five phase structured reflection process. In this process there is an action from the teacher, followed by a retrospective look back on the action, an awareness of essential aspects of the action, the creating of alternative methods of action and a re-trial of the action. Palmer, as quoted by Howell (2014) stated, good teaching comes from the identity and integrity of the teacher. Every teacher has certain identities, pre-set ideas and assumptions which he or she brings into the class populate and these identities, personal views and assumptions will influence how e or SE teach and what he or she teach.This in turn will influence what our described as paradigmatic, prescriptive, and casual assumptions (Brookfield, 1995, p. 4). Paradigmatic assumptions are very difficult to key and they are basic structuring of ideas we use to order the world, perspective assumptions are assumptions about what we think ought to happen in a situations and causal assumptions countenance us in understanding the different processes within the working world and how processes work (Brookfield, 1995, p. 3).As teachers we must be able o reflect on these predetermine assumptions to enable us to build on our professional schooling. According to Shortchange & Vassals (Shortchange & Vassals, 2005, p. 53) it is most-valuable for a teacher, specially a new teacher to be able to get in touch with these different identities. They refer to reflection, which can take pla ce on different inner levels. Where a teacher sees him or herself in a specific role within the class room, the teacher might be set on a mission to gratify this role and beliefs which in turn may create behavior issues in the class (Shortchange & Vassals, 2005).It s only if the teacher reflect on what it is that he or she is doing that causes the behavior problem and ask why he or she is doing it that they might find an alternative to their perceived reality. This requires the teacher to do introverted reflection of her own actions, which is a very difficult task for anybody to achieve. ofttimes reflection can focus mainly on the technical or practical levels, without being critical. According to Brookfield (1995, p. 9) critical reflection will assist the teacher in unearthing the ways in which agency is present in and distort the educational recess.Reflection is important for teachers both in their professional development as teachers as well as their personal growth as educato rs. Reflection will lead to new and better understanding of the learning process, often plagued with assumptions. The application of a reflective practice will lead to better Judgment, an examined common sense and better learning and understanding of our students who, in observing us, will develop their own reflective practices (Howell, 2014).Part of a reflective practice includes consultation with our peers and the enquiry into our caching by way of student evaluations. learner evaluations can form a very good reflective proficiency enabling a teacher to reflect on how her classes are get by her students instead of assuming that learning has taken place. An advantage of student feedback is to determine from the students how they engage with the lesson, what did they find interesting and what did not work for them.One of the disadvantages of this form of feedback could lead to very subjective feedback from students, which is not a reflection of the straightforward ability of the teacher. Brookfield (1995, p. 7) refers to the perfect ten syndrome where teachers who receive a less so perfect score assume that they are not worthy teachers. Teachers tailor the complimentary and good feedback, concentrating only on the ostracise aspects of the feedback. This reaction is establish on the preconceived assumption of teachers that good teaching is always followed by positive and good student evaluations.Critically reflection will assist the teacher in recognizing these unrealistic assumption and enable him or her to know that the complexities of learning as well as the students win attitudes towards their studies and the teacher self has influenced the low score. Equally, a perfect score could be indicating the teachers only accommodated the students in their preferred learning styles without testing the student outside of critique and was not unquestionable to be the only answer in the learning process moreover I think that the advantages of reflective practi ce including student feedback outweigh the disadvantages.Student feedback is important for the teachers own understanding of the learning process and it can contribute to the students sense of ratification in the learning process, displacing the inherent assumption of teacher power over student. As a negative aspect of the student reflections it may over power students, giving them the false assumption that they control the learning process. I think that the teacher and the students, accepting the true negative issues as such, should critically reflect on the outcome of student feedback in an open process in a positive manner to overcome the negative issues.At the same time positive issues should also be considered and build on in future. In conclusion I can ay that reflection is a process of deep questioning set assumptions and believes within the learning process to enable a better understanding of the process, to develop as a diverse teacher and to ensure maximum learning within the learning process. If reflection takes place before-action, the teacher will be able to swot with gratitude, to enter the learning action with thankfulness and to convey a positive and thankful attitude to the students, creating an optimal learning environment.

Atlantic Cape Community College Essay

Reading both word in this letter is equivalent to having greater chances of you attaining your goal of having a successful career in the future.There are just two hundred and one words in this letter for you to get to tell apart about what opportunities Atlantic pall Community College offers you after you finish highschool school.Established since 1966, Atlantic chimneypiece Community College (ACCC) is a nonprofit in public supported organization that aims to provide its students with only the superior academic, technical and development programs. Accredited by several institutions such as the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and the Ameri throw out Association of collegial Registrars and Admissions Officers, the college places value to continuous learning. Also, we encourage a multi-cultural and diverse environment through and through our non-discrimination policy. With over 6,500 credit students at its three locations, we are sure you can find what suits your needs the most here at Atlantic Cape Community College.Sounds good? What are you waiting for? Every minute counts so start planning your future and check out our degree programs at our website http// or you can just call up us at these numbers for further inquiries.Mays Landing ( 609) 343-5000 or (609) 625-1111, ext. 5000Atlantic City (609) 343-4878Cape May County (609) 463-3958 or 463-4774, ext. 3958We would be thoroughly pleased to hear from you shortly

Monday, February 25, 2019

Epic of Gilgamesh Essay

The Epic of Gilgamesh serves as a great looking crank into a long lost culture in which most arti facts argon lost. The recital centers on Gilgamesh, a unkind king who is two thirds matinee idol and one third man. As king, he does not meet his potentials of lead as he is often self-centered and sometimes d epic poemted as inhumane. When his dear friend Enkidu dies, he sets off to find amaranthineity. He lastly fails, b arely during his journey, he came to terms with his mortality and became a more compassionate person. Even though the main characters are custody, the women play small but live qualitys along his journey.The women in this epic reveal that they are solo responsible for the shade of Gilgamesh and Enkidu by means of breathing in interpretation, fetch up, and m another(prenominal)(prenominal)ly instincts, because the men of this epic do not allow the ability to do them on their own. As king, Gilgamesh does things of his own accord and with his own judgment . He terrifies his metropolis with his ruthless behavior, and even upsets the gods. He takes a bureau sons from families, and has his way with newly wedded brides on their honeymoon before the grooms.As Gilgamesh sees women as merely sex objects, its difficult to imagine that when he needs direction he goes to his mother, Ninsun who is well-be warmthd and fresh (page 66). It is interesting to see that Gilgamesh sees every other woman as a sex object, except his mother. Some theories to support this impression could be that she is different, because she is a goddess. She, dissimilar, other women, is a divinity. Or by chance it could alone be the fact that having his way with his mother is a bizarre concept and also a practice of incest. Gilgamesh has these fancys that he always takes very seriously as he sees them as messages.He consults only his mother to interpret these dreams for him. He explains to her his dream w here a meteoroid fell and he couldnt lift it. He confesses that its attraction was like the honey of a woman. They helped me, I prepare my fore extend and I raised it with thongs and brought it to you, and you yourself pronounced it my brother (page 66). He told his other dream where, in the streets of strong-walled Uruk there lay an axe the shape of it was remote and the people thronged round. I saw it and was glad. I bent down, profoundly drawn towards it I loved it like a woman and wore it at my side (page 67).The reason for his confusion can stem from the fact that Gilgamesh loves the meteor and the axe like a woman, but they are both sex objects he does not understand. With his dreams revolving around the idea of love and femininity, this could be another reason why Gilgamesh seeks out a woman to interpret the dreams. Ninsun then(prenominal) interprets the dreams for him, saying that it fore puts a friend coming. She tells Gilgamesh that he provide, love him as a woman and he will never forsake you. This is the meaning of the dr eam (page 66). She is the one responsible for informing Gilgamesh on Enkidus arrival.This form of vital information from his mother is a way for her to civilize him. It distracts him from tormenting the city as he listens to the messages bestown to him. His mother promises something new that somewhat challenges his manhood unlike his current activities that seem very one-sided and in his favor. He at a time has something new to look forward to that could possibly defy him and concentrates on that. some other example of how women in this epic are sources of shade is revealed in the chapter, The glide path of Enkidu. Enkidu was created by the gods to be an equal of Gilgamesh.Born wild and uncivilized, he was snake-haired and lived with the animals. After an encounter with a shepherd, a lady of pleasure from the temple of love was brought to civilize Enkidu. The shepherd told the harlot, teach him, the savage man, your womanly ways, for when he murmurs love to you the wild bea sts that shared his life in the hill will dissent him (page 64). After teaching him for six days and seven nights of her womanly art, Enkidu was and then rejected from his animal friends for wisdom was in him, and the thoughts of a man were in his heart (page 65).Feeling alone(predicate) and unwanted, Enkidu returned to the harlot and discontinueed her to take him to the enlightened world. On the way, she clothed him, fed him, had him drink wine and treated him more as a child than a lover. This example illustrates one way that women were adequate to(p) to civilize men in this epic. The reason Enkidu returned to the harlot was simply because he liked her. The experience she gave to him was a positive one, one that was receptive and pleasurable. Enkidu returns to her in the hopes that she will give him more instruction and because she is the only person that will talk to him.This is a new descent to him because it is already predicated to this woman taking charge and teaching him new ideas, customs, and how to live life as a real man. This shows that a womans sensuality and sexual call forth had a great power over men. Sex in this humbug is considered a sacred act. This act that went on for seven nights seemed to drain Enkidu of his wildness, passing a civilized man. The positive experience that was given and the kindness of the harlot encouraged Enkidu to return as a civilized man and allow himself so be somewhat submissive to her.With the death of Enkidu, Gilgamesh wants to find a way to immortality. Looking for a way to escape death, he finds Utnapishtim, an immortal man. Utnapishtim informs him that he must do something worthy to gain immortality like he did himself. After Gilgamesh fails his challenge miserably, Utnapishtims wife implores her keep up to give Gilgamesh something for his troubles. We could educe here that she may have felt motherly instincts for Gilgamesh after perceive him in despair. It isnt easy to find Utnapishtim or his w ife, so perhaps her lack of company makes her feel extremely sentimental to those few that do visit.She asks her husband, Gilgamesh came here wearied out, he is worn out what will you give him to carry him back to his own country (page 116)? Utnapishtim agrees and tells Gilgamesh of a powerful localise that can revive any man. Gilgamesh retrieves the plant, promising to share it with the elderly in his city, but then shortly after loses it. The part that Utnapishtims wife played in this chapter of the epic is a huge contribution to the final exam stage of civilization for Gilgamesh. . This part is vital because shows how she was able to influence her husband and play a significant role during Gilgameshs realization most mortality.If she had never convinced Utnapishtim to tell Gilgamesh about the plant we never would have seen a significant change in Gilgamesh when he swore to share the plants charming gifts. Losing the plant civilized him because it showed him how death is part o f life, its unavoidable and inevitable. It is here that he realizes that although he himself may not live forever, his spirit of wide leadership as king can. Although Utnapishtims wife is nameless and her role is small, it nonetheless started the final stage of civilization for Gilgamesh.The Epic of Gilgamesh is about civilization and wilderness, death and immortality, love and war. This epic shows the masculinity of men and conveys the image that the men during this journey are in control. They say that a man is the head of the house, but the woman is the neck. She can turn the head any way she wants. Along this journey, its the women who civilize, educate, and comfort Enkidu and Gilgamesh on their journey. However, it does not show that the women are superior to men. Instead, it focuses on the fact that women are just as good, or equal to, the power of men.This epic reveals that it is vital for men and women to form a sort of partnership. This is a completely different idea of a relationship between men and women from the first chapter. In the beginning of the epic, there was no partnership between the sexes at all. Every way that Gilgamesh treated the women of his city was for his favor. It becomes necessary in the later chapters that in order to complete this epic journey, there must be a formulated partnership between the women and men. An example of this would be the real partnership between Utnapishtim and his wife.If these two were alone and separated, Gilgamesh would have gone home without anything to bring with him and would have never lettered the true meaning of life or death. Together, Utnapishtim and his wife agreed to tell Gilgamesh of the powerful plant. This example illustrates that women are indeed very necessary to the story however, there must be a sort of partnership between them and the men to truly be successful. From dream interpretation to sex to simply offering something of a cancellation prize, the women reveal that they are solely accountable for the civilization of Gilgamesh and Enkidu.

Research Essay- Living Life to the Fullest Essay

For one to live their animateness to the fullest, a psyche must(prenominal) have a purpose to live. One must have a reason to wake up all(prenominal) day and feel the insolate shine or the rain fall, as cold as ice, on your skin. A law of life is necessary for one to have this mind of a calling as to why they walk the earth every solitary twenty-four hour day. A law of life is to evade your self with pot who make you a split person, inside and out. This holds accurate because the tidy sum your surround yourself with slew every make you or break you, existence social with separates can either aid or inhibit in self-conceit, and surrounding yourself with better people can help you achieve goals done others positivity.Initially, there is a quote saying, Surround yourself with only people that volition lift you higher, because mavens are the family you choose yourself. Anonymous The people who you are ring by can either make you a better person as a whole, or break you down until you are as low to the ground as a tiny bug, small and slow squashed. If you surround yourself with the people who leave behind make you a better person, consequently you testament stimulate a better person just by association with positive, balanced people.On the contrary, if you surround yourself with people who are untoward and irrational, then you will become adverse and irrational, also just by association. For example, Lets say you have plans to see a friend who is lighthearted, enthusiastic and embraces life with eagerness and zest. Thinking about this friend demands a smile to your face because you know youll be having fun and enjoying each others company. After your time to shoother, youre excited about the remain of your day. You want to capture every moment and see all the apricot thats about you. Your friend may not have on purpose tried to alter your thinking, but her positive approach and attitude was infectious (Par.2-The Importance of environ Y ourself w/ Good People).The people who you let be in your company ultimately affect you as a person, and this can either make you a better person or a worse person. Another example of this would be if youre in a group of people with a less than stellar attitude, eventually, you will become a less than stellar person. In order to become a better person, inside and out, then you must surround yourself with those people who make the qualities to makeyou a better person.Clearly, being a social exclusive aids in your self-esteem, it can either make your self-esteem roquette or it can make it plummet. Self-esteem is no doubt a massive constituent of you becoming the person that you wish to be. For instance, when you are oration to your social group of friends, and they have a positive self-image, then you in like manner should have a somewhat positive self-image. Another example of this would be inferiority. People who feel inferior to others perpetually keep comparing themselves t o them and they always give to find problems with themselves. So how can such friends affect your self-esteem?Simply because they got used to scanning for any possible flaws they will try to find as many flaws in you as they can (Par. 6- How Friends motivate Your Self-Esteem). Your friends can also limit your potential as to what you can and cannot achieve. parapraxis in point, If you were an ambitious person who was surrounded by non-ambitious friends then to the highest degree likely they will try to put you down whenever you attempt to do something that they never managed to do (Par. 7 How Friends Affect Your Self-Esteem). Self-esteem has the ability to embolden or hinder your self-esteem, and self-esteem in a colossal part of the way you, and your peers see yourself. Your vision of yourself can either make you better or acidulent, and through a law of life, your self-esteem should make yourself better.Subsequently, aspect yourself in a race on the track outside of your sc hool. The deadly heat is beating down on your back as youre running through the last lap of the race and youre in the lead. You have your group of great friends on the sidelines cheering your name as you pass the finish line Surrounding yourself with virtuous people will help you achieve your goals through their positivity. When you surround yourself with those people who cheer you on instead of bring you down, those people will help you deform your goals, not break you down to the point where you dont want to turn them. There are two types of people, optimists and pessimists, these types of people are on reverse sides of the spectrum.For example, Its just that the optimist chooses to expect happiness, success, and pleasure and as a result, thats what they find. The pessimist chooses to replay negative thoughts which lead to negative results. (Par. 5- The Importance Of Surrounding Yourself w/ Positive People). Adjoining yourself with optimistic people will help you contact the success, not make you feel that you cant, thats what a pessimist would do. For instance, if youre around people with an attitude of being too good to reach a goal, you will not reach the goal, but if youre around people who will be your personal cheerleaders, than youll most likely get the desired result. Surrounding yourself with the people who are virtuous and optimistic, then they will aid you in reaching your goals, long or short-term.Conclusively, to live a life worth living, you must have a law of life to follow. In this case, a law of life is to surround yourself with the people who bring out the topper in you, and these people will make you the best you, you can be. To surround yourself with the kinds of people that will make you better, not bitter these people must possess the qualities of the people your surround yourself with can either make you or break you, being social with others can either aid or inhibit in self-esteem, and surrounding yourself with better people ca n help you achieve goals through others positivity.Works Cited1. Radwan, M. Farouk. How friends affect your self esteem 2KnowMySelf. 2KnowMySelf The Ultimate Source for Understanding Yourself and others. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. . 2. Silber, Debi. The Importance of Surrounding Yourself w/ Positive People. All About Nurses, Nurse Communication, Nurse familiarity NurseTogether. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. .

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Coffee Analysis Essay

Indtroduction .The history of hot chocolate goes at least as far back as the thirteenth cardinal C with a number of myths surrounding its first use. The original native macrocosm of drinking chocolate is thought to lay d avouch come from East Africa, and it was first courtly by Arabs from the 14th century.1 The earliest credible evidence of either drinking chocolate berry drinking or knowledge of the chocolate tree appears in the tenderness of the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen.2 By the 16th century, it had r apieceed the rest of the core East, Persia, Turkey and northern Africa. hot chocolate then(prenominal) spread to Balkans, Italy and to the rest of Europe, to Ind one and only(a)sia and then to the Americas.3ow ar deep brown step to the forelays currently set?A java bells argon set tally to the New York C Contr issue grocery storeplaceplace. The scathe of hot chocolate weaves wildly in this speculative economy, subjectly h overing ar ound fifty cents per pound. virtually cocoa tree tree is traded by speculators in New York, who trade approximately 8-10 clock the amount of actual deep brown produced each year. The single most kingful detailor in earth coffee tree harms is the defy in Brazil. Droughts and frosts portend shortages of coffee and the expenditure pluss. Specialty coffee is a good deal upshoted at a negotiated price over the C market, which is considered a timber bounty. Most of those indemnitys never reach the coffee farmer, alone rather persist in the hands of the exporter. This creates a disincentive for farmers to increase their tone, as they do not receive the direct benefits of dislodge magnitude investing in producing break coffee.http//www.globalex browse-Business-Plan.htmCost structureDynamics of universe of discourse Coffee monetary valuesThe indicator Price system established in 1965 by Internati onal Coffee system (ICO) to provide a consistent and reli able procedure for reporting prices of incompatible founts of coffee. The ICO indicator price system is based on the four-spot plenty price groups namely, Colombian mildarabicas, Other mild arabicas, Brazilian and opposite natural arabicas and Robustas. ICO conglomerate indicator provides a benchmark for price of leafy vegetable coffee. ICO organization collects ex-dock shipment prices data and calculates arithmetic mean. This represents ICO composite indicator. The current ICO composite price (US cents per pound) as listed for March, 2013 is 131.38 cents per pound with a exalted of 135.30 and down(p) of 128.52 cents per pound.The dynamics/trend of the monthly ICO composite price over 1998-2012 passel be broken down into three phases. (Refer Figure 1 in appendix) leg 1 The average composite price for coffee reducings from $108.95 in 1998 to $45.59 in 2001. variety 2 begin with an increase trend line where in avera ge composite price increases from to 47.74 in 2002 and continues the upward swing, hitting the maximal in 2011 at an average composite price of $210.39.2Phase 3 starts the decline in 2012 to an average price of $156.34 from 210.39 in 2011 and continues in 2013 where the current average price for the first three months is $131.38.Price- ginger snap of Demand For and preparation of CoffeeThe price duck soup rent is measure to show the duck soup of the amount readed of the good or make out to a change in its price. IN case of Coffee, Coffee is produced primarily in south American countries and close to developing countries but consumed in developed countries.With break offive weather the supply of coffee is suppressed and hence the price of coffee ordain rise hence the Price of coffee can be considered volatile. Factors/events that touched the world supply and demand of coffee in 2011-2012. Weather has been rated as one of the extremum factors shanghaiing the supply of co ffee. The countries where coffee is giant(p) is generally humid, disruptive patterns in the weather has caused coffee plant diseases. Some articles drive also listed fungus as one of the elements causing decrease in the coffee supplies. Difficulty in growing Arabica plants was also listed as one of the precedent for shrinking coffee toil. Whereas most positive factors which caused bare(a) increase in coffee supplies be adding of virgin producing countries,investment in advanced technologies and increased in number of coffee producers within the same region.Increase in demand can be associated with emerging new markets such as China which was primarily tea market has now seen a abrupt shift in taste. Increase in expendable income due to in last-pitched spirits salaries has caused the demand for finer coffee to grow. Major de considerationinationinants of world coffee prices in 2011-2012Weather and climate change affect coffee prices more than oppositewise(a) factors . Coffee trees require specific climatic conditions to produce an optimum crop. Hence, the Prices re principal(prenominal)ed in high throughout 2011where the average composite price was around $210.2.4) Porters fin Forces Analysis of the Retail Coffee and Snacks Industry terror of New Entrants quiet at that place is a moderate threat of new entrants into the manufacture as the barriers to opening argon not high enough to discourage new competitors to enter the market. (Appendix 2 shows Barriers to innovation Checklist). The efforts saturation is clean high with a monopoliseric contestation structure. For new entrants, the sign investment is not significant as they can lease stores, equipment etc. at a moderate level of investment. At a local anestheticized level, dwarfish coffee shops can compete with the likes of Starbucks and Dunkin Brands because there ar no duty period costs for the consumers. plain thought its a combative industry, the hap of new entrants t o be successful in the industry is moderate. besides this comparatively abstemious debut into the market is usually countered by large officer makes identities like Starbucks who leave achieved economies of scale by baseering cost, improved might with a huge market disruptake in. There is a pretty high barrier for the new entrants as they protestentiate themselves from Starbucks product quality, its original real estate locations, and its store ecosystem experience. The incumbent firms like Starbucks accommodate a bombastic scale and scope, yielding them a learning deviate advantage and favorable access to raw material with the comparisonship they kind with their suppliers. The expected retaliation from well-established companies for brand equity, resources, prime real estate locations and price rivalry be moderately high, which creates a moderate barrier to entry.Threat of Substitutes High There atomic number 18 m whatsoever reasonable substitute beverages t o coffee, which atomic number 18 mainly tea, fruit juices, water, sodas, energy drinks etc. Bars and Pubs with non/ alcoholic beverages could also substitute for the social experience of Starbucks Consumers could also make their own home produced coffee with household aid coffee makers at a fraction of the cost for buying from support coffee retailers like Starbucks. There are no switching costs for the consumers for switching to substitutes, which makes the threat high. But its important to note that industry headers like Starbucks are currently trying to counter this threat by cheat oning coffee makers, bounteousness coffee packs in grocery stores but this threat still puts push their the margins.Bargaining spring of Buyers Moderate to Low wedge There are many polar vendees in this industry and no single buyer can demand price concession. It offers vertically differentiated products with a respective(a) consumer base, which make relatively unhopeful volume purchases, which erodes the buyers causality. Even though there are no switching costs with high availability of substitute products, industry leaders like Starbucks prices its product immingle in relation to rivals stores with prevailing market price elasticity and competitive premium determine. Consumers have a moderate sensitivity in premium coffee retailing as theypay a premium for high quality products but are watchful of excessive premium in relation product quality.Bargaining Power of Suppliers Low to Moderate Pressure The main inputs into the value concatenation of Starbucks is coffee garrets and premium Arabica coffee grown in select regions which are standard inputs, which makes the cost of switching among substitute suppliers, moderately low. Strategic Analysis Of Starbucks Corporation Certified coffee under(a) its coffee and farmer equity (C.A.F.E) program, which gives its suppliers a fair confederation status, which yields them some moderately, low power.7 The suppliers i n the industry also pose a low threat of competing against Starbucks by forward vertical integration, which subverts their power.Intensity of competitive Rivalry High to Moderate The industry has a monopolistic competition, with Starbucks having the largest markets share and its closest competitors also having a significant market share, creating significant squash on Starbucks. Consumers do have any cost of switching to early(a) competitors, which crates high intensity in rivalry. But its important to note that Starbucks allege some competitive advantage as it differentiates its products with premium products and services, which cause a moderate level of intensity in competition. The industry is mature and development rate has been moderately low which cause the intensity of competition among the companies to be moderately high due to all of them seeking to increase market shaper from established firms like Starbucks. This industry does not have over capacity currently and al l these factors contribute to the intensity among rivals to be moderately high.Looking at the Porters five forces analysis, we can get an aggregate industry analysis that the strength of forces and the profitability in the retail coffee and snacks industry are Moderatehttp// Cost structure4.1 IntroductionCoffee prices fluctuate heavily from year to year. However, coffee prices do not fluctuate pro rata in each defend of the marketing chain. Consumer prices for example fluctuate little than prices of green coffee on the world market. The degree of fluctuation depends powerfully on the way prices are determined. When farmers know in which period of the output and marketing chain their prices are the most resistant to pressure by buyers and plowers, they can select the most profitable position to increase their market power. division both takes a encounter at how prices are beguiled and by which factors they are influenced. In section three a closer look is taken at the derangement in receipts from coffee exports, caused by fluctuations in prices. This is followed in section four by an exposition some the influence of international trade good agreements on world coffee prices. In this section a short history is presented of the International Coffee Agreements (ICAs). Section five describes how the margin on coffee is distributed over each stage in the marketing chain. The final section of this chapter presents some conclusions about the pricing in the world coffee market.4.2 Influences on coffee pricesWhen looking at the price pattern of coffee, one notices that prices are not stable. Price instability occurs in the long draw and quarter, but also short term prices may change. This section takes a closer look at how coffee prices are determined. Determination of prices depends in the first place on the type of prices. World coffee prices are largely set on the futures and fo rward coffee markets. The quantity traded on these markets is much larger than actual trade in coffee. Prices are determined on the world market by manner of speculation and arbitrage. Since coffee prices are influenced by speculation, pricing depends strongly on expectations about future supply and demand. Local coffee prices may differ between several coffee producing countries. According to De Rijk (1980), prices paid to Indonesian exporters at a given world price depend on the quality of the coffee and regularity and reliability of the quality. Other influences on local prices, according to De Rijk, consist of costs, taxes, information on prices and reliability of contracts. For some decades now the coffee market is showing a structural overproduction. This overproduction is one of the causes of the watery position of coffee farmers. Figure 3.3 shows that exporting countries possess large line of productss. These stocks are mostly set up in abundant years and are used in years of general shortage. Shortages in the supply of coffee are often caused by crop failures through natural incidents.The price of coffee is thus susceptible to frost and drought, which are two of the confidential information factors in natural causes. Stocks can be kept by local farmers but more often these stocks are kept by large trading companies, which act as arbitrageurs. Trading companies buy at low prices when supply is abundant and they control it in stock till prices rise. This provides some extra gains to trading companies, besides the normal margins on trading. Local farmers often do not have the financial resources and terminal capacity to keep these stocks themselves. Therefore, they have to sell their coffee to exporters at harvest time against low prices. Farmers could have earned higher prices if they had kept their coffee in stock till the market improved. World prices, farmer prices and consumer prices are correlated with each different. Because stocks appear a t different stages in the marketing chain, these prices do not fluctuate proportionally. This is shown in figure 4.1. in the main these price shocks are taken by exporters stocks. As has been mentioned before, exporters often possess more financial resources for storage than local farmers. Also consumer prices fluctuate less than world coffee prices. This is explained by the price setting behaviour of coffee roasters. When world prices go down, consumer prices decrease only fractionally. In case of increasing world prices, consumer prices increase to a larger extent than in case of a price decrease. at any rate correlation between prices at different stages of the marketing chain, different types of coffee are also related in pricing. Vogelvang, in his 1992 study, tested some hypotheses concerning the long-run descents between spot prices of the four main types of coffee. Because coffee types are related to each other, some specific factors concerning the coffee market forget be relevant here. These factors are the rate of substitution of coffee types, changes in total world supply or demand, and the existence of an International Coffee Agreement. Besides these specific factors, factors that influence all prices, such as world inflation, interest rates and expectations about economic variables, explain relatedness in prices. Vogelvang computes the following(a) long run equilibrium equationspcm = 0.91 + puapom = 11.39 + puaprob = -21.47 + puawhere prices are measured in US cents per pound. In these equations cm applies to Colombian Milds, om to Other Milds, rob to Robusta and ua to vernacular Arabicas (Brazilian). The equations show that prices of Colombian Milds, Other Milds and Robusta are linearly related to price behaviour of Brazilian coffee. In his study, Vogelvang concludes that all the coffee prices move together in the long run. Absolute prices therefore deviate with a current constant. The equations imply that in the long run Colombian and Oth er Milds are priced 0.91 cents respectively 11.39 cents per pound higher as Brazilian coffee. The Robusta price of one pound of Robusta is 21.47 cents lower in the long run than the price of Brazilian. Hypotheses concerning a relationship between Robustas and Other Milds are not statistically rejected, but results from this study can not prove a strong relation between low quality coffee like Robusta and high quality coffee like Other Milds.4.3 Instability in export feeIt has been mentioned previously that the proportion of indigenous products in total exports of developing countries is high. Prices of primary products fluctuate rather strong. Therefore, these fluctuations may have a large allude on export earnings, imports, investment, employment and government expenditures. Instabilities like these may disrupt the economy of these countries (MacBean & Nguyen, 1987, p.88 Sdersten, 1980, p.249-255). Price instability and earnings fluctuations are interrelated. Yet, they do not f luctuate proportionally. This depends on the values of the price elasticity of demand, the income elasticity of demand and the price elasticity of supply. The price elasticity of demand measures responsiveness of coffee demand to prices. So, it represents the ratio of percentage change in thequantity demanded to percentage change in price. Similarly, the ratio of percentage change in the quantity supplied to percentage change in price is called the price elasticity of supply. The income elasticity shows how responsive quantity demanded is to a change in income gauge price elasticity of demand is (-1). Some coffee farmers decide to increase their production. This implies that world coffee supply increases. In a competitive market, coffee prices will decrease and therefore, demand for coffee will increase. Besides the fact that farmers will receive less payment for each bag of coffee, demand and total quantity exported increases.Therefore, the fall in prices has been exactly offset b y higher sales, and the farmers income will remain unchanged. This conclusion only applies to the world coffee market in its entirety. The outcome may be all different for individual countries and individual farmers. Mostly one or a some farmers are responsible for an increase in supply. These farmers must be able to produce at low costs, since prices will drop below the initial level. Other coffee farmers may also face a lower price per unit. Therefore some marginal farmers may go out of production, causing prices to return to the long term level. Remaining farmers, who did not change production, have to sell the same output against lower short term prices. Because of this, their total returns will be lower and with the same level of costs, their lettuce will decrease temporarily. The effects of shifts in supply would be larger if there were economies of scale in coffee production. With economies of scale farmers are aroused to increase their production, in attempt to reduce thei r average costs. So, farmers who increase their production earn higher get at the expense of farmers with a stiff level of production. However, increases in scale are not possible unlimitedly. Mostly this is restricted by the scarcity of fertile land.Price elasticity of demandIn general, price elasticities of demand are low when the product has a low income elasticity, has little or no substitutes and forms a small part of the consumers budget. The average price elasticity of demand in industrialized countries with respect to retail prices is, according to estimates by the UN Food and Agriculture composition (FAO), about (-0.34). This implies that a 1% price increase (decrease) is accompanied by a decrease (increase) in consumption by 0.34%. Estimates with respect toimport prices amount to (-0.2). Other studies have indicated an elasticity of between (-0.2) and (-0.3) in high income countries and of between (-0.4) and (-0.5) in lower income countries (EIU, 1995, p.17).http//www.g Forces that impact competition (Porter Model)3.1 challenger within the Coffee Shop Industry20,000 stores with yearbook revenue of $11 billionHighly concentrated at top and fragmented at bottom Starbucks 75% of sales Major companies Starbucks, reindeer Coffee, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, Diedrich (Gloria Jeans), Peets Coffee Competitors can also be found in other industries (convenience stores, gas stations, mobile service, fast food restaurants, gourmet food shops, donut shops, filter / forcefulness coffee machines for home use) e.g. Dunkin Donuts and McDonalds Competition through special offers (new tastes), outstanding service/ environment (internet, music, comfortable seating areas, short waiting queues), loyalty programs (bonus cards ensuring frequency of visits) and for premium locations (retail centers, university campuses, etc.) terminal Competition within the Coffee Shop Industry pie-eyed competition within the industry for new customers, premium locations, etc. but overall the industry is saturated, settled and stable which allows around all of the competitors to yield actually good margins (40 to 60 percent)43.2 Substitute ProductsCompetition with other drinks that are not the main focus of by coffee shops Soda, Juice, Water, Beer, Sports DrinksCompetition with other products, people are spending their money on Ice Cream, Cigarettes, SweetsConsumers have limited discretionary budget to spend on consumer goods, such as cigarettes, beer and also coffee coffee shops are therefore fighting for a fraction of this budgetConclusion Substitutes in the Coffee IndustryVery b power of substitute products as oddly young people might prefer other products, such as beer, cigarettes or soda3.3 Barriers to EntryRather low entry barriers easy to open a single small caf Rent a place, remodel, rear the equipment, get license a s needed5 However there are high entry barriers for the enduringness level or big league/chain players High up-front investment needed to grow significantly (distribution system shops, equipment, premium locations marketing creation of brand awareness & brand recognition, customer retentivity) Strong brand recognition of major players, especially Starbucks Partnerships with large, international companies also serve as potential entry barrier for new competitors Starbucks with Pepsi/ Jim Beam/ drieds Grand Ice Cream/ Barnes & Noble or caribou Coffee with Apple6 (See Exhibit 2). Economies of scale (purchase advantages centralized HR and Marketing) realized by big players, especially Starbucks cost disadvantage for new entrantsConclusion Barriers to Entry in the Coffee IndustrySmall barriers to entry for small regional gyves / cafs, but their expansion is relatively slow due to the increasing speed of the expansion of the major players High barriers to entry into the industry fo r big players due to high industry concentration on top, huge brand recognition of major brands and high up-front investments are needed3.4 Power of Suppliers inconstant Raw Material Costs7Particular dependence on supply of higher-priced Arabic beans (premium coffee) as imported mostly from developing countries, price varies along with the frugal and political situation of the export country Dairy products, whose retail prices parti-color a lot, used for specialty drinks Coffee Shop Chains have contracts securing price stabilityFor most coffee-exporting countries (over 60 ) that is their only source of cash8 Higher world market demand and higher prices for differentiated (Gourmet and specialty coffees) and sustainable coffee (organic, fair trade, eco-friendly or shade grown) than for coffee commodity Farmers not agile enough or dont have the means to switch production Companies are helpingcommunities to make the change (train them, purchase at fair trade prices9 and provide techn ical assistance)10Conclusion Power of Suppliers in the Coffee IndustryVery limited power of suppliers as they depend on producers help and sell a commodity.3.5 Power of CustomersHigh dependency of coffee shop chains on frequency of customer purchases Most customers appreciate the nice asynchronous transfer mode in the coffee shops Preferences of customers are very likely to switch as they might get bored with / tired of the same flavor (relatively low brand loyalty) Shopping behavior is very likely to be influenced by budget constraints, weather conditions or health concerns in the general in the public eye(predicate) Interested in continuous product innovation or seasonal worker specialties Essential for success word of mouth and frequency of purchases11Conclusion Power of Customers in the Coffee IndustryVery b power of customers as coffee shops depend on word of mouth and customer retention Furthermore a customers opinion, preferences and shopping habits can be influenced eas ily which creates a big threat for the companies.http// anatomical structure2.1 IntroductionMarkets are characterised by the interaction of buyers and sellers. Generally, economic literature distinguishes two ways of interpreting the market design. These interpretations concern the concrete and nonfigurative concept of markets. The first deals with tangible markets. The latter concerns interaction of supply and demand, without the need of nowadays supplying the products or having them in the market place. Section two of this chapter presents four main types of market structures. The type of market structure largely determines the relationship between buyers and sellers. Therefore, it also influences pricing of the product and thedistribution of income between economic agents throughout the production and marketing chain. Section three deals with the reasons why markets might diverge from a situation of perfect competition. This situation of imperfect competition is caused by the presence of barriers to entry. This section presents six sources causing these barriers as mentioned by Michael Porter (1980). Finally, section four draws some conclusions.2.2 Types of market structureIn the introduction of this chapter it was mentioned that the market concept has two different interpretations. Next, this study operates the abstract concept of markets, when dealing with market structures. Economic literature distinguishes four main types of markets. These markets are divided into perfectly competitive markets, monopoly markets, oligopolistic markets and markets with monopolistic competition. Each stage in the production and marketing chain considered in next chapters, may be characterised by a different type of market. Before examining the coffee market, this section will deal briefly with each type of market. sinless competitionWhen economists talk about a competitive market, they mean a market with the following four characteristics First, the market consists of many small buyers and sellers, where no individual buyer or seller is large enough to influence the market price of their product. Second, the product is standardised, which implies that it is a homogeneous product. Third, there are no entry and exit barriers. Fourth, there is complete and perfect knowledge about technology and market prices (Martin, 1993, p.15). In competitive markets suppliers can sell their products only with short term economic profits. In the long run this situation cannot persist. When suppliers earn profits, i.e. their price exceeds their average costs, new suppliers enter the byplay and established suppliers increase their output in the long run.MonopolyOn the other hand there are markets which are dominated by one supplier. This market structure is called a monopoly. Two things distinguish a monopolyfrom a competitive market. First, there is only one single supplier that supplies the market. Secondly, entry by other potential suppliers is blockaded. The first characteristic ensures that the monopolist faces no actual competition. Because of this, the monopolist may choose to supply at any point on the market demand curve. To earn the largest possible profit, the monopolist will choose the output that makes his marginal costs equal to his marginal revenue. His output decision will determine the price of the product, which makes him a price setter. The second characteristic implies that the monopolist faces no potential competition. To restrict other suppliers from entering the market there have to be some barriers to entry (Martin, 1993, p.23-24). These barriers are discussed in more detail in the next section.OligopolyIn a competitive market, each supplier is so small that it cannot affect the price. When the supplier raises its price above equilibrium price, he will loose his sales to other suppliers or new entry is provoked. At the other extreme, the monop olist has no rivals to worry about. The monopolist can raise his price without provoking new entry. Between these two extreme cases there is another(prenominal) type of market. Martin (1993, p.110) characterises this type of market by the presence of a a few(prenominal) large suppliers which dominate the industry. These suppliers recognise their mutual interdependence and therefore cannot act as a monopolist. This third type of market is called an oligopolistic market. So, under oligopoly there is intense rivalry. Yet, barriers to entry are present which allow for long term profit (Maddala & Miller, 1989, p.375).Monopolistic competitionAn essential characteristic of this fourth type of market is product differentiation. Maddala & Miller characterise this market by a large number of suppliers, each of which has a little market power because it offers a differentiated product. Yet all the suppliers are in competition because their products are close substitutes. So, there are no barr iers to entry under monopolistic competition and, hence, there are no economic profits in the long run (Maddala & Miller, 1989, p.375).Differences in market structure lead to differences in marketpower. Therefore, within the framework of this study, it is important to picture these differences in market structure among subsequent stages. In chapter five it is shown that these differences can be very large for some of the stages in the production and marketing chain of coffee.http//

Compare and Contrast the Characters of the Loman Brothers

The audience be first introduced to the Loman fellows as they are staying at their parents plaza in Brooklyn. The brothers are woken by their father, and begin an incredibly deep intercourse concerning their lives. This conversation reveals a divide about drone and Happy and their expectation on life. Firstly, an immediate contrast is made in how the pair comprehend women. Happy has an incredibly degrading attitude, in which he thinks that he is entitle to any women that he wants, despite cosmos aware that they are tenanted to executives at his work.Not only this, he claims that he doesnt want the girl, and, still, I take it. Firstly, the fact that he cannot address the woman by her name, and preferably it shows how little he thinks of women and how they are made to feel by being given the false hope of being wanted by this womanizing character. pommel and Happy remember when they were newborn, and Happy refers to his first time as a pig. This accentuates how little resp ect he has for women, and how he judges them on merely their looks.Biff, on the other hand, seems to feel differently to Happy, ignoring his derogatory comments and admitting, Id like to find a girl steady, somebody with amount. He clearly used to put on the same tendencies with women, as he taught Happy everything he knows about women. However, Biff has clearly matured and bad out of his phase of seeking women as if it was a sport, as his brother still does. A similarity betwixt Biff and Happy are that they are both concerned for their fathers recent behaviour, and dissertate things that they have both noticed about him.Happy tells Biff that he is acquiring nervous about im. Despite having their differences with their father, they both care a lot for him and can immediately notice when he begins to act differently. Biff is alike clearly concerned about his mother and how she is coping. When Willy is talking to himself, he is (growing angry) and asks rhetorically Doesnt he kn ow Mom can hear that? This portrays how Biff seeks to protect his mother.On the other hand, it seems that Happy seems to care more about his fathers opinions hence Biff, as he tells Biff that I wish youd have a talk with him. He does not like the conflict between his brother and his father, and perhaps believes that this conflict is what is making him act strangely. Biff on the other hand, sees his how his father is behaving as selfish and erroneous. He is still frustrated with the conversation between him and his father, concerning Biffs future plans (or pretermit of them).During Willys mobile concurrency, Biff and Willy are seen in their youth. Here, it is shown that Happy is ofttimes over shadowed by his older brother Biff and do by by his parents. As a result of growing up in Biffs shadow, Happy is always striving for Willys attention, but has never really got it. This is shown when the young Happy is repeatedly tells his father, Im losing weight, you notice, Pop? Willy br ushes Happy off here, and this hint of secernment may be why Happy feels that he should aim to be in a job like his fathers to impress him, whereas Biff does not.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Prioritizing Projects at Dd Williamson

Introduction Case compend D. D. Williamson created a discover of 78 drifts which needed to be prioritized, organized, and selected. The company occasion a four step method to rate to separately one picture 1) Establish criteria for prioritizing visits. 2) Weigh separately criterion. 3) Refine the keep down of projects. 4) Rate for each(prenominal) one project on each criterion and total ratings. To give team up up members control over the be of projects, each member was asked to write common chord different criteria on three Post-it Notes. These Post-it Notes were divided into similar item groups and each group was named.This process established the cardinal criteria for selection. The criteria were utilise to determine how swell up each project would equal into the strategy of the company (Kloppenborg, 2009, p. 35). To weigh each criteria group, the team members assigned each group a defecate. More important groups were given a score of 10, less important groups a score of 6 to 9, the least(prenominal) important groups a score of 5 or less. Criteria that were scored at 6 or higher were used to assess each project and criteria of 5 or lower berth were reserved for progress ranking later in the process.Criteria argon charge in order to aid place the projects in order of importance as they are adjust with the goals of the company (Kloppenborg, 2009, p. 36). After the criteria were established and weighted, the list of projects was refined. Projects that were listed out as undivided projects but were really one project happening concurrently in different locations were discovered and the list was changed to reflect this, reducing the number of projects on the list.There were also projects added to the list that had not been formally identified as projects earlier. The criteria helped to determine which projects could initially be considered projects and which projects could be removed from the list. The projects on the list were reviewe d to discover which were considered most important and rank the rest. The projects considered most important were now placed on the cover of the importance list, and the rest went through the advance process to be ranked in order from most to least important.The projects were than rated according to the criteria that had been established earlier. Each project was rated to see how well it flout into each individual criterion, one at a time. All team members participated in the tally, and agreement needed to be reached on how to score each project before scores were recorded. If project scoring required a lengthy decision, that was set aside for a different time so that team members could get through this process fairly quickly (Kloppenborg, 2009, p. 36-37). This broad(a) process was recorded into a spreadsheet.How the projects were ranked, how each project was scored on each criterion and the calculation of the weighted scores were all recorded on the spreadsheet. The team had p rioritized 62 projects total throughout this process. Since the projects had already been ranked in order of importance, it would be easy for the team to hold a proximo meeting to assign resources and timelines to the projects at the top of the list (Kloppenborg, 2009. P. 44-45). The prioritization of the projects was a precise important assess for D. D. Williamsons global operating team to complete.Although the task seems time consuming, it volition save the team time in the unyielding run because projects are rated in importance long before they are scheduled to begin. The weighting process allowed the team to discover where each project would fit into the SWOT analysis, and how each project would further the strategic objectives or otherwise benefit the company. The company uses a database to identify their strength projects. The database is used to keep track of daily work and project work. This tracking helps to shine up things that need to be improved during daily proce sses.The very large list of 62 potential projects gives the company a wide range of choices in selecting which projects to complete. This helps to ensure that the most important issues that need to be worked on will be addressed in the timeliest fashion (Kloppenborg, 2009, p. 32-33). D. D. Williamson chooses to use a scoring model in project selection. This seems to be the most efficient stylus for the company to prioritize and select projects. Major problems arising with this process would be the potential for lengthy discussions revolving around project selection and prioritization.The rating process helps to spurn much of the discussion, but there may be some sticking points where redundant criteria will have to be used to decide on issues. Recommended Actions In addition to the continuing use of the database and prioritization and selection process, it is recommended that D. D. Williamson use the lower weighted criteria to help make decisions when a stalemate has been reach ed when discussing potential projects. The additional criteria can help team members to quickly address concerns about potential projects.If the potential projects are ranked well in the highly weighted criteria, the lower weighted criteria can be used to further evolve down the project and determine if it is a good fit. The last good word is creating compulsory criteria. In addition to moving the most highly scored projects to the top of the list, needed criteria can ensure that necessary projects are not overlooked. These mandatory criteria can include issues like government regulation, safety issues, and security issues (Kloppenborg, 2009, p. 36). The mandatory criteria will fast-track projects that must be completed.Conclusion D. D. Williamson has a spacious project selection process in place. While many other companies use personal preference or whims to make project decisions, D. D. Williamson carefully considers which projects fit best into the companys strategies and wh ich will best help further the interests of the company. With a few minor additions to the process, D. D. Williamson can continue to make great project selections and maintain a competitive advantage in their market. References Kloppenborg, T. J. (2009). coeval project management (pp. 27-45). Mason South- Western Cengage Learning.

Organic vs. industrial food Essay

extreme pabulums, although stereotypic onlyy k forthwithn for having a bland savoring or having no attempt have been shown to improve angiotensin-converting enzymes quality of life be fall nearly(prenominal) wellness risk such as genus Cancer or heart disease. If you havent authorizedized it, radical fruits and vegetables taste better, and the flavor is crispier. The health consequences of genetically modified victuals, when examined closely, will convince you to multifariousness your alimentation habits. The ledge life of food depends on four master(prenominal) factors formulation, wreaking, packaging and storage. Change any genius of these conditions and you crumb change the shelf life for better or worse.Shelf life has many attri just nowes bacterial control, color stability, yeast and mold inhibition, flavor stability, textural stability and aroma stability. The sort of shelf-life problems hatful be wide, as well, including oxidative browning, oxidation of fl avor compounds, or liquescence. To increase the shelf life of more unstable foods, such as low-sugar jam, low-salt condiments, low-oil salad dressings, disposed(p) fresh produce and deli m fertilises, food companies may sign steps to reduce bacterial load from ingredients before they process the nett food.To grow, thrive and survive, microbes need a friendly environment this usually acknowledges moisture. get down moisture creates a hostile environment for bacteria by decreasing the available medium for them to grow in. There atomic number 18 a twist of new ingredients to help regulate water activity in foods with a reduced fat phase. Generally, the water activity of a minimally bear upon food needs to be about 0. 07 or lower, water has an a W rating of 1. 00, and close to products preserved with sugar, measure about 0. 07, with the purpose slight water bound so that bacteria ar under osmotic pressure too great to survive(Katz, February 4, 2006). Whe neer you buy food, y ou have decision to hold back Healthy or cheap, extreme or industrial. If constitutive(a) food was non so expensive, that decision would be easy, everybody would buy organic food, for a fitter body. Unfortunately non everybody can afford it, making it olfaction alike sinewy food is becoming a luxury good. In the mass to produce more and more food for the people on this planet, chemicals came into play. Farmers incur by trying to get by the grittyest percentage of their crop and thitherfore often measures use pesticides, gen-manipulated corn, chemicals etc.The farmers investment in pesticides, hormones, and chemicals tends to pays off, earning more, their fruits quality better and costumers are happy with huge pest fee fruits and vegetables. When a farmer says no to chemicals, he runs the risk of losing a harvest because of pests. The moreover way to compensate the cost is a higher price for organic food. You cant ask everybody to pay higher prices, and a attracter of people would starve to death without the use of chemicals which protect harvests against pests.Every clip you eat something, you consume pesticides, these substances are added in order to produce and sell more efficient. Fortunately there are strict rules for the use of chemicals. thoroughgoing foods are produced following practices described in the USDA National radical Program (NOP), a marketing program with a certification process throughout the production and manufacturing chain. The NOP describes the practices that are required for labeling a product organic, just it does not address nutritional benefits or food safety secretes. change surface when you buy organic food, you are consuming these substances, but the bar is put up at a different height and you are consuming less harmful substances that could be particularly hazards for high-risk groups such as with child(predicate) women, infants, young children and farm worker households. Since organic food is not prepare d using chemical fertilizers and pesticides, it does not contain any traces of these strong chemicals and major power not affect the human body. People strongly believe that organic food tastes better than non-organic food.The prominent reason for this belief is that it is produced using organic means of production. Further organic food is often sold topically resulting in availability of fresh produce in the market. So how great(p) is industrial food? Lets take a look there are maximum residue limits on all pesticides and chemicals. The subdivision of health determines how much of each substance is ok. feeding organic food lowers the risk of getting hit by a similar scenario, but its not a degree Celsius% guarantee (Are Organic Foods stop for You. 2010).However, getting seriously sick from cheap food is not that high of a risk as long as you read food labels you can eat cheap and healthy at the same time? If you are ingest organic food only, you are still eating unhealthy fo ods. Almost everyone is aware that foods great(p) according to organic principles are free from over exposure to harmful pesticides, but that is only one small aspect. A larger part of organic agriculture is the health of the soil and the ecosystem in which crops are raised. Organic farmers know that healthy, live soils importantly benefit crops.Synthetic chemicals such as herbicides, pesticides, and/or fast playing inorganic fertilizers applied to or around crops interrupt or exterminate the micro biotic activity in the soil. Organic realm reduces groundwater pollutants, decreases pesticides that can end up in your drinking glass in some cities, pesticides in tap water have been measured at grave levels. The Farmers Market is a growers market, meaning everything in the market is homegrown, but Richard Bowie, an experienced organic grower is not convinced that all the food being sold is homegrown.The markets slogan 100% Homegrown makes us different is employ as a gimmick, ver balize Bowie (Shreve, October 3, 2011). Vendors have been seen carrying produce and selling it to other vendors at the market legal transfer the term organically grown in to question and without certification, and but by law they cannot say they are a certified organically grown vendor. Most vendors cannot afford the certification process and want consumers to look departed the term organic there for focus on the soil utilise or nutrients used.Almost everyone is aware that foods grown according to organic principles are free from over exposure to harmful pesticides, but that is only one small aspect. A larger part of organic agriculture is the health of the soil and the ecosystem in which crops are raised. Organic farmers know that healthy, live soils importantly benefit crops. Synthetic chemicals such as herbicides, pesticides, and/or fast playacting inorganic fertilizers applied to or around crops interrupt or unload the micro biotic activity in the soil.Organic farming reduc es groundwater pollutants, decreases pesticides that can end up in your drinking glass in some cities, pesticides in tap water have been measured at severe levels. We should choose farming methods that truly address our real concerns safety and sustainability, not simply methods that satisfy an arbitrary marketing label. To whatever extent these practices include methods that are permitted under organic rules. But theres never a case when a safe, more efficient, and sustainable modern applied science that feeds more people worldwide should be disallowed for no logical reason.Eating organic alone doesnt guarantee 100 percent healthy . The truth is that most Americans eat so badly that we get most of our calories from soft drinks, more than we do from vegetables the top food group by caloric intake is sweets and one-third of nations adults are now obese. Its not unimportant, but its not the primary issue in the way Americans eat. To eat well, says means avoiding edible food-like sub stances and sticking to real ingredients, increasingly from the install kingdom.Theres plenty of evidence that twain a persons health as well as the environments will improve with a simple prison-breaking in eating habits away from animal products and highly processed foods to plant products and what might be called real food. From these changes, Americans would reduce the amount of land, water and chemicals used to produce the food we eat, as well as the incidence of life style diseases linked to unhealthy diets and greenhouse gases from industrial meat production.And the food would not necessarily have to be organic, all it takes is paying attention to what you eat and read your labels more closely. Participation on our part to be more aware of what we buy and to raise our voices, if need be. We can let our opinions be known even in the simplest ways. A good example is when we shop, if there is no substitute for the product we need, let the store owners know, they will for s ure change their products. Organic food is better as it uses natural farming techniques. It is similar to preferring natural remedies when suffering from a disease as compared to eating chemical antibiotics.So, the question of organic foods vs non organic foods which is better, is clearly answered. Organic food surpasses the conventionally produced foods.References Katz, F. (Febuary 4, 2006). Formulating for increased shelf life. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http//www. foodprocessing. com/articles/2006/039. html Are Organic Foods develop For You?. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http//preventdisease. com/home/tips61. shtml Shreve, S. (October 3, 2011). Does organically grown produce really matter?. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from.