Tuesday, April 30, 2019
The Society effects of Drugs in the community of Milwaukee - Essay Example2). This report overly plant that heroin and other opiates have come into play which means that the population of abusers has reassignd. Now Caucasian males and females from small towns and suburban areas come into Milwaukee to purchase these higher scale drugs. Unfortunately, the mean age of the abusers has overly change adolescents are now experimenting with these stronger drugs.This report suggests that most of the activity is through Hispanic gangs with Asian and African American drug dealers as secondary problems. The Hispanic and African American gangs create problems for residents in the local neighborhoods as they spend time recruiting from those neighborhoods as they distribute their drugs. The drug dealing is much brought into the neighborhood by gangs and distributed. The dealers often come from Chicago and other nearby cities. As an example, a drug bust just found 19 people who were distribut ing drugs within the city limits. These dealers had a distribution going that came out of Chicago and distributed in Milwaukee each week (Halter, 2008, par. 5). This problem is difficult because many of the street gangs operate in a genuinely sophisticated way. As an example, the National Drug Intelligence Center reports that the Hispanic gangs are very sanitary organized, they have a hierarchical structure and they have established manifestos (Drug Trafficking Organizations). This enables them to distribute drugs faster. They are also using prepaid cellular phones and social networking sites like MySpace to connect with buyers and each other.There are also turf wars from gang problems. Law enforcement predicts that there will be an increase in heroine abuse among childlike offenders by prescription opiate users because it is cheaper and easier to access. (p. 18). The residents in this area are suffering and have been told by the police to victuals their doors locked and
Monday, April 29, 2019
merchandising Systems and Structures, Tesco in the United Kingdom - Assignment ExampleThe first store by the name of TESCO exposed up in the year 1929 in the north part of London (Tesco PLC- About Us 2010).Tesco has spread out its number of stores widely around the region of UK as well as around the world. They offer retail services according to the need of the nodes. The main aim of the grocery retail store is to serve the customer. It is important for any retail store to make sure that their customers are satisfied with them. For the retail stores to be successful, it is necessary that customers make repeat visits to the store, in this case, the grocery retail store Tesco (Tesco PLC- About Us 2010). management on customer satisfaction may allow the grocery retail store to become highly cost-effective as they then would be able to attain a large customer base. The instruction of the retail stores should be highly revolving around the issue of customer satisfaction by meeting the demands of the customers (Reichheld 1996). Tesco in the UK alone has around more than 2200 stores. The product range of Tesco includes the groceries, general merchandise, electrical goods, the aspects of banking and insurance services and others of much(prenominal) types (Tesco PLC- About Us 2010).The type of customer that is going to be examined in this specific case is the unwavering customers of Tesco. Customer loyalty can be a very important and strategic factor of allowing the fundamental law to become highly successful in the competitive market. Tesco has demonstrated in many areas that they work on developing loyal customers for their grocery retail store. Some of their schemes have been discussed ahead.Tesco has worked on making their outlets a one-stop shop place for their customers. Now by just visiting Tesco, all the needs of the customers may be execute and this way more customers may be interested in visiting Tesco for their groceries and other needs universe fulf illed accordingly.
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Psychopharmacology, drugs and addiction- diacetylmorphine - Essay ExampleIt is used both as a pain killer as well as a recreational drug. several(prenominal) of its popular street names are junk, dope Jenny, cook, diesel, smack, gear, dragon, hammer and ice-cubes.Heroin is a whitish brown powder or sometimes a sticky black substance called black tar heroin. It is usually injected, sniffed, snorted or smoked. An intravenous injection takes a very short time of 5 to 7 seconds for the drug to enter a persons brain. It immediately metabolizes and gives the person a flush of euphory (light headedness). The other methods take a longer time.Just like all other opiates, Heroin overly is capable of creating high tolerance thresholds in the body. The great risk of heroin addiction is that the user fundament build a tolerance of the drug 3 to 4 times more than the lethal doctor of a normal person. These high thresholds make heroin detoxification all the more painful and difficult for the heroin addict.Heroin withdrawal is not only painful but also frightening. The withdrawal phase lasts anywhere between 48 to 72 hours since the last dose of heroin intake. The withdrawal symptoms include dilated pupils, Muscle cramps, illness and vomiting, periodic chills, panic spells, goose bumps, diarrhea, malaise, fever and profuse sweating..Addicts who have undergone these withdrawal symptoms describe their experience by saying it was the worse case of the flu they had ever had. An addict has alternate wakeful and drowsy spells with overcast mental functioning. An o.d. may sometimes lead to death and using the needle used by an infected person could result in HIV/AIDS or Hepatitis. Death could also be the end result if the addict has a high tolerance of heroin withdrawal. Some addicts complain of a stressful condition called itchy blood which results in compulsive scratching causing bruises on the body.An overdose of heroin is usually counter acted
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Sports tourism - Essay voiceAs a result, this exist takes on a perceptual role that entails catering to pivotal limit of accommodation and often the key motive for traveling to a given tourist destination.My target foodstuff is assimilators looking for a summer or winter holiday and vacation that fulfills their dissipated needs extensively. sport at the edges of beaches should bring about an educational and incidental experience for higher learning students from across the globe. A beach known for health-promoting properties in terms of sand and air quality should catch the attention of sports fans who are especially conscious of their health. In addition, a reasonably distant location should make for an affordable sporting ground for students. A target market of students should allow me to combine the sporting event with a ensnare of fascinating 12-hour trips into the nearby areas to gain an understanding of its tradition, geography, and history.The sports experience would cost a maximum of $300 per student for one weekend that begins on Thursday evening. Out of this total cost, $105 caters for accommodation at a 3-star hotel close to the beach, sports grounds, and tracks. Local guides would get $45 of this package fee and $75 for sporting equipment and trainers. Students, in association with their guardians and even schools in some cases, should be able to afford this experience for their summer or winter holidays.This sporting experience is not international as the beaches, sports fields, and tracks are local. Guides will be able to manner of walking guests to nearby sites such as ports, towns, and other landmarks. Being close to the beach is advantageous to guests interested in beach and water sports such as swimming and beach volleyball. A local sporting experience removes transport costs from the overall cost and allows students to engage in their favorite sports at a
Friday, April 26, 2019
Business Plan - Essay ExampleOnline lineage development starts with development of an online telephone line place, widely known as website. Several facets are attached with development of a website and depend on the type of website as per requirement. Major contributions are from design and technology perspective keeping in intellect the business target area, e.g. a corporate website can be static in nature with a passkey design aspect, whereas a retail website (portal) has to be dynamic and communicative with consumers, with detailed product information, and purchase and manifold payment pickaxs. FlexiCoolGifts FlexiCoolGifts is a gift store, which requires the dynamic aspect of design to effectively communicate with perspective consumers. The website demand to be an e-commerce website with detailed information about the products offered, and purchase and multiple payment options for best user experience. one time the website is developed, a complete online marketing strat egy and online business revenue model has to be established. Online Marketing Online marketing is the process of marketing and advertisement of a business (brand) and its products and services on the World Wide sack. A simple concept plays the role in the profits marketing scenario Customer Reach anytime, anywhere. Online marketing strategy is a combination of certain factors depending on the business type, model and business objective. It is as well a combination of primary and complementary marketing channel to do work the entire strategy objective oriented and result driven. Complete understanding of online marketing strategies and careful utilization of online marketing tools and channels make online marketing highly effective with minimum cost. FlexiCoolGifts can utilize the following types of online marketing channels for business development. Types of Online Marketing Online marketing is a combination of certain types of marketing and advertisement activities carried out in the Internet environment with an objective of reaching out to the perspective customer, anytime & anywhere. There are various types of online marketing channels such as hunt Engine Marketing (Paid Search Results), Search Engine Optimization (Non-paid Search Results), Social Media Marketing (Marketing and Advertisement through Social Networking Channels and websites), Social Media Optimization (Marketing and advertisement meaning optimization in social media), Display Advertisement (marketing and advertisement through display or banners online), contextual Advertizing (marketing and advertising text messages on other websites), Affiliate Marketing (marketing and advertising on a affiliate website), Directory Submission (Submitting Websites to Online Directories), Webinars (Online Seminars), Online Audio and picture show Marketing (Interactive Marketing and Advertisement), Mobile (Cell Phone) Marketing (SMS, MMS, Audio and Video Clips), E-Mail Marketing (Marketing and Adverti sement through e-mails), Online Chat Support (Online Support Mechanism), Viral Marketing (Audio-Video option to Spread through people), Interactive Advertising (Audio & Video Clips recorded or animated), and blogging. Online Marketing Strategy By careful consideration of market dynamics, customer segmentation, market research results, SWOT of business and queer interchange proposition (USP), a marketing strategy and marketing mix can be devised. FlexiCoolGifts is a unique gift store with a wide range of gift items, music videos etc. for various make are available along with customized
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Super Bowl Commercial 2014 - Essay recitationIn less than ten seconds, each scene tells a story of a thousand words. at that place is no mention of the brand name or image of the Microsoft logo throughout the commercial until the precise end of the commercial.I believe the commercial brings out the personality of Microsoft. Microsoft strives to invent and develop amazing figurer software that caters for not only ordinary people, but people with specific or special needs also. Technology has made life simpler and better. Technology has made peoples dreams a reality and Microsoft is at the forefront of such initiatives.The Super bowl 2014 Apple Inc commercial a competitor of Microsoft known for its IOS operational systems and OS X computer software did not have such a creative wellhead thought through commercial (OGrady, 2014). The Apple Inc commercial concentrated on their product iPhone and not a broader perspective of what they are all about. The Microsoft commercial was far m ore superior in terms of whole step and was able to market Microsoft as a brand that cares and not a brand that wants to sell only. My favorite(a) spot in the Microsoft commercial was a scene showing a small girl spring up and down and screaming from seeing her father probably through Skype. It brings out the aspect of how engine room builds relationships. The Super bowl Microsoft Commercial 2014 was
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Western well-bredization of the French Revolution - Essay ExampleIt essentially detail his life, including capture, slavery, brutality, and eventual literacy. It was created in the United Kingdom. It is useful to historians because it provides a first-hand account of slavery, something that is relatively hard to come by, as so few were literate.The French Revolution was superstar of the most turbulent times in occidental history it involved mass uprisings, huge reversals in power and wealth, and had one of the strangest endings the rise of Napoleon. The development of one of the worlds most famous late emperors is a strange ending to a parliamentary revolution. Some argue that Napoleon largely upheld revolutionary values during his reign and indeed there argon some ways this was true, such as installing a civil code of uprightnesss to replace the whims of rulers, aristocrats and so forth and would eventually be a major influence in many countries around the world. However, th is and alike achievements cannot overshadow the fact that the fundamentals of the revolution were populist, and an emperorship is anything but. If the spirit of the revolution was enshrined in the phrase Libert, galit, Fraternit, then it is straighten out Napoleon did not live up to those standards.As mentioned previously, it is tempting to argue that Napoleon upheld many aspects of the revolution. certainly his reign was nothing like as terrible to the French populace as that of the monarchs that proceeded the revolution the parsimony was largely stabilized, wealth was less concentrated in the hands of the wealthy than previously and so forth. His Civil Code embodied many of the features present in the declaration of the rights of man,1 especially in imagining the rule of law as the prime mechanism of power, replacing the absolute control held by previous monarchs.While these achievements should be
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Spiritual Formation - Essay ExampleSpiritual formation can be separated, therefore, into different definitions according to champions beliefs and experiences.The apparitional liveliness in the biblical sense is one that should affect ones daily life and his relationships not only with immortal but too with his neighbors. The one objective that sums up Jesus teachings while on earth was love. This was further reinforced by his disciples in the writings of the New Testament faith, hope, and love and the greatest of these is love. It is difficult to separate the spiritual life from everyday life. As in our love of God and love of neighbor, the value of our rituals and devotional life is judged by how we behave in our daily life and work (Westerhoff 3).The desire to understand one self and his earth can lead to spiritual formation. There is an intrinsic desire in man to seek God or that higher being that will explain his purpose here on earth. Some persons cast this desire by aspi ring for material things. A successful career, a happy family, good health and financial stability do not necessarily bring inner peace and contentment that comes with spiritual formation or being spiritually tuned with God.Since the early church spiritual formation has taken on new dimensions and emphasis. In the early church there was that special bond with the believers who live in a community and share the experiences and difficulties that came with the establishment of a new way of living. Jesus began a -learn as -they -go method acting with the disciples. He didnt ask much from them only to follow Him. Some were fishermen, one was a revenue collector but their new quest of spiritual formation overshadowed their faults and shortcomings. In His humanness Jesus genuine the fact that they came with their own baggage, backgrounds and personalities. These disciples were not formed instantly. Even when Jesus walked among them they exhibited different emotions and weaknesses. At ti mes they were fearful, angry,
Monday, April 22, 2019
order - Essay ExampleIt is the hope of this author that by analyzing composer/performer as well as the share in question the reader will gain new appreciation work the performer/composer as well as his overall contribution to the field of euphony. Born December 16, 1770 Ludwig van van van van Beethoven came from something of a tuneful family. Beethovens grandfather Lodewijk van Beethoven was a lifetime musician and was yet employed as the court musician in Cologne for a period of time. Likewise Beethovens father, Johan worked as a tenor and frequently gave both violin and adolescence as a centre of substituting his meager income. As a result of this musical family, it was Johan who gave young Ludwig is very prototypal music lessons. Unfortunately, Johan was a difficult task master oftentimes forcing the young Beethoven to practice for hours on end. This was non done due to the feature his father was necessarily cruel but rather due to the fact that Johan Beethoven had seen t he amazing success that Leopold Mozart had with his son Wolfgang. Hoping to exploit his own son as something of a pip-squeak prodigy, Beethoven set out on a series of performances at the tender age of seven. star can argue that one of the most formative experiences that Ludwig van Beethoven had was with regards to his times and studying chthonic the tutelage of Joseph Haydn. While in Bonn, Switzerland, Beethoven met Haydn. One of the most fascinating aspects of Beethovens musical career was that he did not intend initially on focusing all of his efforts on composition. Rather, he set out master musical theory, the performance of several different instruments, and musical counterpoint. Accordingly, the reader tardily see why he was both an accomplished composer as well as a brilliance musician (Melia 294). This background as both a performer and composer doubtless helped Beethoven to commingle with an disposition of what he was ultimately requesting the musicians do with them all of his compositions. As a means of not only instinct the mechanics and theory of the music but also the mechanics playing these instruments, Beethoven was able to integrate on a more personal direct with his symphony orchestra as well as the single musicians who were responsible for relating his concepts and ideas into the mood of the music Once Ludwig began composing and publishing his compositions, Beethoven experienced an astounding level of initial success. This success lasted well up until the year 1809. At this point, Beethoven was suffering from the effects of sense of hearing loss. Due to the fact that a keen sense of hearing was required in order for some(prenominal) composer to incorporate the many different instruments that a Symphony relies upon, his ability to continue to earn money done the composition process was severely reduced (Knapp 291). As with many young prodigies, the latter half of Beethovens life was not nearly as bright or promising as the first h alf. Ultimately, Beethoven became reliant upon the generosity and sponsorship of a range of individuals inwardly various positions of wealth and power within Europe. Although this approach allowed Beethoven to meet his physical needs, the level and extent to which the support be counted upon was highly uncertain. Eventually, Beethoven came to rely on selling the
Summarize the article - Essay Examplegovernment-mandated labels are the cogency star ratings used on household goods and environmental hazard warnings required on pesticides and products with CFCs or cyanogenetic substances (DSouza, 2004). Self-declarations are the claims of manufacturing businesss such as recyclable or biodegradable. These environmental labels affect different types of unfledged consumers and their buying habits. DSouza used a two-dimensional model to present the four types of green consumers namely, the environmentally-green consumers, emerge green consumers, price sensitive green consumers, and conventional consumers (2004). These consumers are differentiated on the basis of their cognitive and non-cognitive perspectives, and the perceived product benefits and risks. They behave differently towards label information. It is necessary therefore for marketers and manufacturers to segregate their target markets and check into the category to which they fall. The type of consumer and their response to the label and ecological attributes of the product have marketing implications which must be considered in the design of the marketing strategies of companies.Environmental labelling should be a primary concern of every manufacturer today because of the growing concern for environmental issues. Label information will help selective consumers to run informed purchasing decisions, whether they are green consumers or
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Argument Analysis 2 - Essay ExampleAnd in the third and last part, I sh altogether assess the truth and validity of Aquinas argument with the help of logical reasoning. I volition conclude that Aquinas argument is indeed a valid argument for the man of God, based on its logical structure, but I shall argue that the entire argument is weak for it is founded upon a mere assumption.To have with, Aquinas starts his argument by observing that there exists an swan of efficient causes (Summa Theologiae). So, all events entail the existence of a prior cause, which causes its position. If something is caused, then it must be caused by something other than itself. It must be caused by something other than itself, for it is logically impossible to be the cause and be caused in the same way and in the same respect. However, if something causes another things occurrence, which causes the occurrence of another thing, which in turn causes another, then an order of efficient causes would entai l, an infinite chain of causes. There cannot be an infinite chain of causes, for there would be no first cause. The absence of a first cause would entail the absence of a beginning from which all things began to occur. There must exist a first uncaused cause that initiated the chain of efficient causes, which is God. therefrom God exists.Given the aforementioned reconstruction, I began by claiming premise one by referring to the law of causality, which is a given in Aquinas argument. In premise two, the first premise is then applied to the occurrence of X, from which it was inferred, by virtue of material implication, that X was caused by something prior to it, that is, Y, as premise three verifies it (Copi and Cohen 395). set forth four applies the same principle, by virtue of material implication, from which it was inferred that Y was caused by something prior to it, that is, Z. However, premise volt shows that this order of efficient causes lead to an infinite regress, from wh ich
Saturday, April 20, 2019
E-Commerce and E-Business Fundamentals - Case Study ExampleAmazon.Com is a leading online retailer company, offering many divers(prenominal) items such as books, music, DVDs, videos, toys, electronics, softw are, video games and home profit products. They have an estimated 22.5 million customers in 150 different countries. Amazon was founded in July 1995 by Jeff Bezos in the secern of Washington.With Amazon.com, customers can search at home a database of millions books, CDs, DVDs, videos, software, video games, lawn products and even a pan for your kitchen. If you view the item you want, just add it to the shopping cart and then is needed to fill out an online melodic line to specify the type of payment, shipment characteristics and even if its a gift, the type and color of wrapping paper. Also today it is possible to access used and collectible items with their Shops and Amazon Commerce Network or release to Amazon Auctions or sothebys.amazon.com (Press release Amazon.com an d Borders Group Announce Strategic Alliance, 2006).Amazon.com is rated as a company in the Internet software and services industry into the technology sector. The most important competitors for Amazon.com are E-Bay (on-line auctions and retail sales), Barnes and magisterial (books sales and other products) and CDnow (on-line music retailer). They are also a Bricks and Mortar store, which E-Bay is not. Since 1998, Amazon.com has started expanding their operations. This allowed Amazon.com to barter for several depressed and medium Internet companies in order to help build a larger customer base. In the US market the most important part of growth has been the introducing new products and services besides the commonplace books, videos, and music. This goes right along with the company goal of being the place where customers can search and buy anything they whitethorn want on the Internet. Amazon.com has reached that goal and is visited and used by many. Page layout and navigationThe structure of Amazon.com is most sure enough representative of a great marketing effort on the part of the company. Amazon.com has a myriad of different marketing concepts which aid to the increased consumption and popularity of this great organization. With thirty-six product categories offered on the website, Amazon.com is bound to solicitation to the consumer with its premiere marketing efforts and techniquesAmazon.coms easy to navigate webpage and simplistic accessibility are both contributing factors to make it an outstanding website for internet novices and experts alike. From the moment you arrive at Amazon.com you are greeted with a laundry list of the make sales and deals on various products which are currently being offered. A couple clicks of the mouse and you are on your way to saving money with bargains that only this particular website has to offer. Amazon.coms ability to convey their numerous products through their website with discounts exclusive to Amazon.com is undoubtedly a great marketing effort. Amazon.com realizes consumers will be more apt to purchase items if they are discounted and money can be saved.
Friday, April 19, 2019
Diet and coronary thrombosis heart disease - bear witness ExampleHigh calorie intake and related to it obesity is the major peril factor obese people have hisgher risk of coronary heart disease. Consequently, the quote of total fat (and especially everlasting(a) and trans- fatso acids) should be restricted as well as the consumption of refined sugars and other sources of carbohydrates. The increased criterion of food fiber in the diet is good alternative to unhealthy eating ( ).The lowest risk of coronargony heart disease is determined for vegetarians. The have risk of cardiovascular death (e.g. related to heart disease) which is land in 1.33 folds than amongst non-vegetarians.A good choice for preventive purposes is Mediterranean diet which is characterising with amply intake of fruits and evegetables, chromatic oil, sea food and a moderate amount of red dry wine. Seafood and the source of essential -3 fatty acids and trace elements is useful for control of the level of ch olesterol.There were proposed special preventive diets decreasing the risk of coronary disease. Thus Pritikin diet is enriched with food -fiber, unprocessed carbohydrates and contains low amount of fat ( ). Ornish diet restricts the consumption of creature fat (e.g. fatty fish or meat). that non-fat dairy products and egg whites are allowed in the dietic system. besides Ornish diet restricts simple sugars and give the preferences for complex carbohydrates food. Traditional British diet is healthy enough because of high intake of complex carbohydrates nevetheless the restriction of animal food consumption and replacing these products with vegetables and fruits are expedient. The usage of alcoholic drink beverages should be restriected in the persons with high risk of coronary disease (e.g. with high level of blood choleterol). Only small amount of red wine is permitted.Some food products contains essential nutrients and biologically active substances which are necessary for the p revention of coronary heart disease. Thus pine
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Creation of Israel - Essay idealmade to Israels birth. The shared and self imposed responsibility of these nations had serious political, emotional and cultural implications on a world population still fresh from the horrific effects in the aftermath of WWII. Arab countries exercise that this is stolen Palestinian land and has opposed the objective from its inception, as they do today and probably always will. However, this stem focuses on the western countries, their historical and their continual involvement in the process of Jewish Statehood.For many centuries, those of Jewish heritage have felt a desire to return to what they consider their rightful native soil. This was offset articulated during the Babylonian exile and became a universal Jewish theme after the destruction of capital of Israel by the Romans in 70 A.D (Wolffsohn, 1993, p. 5). In the last quarter of the 19th century Jews in europium were generally treated as second-class citizens particularly in Eastern Europ ean countries. They were increasingly world subjected to persistent oppressions such as the series of state organized persecution of Jews in Russia during 1881. These actions caused many Jewish populations to set down plans for their escape back to their ancestral holy lands (Taylor & Francis Group, 1983, p. 468). In the 1880s, European Jews immigrated to Palestine to escape the pogrom, the massacre of Jews in Russia and Poland. In 1896, Theodore Herzl began the Zionist movement incorporating support from Jewish idealists in order to create a mother country for Jews. He felt that Jews always had been and always would be victimized and could effectively make a embodied stand against oppression only by creating their own nation. He stated, We shall create in Palestine an outpost against Asia. We shall be the vanguard of the civilized world against barbarism (Abrahams,
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Performance Enhancement in Manufacturing Facility - Essay ExampleWhile such programs ar essentially characterized by the conventional pecuniary and non-monetary incentives to a greater extent, there are some novel elements such as de-structuring and delayering of certain positions in the hierarchy. Such efforts have produced some positive results though the extent of them is not known.XYZ Company was founded in 1899 by a group of investors includingGiovanni Agnelli. Apart from cars, it is withal manufacturingrailroadvehicles,tanksandaircrafts. On 2009, XYZ Company became the worlds sixth largest carmaker as wholesome as Italys largest carmaker. XYZ company-based cars are constructed all around the world, with the largest number produced outside Italy being built inBrazil, where they are best-sellers. It also has factories inArgentinaandPoland. XYZ Company has a long history of licensing its products to other countries regardless of local political or ethnical persuasion (Robbins, 2009).Joint venture trading operations are found inItaly,France,Turkey,India,Serbiaand Russia. XYZ is a company that supplies good job opportunities to the employees. However the XYZ Companys operations are increasingly being affected by a lack of uniformity in rifle standards among its employees in different manufacturing plants. Its basically higher level of absenteeism, low morale, poor motivation and ultimately the impart related stress of employees at some of the European factories have been reported. However those work related problems are
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
candys dog EssayIn Section three of Of Mice and Men we cope to a significant part of the story where Carlson shoots confects dog. From previous sections in the book, Steinbeck has made it plain that sugarcoats dog is important to Candy. When we are first introduced to Candy and his dog, Steinbeck repeatedly describes both char shamers as old, showing how a manage both are. Old Candy, the swamper, came in and went to his bunk, and behind him struggled his old dog. In this sentence, the procedural used to describe both characters is old. This suggests the similarity between them, showing that they are both scope nearer to the end of their life.While shrink, George, Candy and his dog are in the bunk house, Carlson comes in and talks to Slim. He then complains about the smell of the dog. God aw expertnessy that dog stinks. Get him outta here, Candy Carlson actualizes it clear that he doesnt like the dog being in the bunk house as it brings a ill-scented smell with it. But when Candy hears Carlson say this, he reaches over to pat his dog as if it is amply aware of what is being said. This action evinces that Candy is apologising to the dog on Carlsons behalf. Candy treats his dog like a human as his dog is his only fella.However, the workers at the ranch see him only as a dog. When Carlson mentions to Candy about shooting his dog, Candys actions and dialogues convey how Candy feels about this idea. Candy looked about unhappily. No, he said softly. No, I couldnt do that. I had him too long. Candy is indisposed to let Carlson shoot his dog and we know this through the use of the adverb unhappily. Candy words make it evident that he is non ready to lose his only company. Candy purposefully tries to delay Carlson when he says, You aint got no gun. He is hopeful that Carlson doesnt have the necessary items to kill Candys dog with.When the men hear the shot that marks the demolition of Candys dog, Candys reaction towards the death of his dog illustr ates his emotions. For a moment he continued to stare at the ceiling. Then he rolled slowly over and faced the wall and lay silent. This action symbolises an act of rejecting the outside world. Candys dog was his only way of staying happy. But now that his dog has been shot, he has nothing else in the world that is worth living for. During this conversation between Carlson and Candy, George interrupts. George said, I seen a computerized axial tomography in Weed that had an Airedale could herd sheep. Learned it from the early(a) dogs. George tries divert Carlsons attention to a assorted topic. This indicates that George is attempting to assist Candy in saving his dog. George is being empathetic towards Candy as he might understand how Candy will feel when he loses his only companion. He is taking into account others feelings before his own. We see this previously in the book where George stands up for Lennie when Curley threatens him. Georges only companion is Lennie and he has t ravelled with Lennie in search of work for a very long time. George may be the only person who realises how difficult it will be for Candy if he found himself alone afterward a very long time.As Carlson continuously encourages Candy to let him shoot Candys dog, Carlson turns to Slim for support. He asks Slim, I bet Slim would give you one of his pups to raise up, wouldnt you, Slim? From previous descriptions in the book, the audience is aware that Slim is an influential character in the novel. Steinbeck makes a reign judgement about him unlike he does with the other characters in the book. Steinbeck describes him as Majestic and Prince of the ranch. Nearing the death of Candys dog, Steinbeck once again shows us the importance of Slims character at the ranch when Carlson asks for Slims opinion on the matter.When Slim agrees with Carlson that Candys dog should be shot Candy looks helplessly at Slim Candy looked helplessly at him, for Slims opinions were law. Steinbeck yet again di rectly informs the reader that Slims opinions are not taken lightly but seriously by the men on the ranch. It is clear that the men on the ranch constantly have respect for Slim and they do as Slim says. Show laggard only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of umpteen that can be found in our GCSE John Steinbeck section.
The Indigenous Peoples and the Europeans EssayIntroductionThis School found Assignment project is based on the British in Jamaica during the 17th to mid- 20th Centuries. The History of the British in Jamaica dates back to when the British battled the Spanish for the possession of Jamaica, by which they won. Jamaica, under British rule became one and only(a) of the al near prized Colonia Possession of the entire British Empire, because of its wealth From the Introduction of Sugar Cane. They also were the main compound power in Jamaica for The longest period of time of over more than 300 years. It is important for us as citizens to Know about our history of the British since they left a big legacy target in Jamaica. They have Brought main aspects of their culture e.g. Architecture, Food, Language, Religion and many Others, to Jamaica, resulting in these aspects organism a social function of the Melting Pot of our Multidiversed Culture in todays Society .The Researcher hopes t hat Readers will applaud reading This veryInformative and Interesting Project about Jamaicas Past.FoodPattyOriginated from the join Kingdom, the pastry is a meat pie, which dates Back from Middle side, which consists of a circle of pastry folded to enclose a Highly spiced filling, somewhat resembling an English Cornish pastry. According to Senior Oliver Encyclopedia of Jamaican Heritage rogue 378, presently it is a favour- Ite Convenience food of Jamaicans, widely eaten and exported overseas .Otaheite orchard apple treeThis fruit was brought and introduced to Jamaica in 1793 by skipper Bligh, An English captain, and was originated in Malaysia. This large fruit tree occurs in The bearing seasons between February-March and June-July, when non only the payoff but the trees spectacular display can be enjoyed. The outmatch thing that is Enjoyable about the Otaheite apple is its thin skin that is usually eaten along with The sweet and lily-white white flesh that surrounds a large seed similar features of Other apples like the Rose apple. The Otaheite apple is use in making Preserves And wine, and is also utilize in medicine-making which has health-giving properties As other apples. easter BunThe Easter Bun derives from the English tradition of Hot Cross Buns at true(p) Friday which became popular during Tudor days. Currently, Easter Buns are Popular all year round in Jamaica, with Bun and Cheese being fairly common fare, But Spicy and fruit-rich Easter bun being special. Easter buns are familiar to Christmas Puddings are exported overseas to Jamaican relatives and families.AckeeNational Fruit of Jamaica and one-half of the national dish-Ackee and Saltfish.The conjure up Ackee or Akee is from the Twi language of Ghana. It wasbrought By Captain Bligh, who brought the breadfruit-another fruit, to Jamaica , in turn Took the basicborn ackee from Jamaica to London, which in 1806, was officially Described and given the botanical name BlighiaSapidain his honour . The tree Comes from West Africa, its introduction recorded in 1778 when some plants were purchased from the captain of a slave ship. The colouring material of the aril helps to identify The two main varieties, that with a soft yellow aril is popularly called butter while quit is hard and creamed-coloured. The tree is a familiar sight in most Jamaican yards, including urban areas, it grows up to 15m under favourable Conditions which bears fruits 7.5-10 cm long.It is used in preparing dishes including Ackee and Saltfish it is also used in kinship group medicine for colds and pains.BreadfruitThe Breadfruit was brought to Jamaica by Captain William Bligh before 1793 After obtaining them from the South Pacific islands of Tahiti and Timor and navigation To the West Indies distributing them to various Caribbean islands including Jamaica. In the colonial days, Planters were seeking a cheap source of food for the Slaves in Jamaica and would pay reasonable costs to anyone who could supp ly Them with breadfruit that produced bread, which influenced the arrival of the Breadfruit. The first trees were planted at toilet Garden, St. Thomas, immediately The fruit flourished onto Jamaican Soil, even though it took many years before the Population could prove to eat this strange fruit.Today the breadfruit is prepared And eaten in many ways and is a favourite starches of most Jamaicans. In folk Medicine,it is used as a tea to relieve hypertension and the gum makes an in force(p) For contagious diseases like TineaVersicolor or Liver Spots.BreadfruitReligionAnglicanThe Church of England was the state church building from the time the English took Jamaica from the Spaniards in 1655, until the church was disestablished in 1872. Originally the church of England, the term Anglican was used from the19th Century. During the 1960s , the church of England in Jamaica was renamed the Anglican church of Jamaica in the province of the west indies. Jamaica was shared By the English co lonists into parishes, having each establish a parish church. Dominated as it was by the sugar planters and English government officials, the Church was described as an ornamental adjunct to the state, making little effort To the legal age of the population, which consisted of free blacks and coloured People.The churchs supremacy was challenged from the eighteenth century by the Arrival of the non-conformists, which was of course hostile to these efforts. Such Hostility reached a climax following the slave revolt of 1831-1832 when renegade Anglican clergymen and churchmen formed the colonial church union to destroy Non-conformist chapels and to send them off the island to prevent emancipation, But unluckily failed. Nevertheless, some planters took interest in the slaves And bishop of London sent a bishop to the island who was appointed in 1825, to Undertake cheek and the affairs of the church which resulted in the Revitalization of the church in the later years and new membershi p.St. Andrew Parish Church,Half-Way-TreeMethodistThe church was founded by Charles Wesley, a missionary, within the Anglican Church to fortify and supplement the work of that church. Wesley and his assoc- Iates were know for their Methodist way in which hatful followed and observed Their principles which eventually they became known as Wesleyan Methodists. The Methodists then established Missionary Societies in the American colonies, Breaking with the Anglican church but was not full established as the Methodist Church. Until after Wesleys death, when Dr. Thomas Coke, Superintendent of the American Methodists established the first church (Coke Church) and organized for Missionaries to come and preach to the non-white population in Jamaica despite numerous obstacles.Coke Church,KingstonMoravianThe Moravians were the first Christian missionaries to come to the island with The express purpose of Christianizing the slaves. They were not very successful at First arriving in 1754, by 18 00 they had baptised less than 1,000 Africans in the Island. The sect was founded by Count Nikolaus Von Zinderdorf in Moravia in rudimentary Czechoslovakia. They began ministering to the slaves in the West Indies in 1732 and came to Jamaica at the invitation of two landowning brothers in St. Elizabeth by the names of Joseph Barham and William Foster, where they contin- Ued preaching and ministering to people and eventually, started establishing Moravian churches in Jamaica.Salem Moravian Church,Beeston Spring, WestmorelandPresbyterianA protestant church governed by presbyters or by elders and adhering to varying change forms of Calvinism, the church had its beginnings in the preaching of John Knox in Scotland. In 1688 the Church of Scotland became the Presbyterian Church of Scotland but thither were many breakaway groups, brought by the Scotch To which they migrated. In 1813, the many residing Scots in Kingston began a drive To build a church and the islands first Presbyterian ch urch was opened on April 4, 1819 as the Scots Kirk, later renamed St. Andrews Scots Kirk. Not attached to any Mission board abroad, the concourse asked the Church of Scotland to send a Minister and the Revd John Brown arrived and became the first minister for the Church.St. Andrews Scots Kirk United Church, KingstonArchitectureJamaican Georgian ArchitectureFrom the 1750s until the1850s, Jamaican Georgian Architecture was the most Popular style in the country. It combined the elegance of British Georgian architec- Ture with functional objectives appropriate to tropic climate, built to withstand Heat, earthquakes, humidity, hurricanes and insects. Some common features to This style include ballus trades, ornate and deep fascia boards, secern lattices And pineapple shaped finials located aboverooflines and comices.This style quickly Became the default style across the island and was used to design major public Buildings, from railway stations to simple domestic houses. Individually, houses Differed according to the architects personality and the owners taste and wealth. In contrast to other houses in the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, Jamaican houses were elevated using stilts or plinings to give room to air circulat- Ion. This was an effective to prevent rot, keep the acres cool, and to prevent Insects, scorpions, rats and snakes from entering living areas. Devon House in Kingston is a classic example of Georgian Style of architecture with its neoclassical Form, symmetry and wide, sweeping stairways.Devon House,KingstonJamaican Vernacular ArchitectureIn the 18th century, however, not yet everyone could afford to build buildings in The Georgian style. When the owners incomes were low or the construction sites Were too demanding, smaller and less fancy houses were built in a style that was more than appropriate to the situation. The Jamaican Vernacular architectural style Was common among tenant farms and servants, but also by the children of fr eed Slaves. These houses were typically positioned in such a way to prevent kitchen Smoke,fromreaching the living spaces and had very large cozy spaces, must like The bothies of 18th scotland and until today, these houses attracted then attention Of critics as they are very well designed, befittingly placed and make intultive Use of inferior space.
Monday, April 15, 2019
take a leak Sheet Questions Essay1) Throughout the selection, Jamaica Kinkaid seems to not be dealing with conflict in the present just more with reflecting on her conflicts in the past. She portrays her suffer in not the best sense, sharing with us how she would endlessly talk d suffer to her kids and never be motherly. Kinkaid states when her and her siblings were younger, the mother was viewed as more of a immortal than a mother, that she was always in that respect to divine service them out in fourth dimensions of need but as they started to bugger glum, the mothers outlook on her children would change. The kids started to resent their mother to a point where Kinkaid said she would rather be bloodless than spend an eternity to with her. Kinkaid was left on bad terms with her mother, 3 years with no verbalize because her mother never supported her responsibilities and didnt consider Kinkaid becoming an independent woman.2) At the time of the conflict, which is whe n Kinkaid had started to grow up, I could tell that she was very hurt by it. She says how she has children now and they crawl in one another and love her, and she relates it back to her growing up and how everything was so much different with her relationship with her mother. When Kinkaids mother was playacting the way she was towards herself and her siblings, she had a sense of resentment towards her mother because all her mother would do is discourage and disdain her self esteem by all the negative comments being said.There was a sense of stress between the mother and her children, her children (to me) always seemed like they were unhappy by their mothers actions and the way she acted towards them. A mother is conjecture to be the best person in your life, a bring off taker, near one always there to pick you up but, not in the case we are given with Jamaica Kinkaid.3) When dealing with initial panorama, I decide to always culturally analyze the essay and what is going on t hroughout it. I noticed that at the beginning of the essay, Kinkaid is referring to her mother as a God, using the word graven image as a term to her your mother, made me take a religious look on some parts of the essay. When Kinkaid tries to explain to us how her mother is a God, I cant help but stop myself and cypher she is just explaining what normal mothers do. I believe she perceived her mother as a God whenever she helped her kids and was there for them and when she wasnt she was just a mother. I think the author holds her perspective of hurt throughout the essay because she is trying to share with her audience the way she entangle and was treated throughout all the times with her mother.4) Different perspectives exist in the same time boundary because there are millions of multitude living in the same time period and everyone is entitled to their own thought. Take slavery for example, in the South there were white people and black people. The black people hated slavery b ecause they were the slaves and were being mistreated doing labor, where as the white people just controlled them. That is the same time period but two different perspectives.5) There is no perspective change over time. Jamaica Kinkaid starts off the essay by telling us her problem with her mother, as the essay goes on she elaborates and tells us detail leading up to all the problems, such as the issues with her brother and not knowing her real father. And she ends the write up with speaking about her children and referring briefly back to why things never worked out with her mother.6) I dont believe there was a perspective time because as I said, Kinkaid stuck with the same theory throughout the essay. There was never a time in the essay where she had a total change of purport about her mother, there were times when she did talk good about her, when she would tell stories how her mother would take care of the kids when ever something was wrong, but mostly the story talks about t he dislike and misunderstanding between a mother and her children.
Saturday, April 13, 2019
straightaway solid regimen restaurant EssayThe agile aliment industry has been exploitation dramatically during the last some years. For this reason, we should try to baring out what are the several factors why closely pabulum consumption keeps growing among young people. Therefore, as we stick out seen, the popularity of ready food is spreading rapidly among me rattling people referable to the following three main reasons broad(a) taste, convenient time, and price. Over the last three decades, fasting food has infiltrated every nook and cranny of Ameri buns society, writes Eric Schlosser in Fast Food Nation. In the beginning, the fast food restaurant started with a cafeteria-style restaurant known as the Automat in New York on July 7, 1912. Then, in 1921, unobjectionable Castle restaurants were started in Wichita, Kansas, selling hamburgers for five cents. By 1948, McDonalds was opened by two brothers from Nashua, New Hampshire, who demonstrable the concept of se lling hamburgers, French fries, shakes, coffee, and coca cola in disposable wrappings. So from its humble beginnings, the fast food industry has become an undeniable factor in our society.Certainly, with our ever increasing and busy society, eating at fast food restaurants has become the norm. Families that have busy schedules, such as taking their kids to unhomogeneous activities, attending church functions, and late meetings rely heavily on fast food as a meal choice. For example, about one-quarter of adults and a third of children eat at fast food restaurants on any given day. According to the American Journal of Public Health, consumers have spent $16.1 billion in 1975 to $153. 1 billion in 2004 on fast food. People are generally drawn to good tasting food. With fast food, it couldnt of ever tasted any better. No matter how unhealthy it is, we cannot deny that we have a love affair with the value meals, the fast service, bag delivery and of course the drive-through. We no in terminable feel the need to slave away in the kitchen we can just save so very more time by satisfying ourselves with a relatively cheap McDonalds meal.It is ironic that in order to get to the ever-increasing financial goals that we set for ourselves needed to feed our individual families, we must restrict ourselves from high quality food, the very diet that defines success, in favor of food that can be seen as more cost effective, and fast food fits the part perfectly. Moreover, the fast food industry has created many job opportunities for people who in usual circumstances would find work difficult to come by.Many young college students take on the dispute of working in a Burger King or Taco Bell kitchen in interest of supporting themselves financially. There are a countless number of students who decide to apply for jobs in the fast food industry to help them pay off their tuition. Working in the fast food industry can excessively be viewed as a potential transitional job f or certain individuals.For in the pay economy, many people have now found themselves jobless, while working in a fast food chain might not be desirable to them in comparison to their former jobs, it could be seen as a perfect temporary replacement while one searches for a new as lucrative long term job.Some individuals go for fast food as they consider it to be a treat for themselves. There are many people who like fun and one of the outflank places that they can always get that is at the fast food restaurants. A part from just eating, they also find the places as socializing venues where they can make many friends. The fast food restaurants also scissure a lot of entertainment zones that make their clients comfortable as they enjoy their meals this is one factor that volition make many people to prefer going there as opposed to cooking food for themselves at their homes.People also love fast food because there are so many of them next to their work place, their homes, on the s ide of the road or in any petrol station. Thats an important point to many people, because when they feel like having a fast food meal, they dont waste a lot of time searching for a restaurant to eat from. They just find the restaurant near the place they are in. We cannot deny the world has undergone a fast food diversity over the past few years, and I believe there is good reason for the immense popularity of this fast food culture we are presently living in.It maybe greasy and unhealthy, but it is ultimately cheaper than home cooking and its convenience to the incredibly busy urban lifestyle is too significant to ignore. Fast food should be viewed as a positive aspect of our society as a result of the advantages it presents to us in our hectic lives, but we should not abuse it. In the words of actress Mae West Too much of a good thing can be wonderful, however in this case it is quite the contrary.
Friday, April 12, 2019
Investigation of temperature on catalase activity EssayThe aim of this experiment is to specify out the effect of temperature on catalase or hydrogen peroxide. This eachow for enable us to tell at what temperature hydrogen peroxide is nearly efficient. This (degradation) reaction will help us determine some of the catalases unalike attributes.HYPOTHESISIn this experiment it would be safe to hypothesise that no activity would waste pull at 1 to 20 degrees. It would be probable that a little activity would take berth around 40 degrees. When the piss gets to around 60+ the oxygen bubbles induce to spume. It is al most(prenominal) certain that this will happen due to the behaviour of the atom. This think ofs that the hotter the water gets the more active the water molecules become. Thus the colder the water gets the less active the water becomes. Another theory is that different things adapt according to their habitat. Therefore, catalase would be most active at around 37 degrees body temperature. This means that in this experiment catalase would be most active in the water lav that is at 40 degrees Celsius.METHODBefore the experiment could be started the following apparatus needed to be obtainedCork BorerWater Baths at 3,20,40 and 60 degrees Celsius spudRulerStopwatchDetergentHydrogen Peroxide straight off that all this apparatus has been obtained, it is possible to start the experiment. Eight tribulation tubes will be required because the experiment is being done twice in for each one water bath.Use a marker pen to mark the specific temperature on the test tubes so as to make sure that there atomic number 18 no possible errors. Now come forth these test tubes in a test tube rack. Take the bobtail borer no. 4, and take a cylinder of spud using the cork borer. Do this until you rush eight cylinders. If there are any cylinders that are uneven in size, then take the cylinder again using the cork borer. Now that you have good cylinders, cut the m to equal length equal to 1.5cms. cubed. Once this has been done, put each potato cylinder in a test tube. Now it is almost time to start the experiment, so have a stop- watch at the ready. Pour 5cms cubed of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into each test tube.Now go to the first water bath that is 3 degrees Celsius and take a pipette and rain cats and dogs 10 drops of detergent into the first 2 test tubes (the test tubes that are labelled 3 degrees Celsius). Once you have done this, immediately start the stopwatch and simultaneously put the 2 tubes into the water bath. Repeat this shape for the next 3 water baths. Although only 1 stopwatch has been used, the time will be slightly accurate since a agree has been created. When 5 minutes is up go to the first water bath with a ruler and measure the quantity of froth on each test tube.RESULTSExperiment No.Temperature (oC)Height of suds (cm)Average Height of Froth (cm)133.33.152333.151203.43.52203.63.51406.56.02405.56.016032.952602.92.9 5CONCLUSIONIn conclusion to this experiment, it is evident that catalase is most active at 40 degrees Celsius. There is a trend in a graph that shows the froth increases up towards 40 degrees Celsius and dips when hit 60 degrees Celsius. It is not just a case of the Enzymes activity decreasing it becomes denatured shortly subsequently it reaches its optimum level of activity.EVALUATIONIn this evaluation, the flaws and the limitations of this experiment will be outlined. The procedures in this experiment were very(prenominal) effective. Unlike many other experiments the control of the variables was without fault, because a machine was controlling them, i.e. the water bath. There were not many limitations of equipment, and the only way the equipment could have been improved would have been to have the experiment monitored by computer. all(prenominal) the sources of error in this experiment were with the non-variables.Firstly, there was no way of being sure that each potato was the exact same length or mass. A way of improving this would be using a guillotine-type device, meaning that the potatoes were at least the exact same length sincethey were cut at equal angles all together. Another flaw is the amount of H2O2 poured into each separate test tube. This is cannot be improved upon unless done by machine. Other sources of error that could only have been improved upon by machine are height offroth, and amount of detergent. A major defect that could have affected the results is the timing. This is because of the delay system used. The only way that the delay system could have worked like clockwork is if it took the exact same time to measure froth as to pour detergent. There are two ways of improving this. The first is to make the experiment last longer. This would mean that it would not matter if there were a few seconds difference in the times, because no more froth could have been produced. The second is that if the experiment was timed separately for each bath.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
right off we Settle for Half correspondA dispute may only end when one side has been defeated. The side can be destroyed through raw fighting or peaceful legal actions. In the play, A follow from the Bridge, the battle is between two prominent characters, Eddie and Marco whose objective is to get rid of each other utilise either justice or law.Eddie uses the law by canary birding to the Immig cuckoldion Bureau about the opponent who is an felonious immigrant. Marco uses what he and his culture result consider justice by humiliating and, in the end, killing Eddie. Now we settle for half and I like it better (pg.12) is the exact opposite of how both men act who refuse to compromise. Give me the number to the Immigration BureauI would like to report illegal immigrants. (pg. 67). Eddies selfishness of Catherine, his niece, drives him to snitch to the American Immigration authorities that jail Marco for his illegal entry into the country. This is legitimate according to th e law nevertheless unjust to the illegal immigrants whose main goal is to scrape out a living. He robbed my children, he mocks my work. I work to come here, (pg. 79) proclaims Marco who is destined to return back to poverty.Through this quote the audience can go steady that the law did non compromise for both parties but left Eddie writhing in success and Marco to lust with his family in Italy. Where is the law for that, questions Marco who is utterly disgusted at the measures taken by Eddie. Marco thought that justice will only be done with the death of Eddie. In my country he would be dead by now, (pg. 79) asserts Marco whose only intentions were to kill Eddie once bailed out of jail. This quote shows that Marco sees Eddies death as justice and the only remedy for what he has done.The killing though, means that only Marco gains from it. Marco has defended himself and kept his name as an Italian but Eddie has helpless his life in the process. During the emotional apprehensio n of the two illegal immigrants by the police, Marco cannot withstand himself from accusing Eddie. Marco was not able to control his tongue and humiliated him in front of the whole community by the fearful act of spitting in his face. Nobody is gonna talk to him again if he lives to a hundred. Everybody knows that you spit in his face. (pg.78) Eddie has completely lost his name in the community and is labeled as a traitor. Hes a rat He belongs in the sewer, (pg. 81) states Catherine who is ashamed to look upon him. This is justice and again only Marco wins all. Eddie is left friendless and an castaway of the whole community. No solutions can be made and no compromise was considered.Attempts were made by Beatrice and Catherine to defer the disagreement between the two but none prevailed. This all concludes with the tragic ending of Eddie who dies with a pry in the heart. In the end, one question needs to be asked who gained?
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
g everyplacen custodytal conjecture EssayIntroduction date commenceing the writings of major philosophical figures in the 16th century and the 17th century on that point emerges several weaknesses in addition to their g everyplacenmental melodic theme in their magazine. In his work, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, Quentin muleteers emphasises the textualist approach by the unitys writing at heart the genre of policy-making theory and further conduct that they rarely supplies us with genuine histories. 1 Skinner seems to engage in a historical approach to the writings of political thought, which goes hand in hand with the social and political context of the expiration the major works were composed. Indeed, this proves fruitful for this depth psychology, and and then it testament be provided a pin up historical check over of the period the works were written, in order to present the remark fitting similarity betwixt the causes of political thought. Accordingly, there ordain be implemented a comparison of the philosophers, doubting doubting Thomas Hobbes and denim Bodin, steeringing primarily of their concept of the democracy and the perform and the differences between the two feigns of political thought.In toll of the ground, the focus pull up stakes lie on the citizens and the free regain in terms of the church, an analysis of its place in spite of appearance the establishmental framework will be provided. The primary sources used as a basis for this analysis is the work of Jean Bodin sixsome Books of the Commonwealth, translated by M. J. Tooley, and Hobbes On the Citizen, edited by Richard Tuck Michael Silverthorne. In grasping the political works of Thomas Hobbes and Jean Bodin it is important to remember that their perception of the state was born(p) in an age of crisis. As primeval themes of his political thought Hobbes was concerned with peace, security and order unless, religion was omnipresent through step to the fore his experience of life and through his works.For Hobbes the only valid proposition of a native religion was that something must bewilder created the world, that who or what is non for certain. 2 al nearly important he also believed that unearthly division was a significant factor for the origins of struggle. The basics of Hobbes theory was to add the will to avoid sacred conflict and ready peace into unity or a group of biological people that was to further secure the will of the state. Like Hobbes, Bodin was concerned with preserving order and his telling to religion is said to be complex. Although he was less old(prenominal) with the New political from his religious thought.3 However, entering deeper into the religious life of Bodin it is palpable that he never adhered to nonpareil true theological standpoint throughout his lifetime. 4 A nonher factor of correlation between the two political thinkers is their personal historical background containi ng the experience of war, which largely contri hardlyed as sensation of their causes for writing. Most kn declare for his work and best-seller, Leviathan, the Englishman Thomas Hobbes was to be acknowledged as an important contri only whenion to the philosophical written report in his lifetime and all the way to the 21th century.Hobbes was born in 1588 in Westport raised by his non-wealthy family, luckily being paid for by his uncle to get an education when the time was right. 5 Entering the line of the enlightened, Hobbes at an age of 54 later produced his start claim to fame, De schnittlaugh (On the Citizen), published in Latin pas seul in 1642 which is characterised as unmatched of the forerunners to his major work Leviathan. Here, it is important recon boldnessr what is omnipresent throughout both, De Cive and Leviathan, viz. fear in order to understand his political thought.Some tend to regard Hobbes as a synonym to the concept of fear even though this impossibly can n on be so, however it does not reject top executives line of reasoning that Hobbes had experienced disorder in society and therefore feared political chaos. 6 England during the 17th century can in be referred to as a period of transition both in terms of politics and religion. Historically, throughout Hobbes lifetime (1588 1679) the political circumstances in the geezerhood of 1642 to 1651 prove to stand out painted in the colour of red. The Reformation left deep traces and was not yet to relinquish as its religious struggles was to turn into a fight of originator between the queen mole rat and the Parliament.7 The English Civil war provided an environment such as extreme disorder and well-be commenced insecurity to be explanatory for the horrors it brought the 6? 78? 9 $? * )? 0?. / 1 1? / 1? =? ? ? ( 4 ? /? $ ( 5 JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES,? ? = ? 1? *9/? 6-. A=? B - HTTP//WWW. JSTOR. ORG/STABLE/3745504 0 , $ *3 3 9 )? +? 2 A1. / =0 A? 8? ? 9? C D7 %$E $ * F0.? //? F B -1 G/? HH222I H H 60-6 3 13 Political opening country8. In a chaotic England, Hobbes had to type his own opponents after he had written the first outline of the philosophy of the state, Elements of Law, Natural and Politic, which created an uns circumvent environment for him to live. Indeed, adversity was for Hobbes the sympathy he decided to vanish and choose the life in exile crossing the national boarders to France. 9 When the Civil War was over, he returned home to the end of his life, still absorbed in scientific activity.A lesser-known philosopher yet one of the most ambitious and prolific french scholars, Jean Bodin, was born in 1529 or 30 in the French area of Angers. Although living in separate time periods Bodin is born three years after Machiavellis death (1469 1527) and died when Thomas Hobbes was eight years of age and therefore spans precisely between these two. 10 passim his lifetime he was, in resemblance to Hobbes, to experience war that p rovoked his political thinking which prospered into what was to be known as The Six Books of the Commonwealth (1955).Bodin was an admirable scholar and by the time he had to face his mortal destiny he made contributions to the area of science stretching from historiography to political economy. 11 observable that he was among the more enlightened characters of his time, Bodin went to Paris in his youth for educational military issues studying humanities. Further gay about the juridical record of society he went to study civil law until the 1560s, and after he turned to a political career becoming a kings advocate in Paris. A decade later he became a counsellor of the Duke of Alencon which secured him a seat at the table of the royal family, which ceased before 1576.He then further joined the Catholic League (sometimes referred to as the sanctified League) which played a major part in the French Wars of Religion (156298) eradicating the Protestants also called the Huguenots. 12 Primarily, The Wars entangled the Catholic crown attempting to impose religious uniformity upon the large F? What further divided the citizens in contemporaneous France was their support for various versions of the Christian faith that created a warfare of self-righteousness, which for Bodin, was an erroneous societal condition. What Bodins beliefs could be said to represent at the time is further dubiously, but as Summerfield argues, Bodin might have believed that Catholicism was the best civil religion for his countrymen. 13 Further, Bodin supported religious diversity in that Catholics should have the opportunity to embrace their faith just the Huguenots without having intolerance towards each other.By offering a narrow description of the historical period relevant to both Hobbes and Bodin and further suggest a biographical vista of both philosophers, the main focus have been on the facts of grandeur for further analysis. Main section As disputeed to some extent in Bodins ca se, it is applicable to both philosophers that they were living in a time where religion was inseparable from their political thinking. Today it may seem strange that politics of oftentimes importance was molded around religious beliefs, because we live in a time where each person is apologise to decide what to believe and which religion to adhere to.During the period of discussion, the church and the state had too many putting surface interests that a division between them seemed unthinkable. For Bodin, his thought behind his Republic was the hope to restore the splendour and help the interest of the French Monarchy, which functioned as a cornerstone in his description of the landed estate. 14 In accordance to Hobbes, much like in the case of Bodin, his impetus of his work De Cive lie primarily in providing a solution to the religious moral conflict prevailing in 16th, 17th century England.Bodin and the family In this section, the discussion will point to Jean Bodins concept of the state at a small level. In Book I, chapter I of the Republic the first sentence acknowledge what Bodin understands to be the nature of the Commonwealth, namely its internal structure being organised around the ?6? F1 ?1? 7 ? ( 2 7 $? *3 (2 )? G 0A. / 5 13 Political Theory concept of the family (or house sustain), govern by a self-reliant powerfulness. 15 The main premise behind.Bodins concept of the family has its origins from the alteration of legislation in contemporary France creating a decrease of the paternal consent resulting in a decay of family discipline. 16 For Bodin this was not the musical themel familial situation. In Rebublic, the household is visualised as the essential unit of political transcription within the state and possess the same bilateral structure that there is to find in his social club of the Commonwealth. Principally, the family consist of a man, which have the centralised place within the household, a wife and children with the possibility for special members like freedmen and slaves.17 To illustrate the authority of the father extends to a decision of life and death over his children however, it is not as clear to why he should have this right. For Bodin, the family is vital for preserving the organization within the Commonwealth, he even describe its function using terms as true image of the Commonwealth and model of right order when writing of the household in the Commonwealth. 18 According to Bodin, the father like the sovereign, hold the implicit power within their sphere of influence the father over the family, the sovereign over the families within the state.He was also convinced that, Il est impossible que la Republique vaille rien si les familles, qui sont les piliers dicelle, sont mal fondees (husk a kildefore sitater), which reveals Bodins obsession with order in that the leafy vegetablewealth cannot be totally organized if it is not rightly comprise and thus not performing its proper f unction this can also be related to the sovereign in that his guidance is useless if he cannot unite all of his members. 19 For Bodin the family is an irreducible unit of the state, for Hobbes the matter is of a contrastive character.Hobbes and the individualThe foregoing discussion support the underlying argument in choose of the plurality needed to form the family into a harmonious and organized entity which Bodin find crucial for the ?=? / ?0? 78? 9 $? * )? 0?.? / 1- ?A? 7 ? ( 2 7 $? *3 (2 )? G 0A.? / A? ?F? 7 ? ( 2 7 $? *3 (2 )? G 0A. / 0 MA?? 78? 9 $? * )? 0?. / 1- 6 13 Political Theory establishment of the state, according to Hobbes there is no compelling reason to argue that such is the case. In De Cive, the family is not given a pivotal place rather he pursue a more individualistic approach in accordance to Bodins idea of the family. However, Hobbes thoughts of the family depends much upon the entity being in an external or internal position rel ative to the commonwealth and if the family is being ruled by a foreign power or not. 20 As.King argues, Hobbes is in a lesser head concerned with the familys position within the Commonwealth, in any case it is the process that one is being born as individuals connected to others by force and fear, or for Bodin which emphasise individuals being born into families, that is the central feature. 21 In addition, they differ in that Bodin think of the ascendancy of the sovereign as originated only if coming from the families but for Hobbes it is originated from individuals as a whole. The literature gathered in this study suggests that both Hobbes and Bodin agrees that the state must exist in order to prevent war.The Hobbesian view of the state is founded in his comment of the natural state. The state of nature is for Hobbes a state of anarchy, where egocentric individuals fight for their right of self-preservation creating chaotic circumstances and where coarse fear is their going motivation. Hobbes believed that the mankind maintain a will of doing harm to others, and that this derives from the need to defend their own property and liberty against others in a state of anarchistic rule.The moral dilemma that occur in the state of nature has for Hobbes only one escape route, and that is the presence of a sovereign power, either in singular or plural form chosen by the objective will of the people due to pull them out societal chaos and secure for them peace and order. Indeed, for Hobbes the sovereign is of crucial importance For if this power is abolished, the commonwealth is abolished with it, and universial confusion returns. 22 For Bodin the goal of peace and order is much in line with Hobbes but it does not need a social contract as such but it thus involve a conception of fear. In Book 4, ch. 1 he describes ?- ? $? % ? (? ) *+ , + $ . / -A? M 1 , $ *3 3 9 )? +? 2 A1. / F1 ? $ ? % ? (? ) *+ , + $ . / F? 7 13 Political Theory the rise a nd fall of the commonwealth where he acknowledges that the commonwealth canbe founded either in violence or in consent. 23 As much as this resembles Hobbes in that disorder is the catalyst for the development state, Allen provide us with a more applicable explanation. He argues that since the interdependent relationship between the sovereign and the state is present, the realization of the sovereign may be impelled by fear, which therefore result in a state being established by force. 24 On the other side, what seem to resemble the two is the necessity of a sovereign to guide the people.On these grounds, it is clear that Hobbes and Bodin follow a hierarchical structure in terms of the relationship between the superior and the inferior and that command and obedience is the central feature. On one side the similarity between them lie in their use of fear and consent as essential factors for the raise of the Commonwealth. Here, Professor Dunning offers an interesting claim placing emp hasis on the contract idea that Hobbes present. He suggest that in contemporary France the social contract was for Bodin more a weapon of his opponents, which in its turn inclined him to focus on the state as a model evolving out of the inherent characteristics of the man and his surroundings.25 On the other side the philosophers tend to differ in that Bodin support the idea that the sovereign should rule over the families and Hobbes believed in the individualistic characterisation of the social contract. Moreover, who are the ones (person or group) that should rule over the families featuring Bodin and the individuals characteristic of Hobbes? The sovereign To portray the issue of the nature of sovereignty, Hobbes like Bodin believed, that in order to prevent war secure power placed in single or plural entity was necessary.Within the sphere of political theory, The Republic could be said to contain the first fully developed theory of sovereignty, however one could argue that Marsi glio of Padua was the one close enough to find all the elements of the subject but where there occurred gaps, Bodin was to satisfy these perfectly. 26 In case of his descendant, it would be absurd to assert that Hobbes followed his forerunner slavishly. ?6? 7 ? ( 2 7 $? *3 (2 )? G 0A.? / - ?1? 78? 9 $? * )? 0?.? / 1 ?=? 8? ? 9? C D7 % $E $ * F0. //? F B -1 G/? HH222I H H 60-6 8 13 Political Theory Bodins theory of a commonwealth is normally taken as the starting point of modern times and this because of its clear composed nature of the rights and power of the sovereign. 27 His definition of sovereignty in the Republic was written as an entity holding arrogant and perpetual power vested in a commonwealth.28 Here the power is not only absolute, but perpetual at the same time, nonetheless he is careful not to use this definition outside its theoretical field of use, he further states For if one confines to that which has no termination whatever, then sovereignty can not subsist fork over in aristocracies and popular states, which never die. 29 The central point here is that Bodin agrees to an unlimited and despotic government but without taking the concept of perpetuity too far.His theory of sovereignty is based on the nature of absolutism and it is clear that he was a champion of monarchic absolutism and preferred that it should be invested in a single prince whereas Hobbes share his concern but differ in that he was inclined to have got this to a collective group of people. For Hobbes the King and commonwealth is intertwined, in that one cannot talk about the one of them from the other.He comprehend the sovereign as withholding the will of the citizens consisting of absolute power the greatest power that men can confer, greater than any power than an individual power can have over himself. 30 In accordance to the legislation within the Commonwealth both Hobbes and Bodins sovereign is able to make his own laws, which also extended to the fac t that he is not subject to it.For Hobbes the thought of the King to be subject to the Commonwealth and law would be irrational, the Sovereign is the embodiment of the Commonwealth. The sovereign is therefore not bound by obligations towards his citizens and if the sovereign is to act immoral, that is a matter between himself and immortal. As it has been important to discuss citizens role within the state and their relationship to the sovereign making it easier to fully understand the means of absolute power, it is also ?0? 7+? 2 7 NO $N POLI? CAL STUDIES 0 //? -0M ?A? 7? ( $? ) $ *L? 2? P ( )? / $ .? / A ?F? 7 ? ( 2 7 $? *3 (2 )? G 0A.? / =? ?? / 0 6- ? $ ? % ? (? ) *+ , + $ .? / F? 9 13Political Theory important to take this with us when we shall now discuss the church and how the state is related to it. The church An interesting question arise when one should determine, in a time where religion was almost too present, where the authority of the church lay within the spheres of the absolute rule. Religious upheaval in France and England in the 16th, 17th century had its origins from the breakup of the mediaeval church that destroyed the framework of older forms of political thinking. As long as there was a universally recognized Church the possibility to practice aunilateral faith was possible, but to place this authority under the prince may have been an impracticable postulate. When there later came a time of religious incertitude and the development of a new faith, people was faced with the opportunity to choose which in its turn locomote to confusion. The hierarchy of the Catholic church and the Church of England and France had both claimed that their authority comes directly from God and that they was set out to practice the faith of the nation as a rebuttal to this point, it might be argued that the political thought of bothBodin and Hobbes was not to find a fertile ground in this statement. Chapter XVII of De Cive constitut es the argument of the relationship between the sovereign and the Church stating that any authority given from God has its place within the sphere of sovereign power. For Hobbes absolute ecclesiastical power was vested in the sovereign, which included the right to interpret the Blessed Scriptures.31 One could argue that Hobbes needed an absolute sovereign as the solution to the problem of war if the sovereign had the absolute authority of the Church and over the citizens, war would have been unproductive because no one can challenge the ruler, achieve results and further depose him. If the church would go against the sovereign it would go against the religious power of the state which would seem illogical, and in case of the citizens they do not have any authority to bring down the King because he is appointed upon a social contract representing the will of the people.On logical grounds there seem a compelling reason to argue that the law of God has a fundamental place within the p olitical thought of Bodin. He does not tend blow up upon the place of religion within the sphere of politics within the Republic in contrast to Hobbes who 6 / 10 13 Political Theory has a whole section devoted to the concept of religion, however it is clear that he never meant that the state was forced to establish a form of religious and demand conformity to it. 32 Rather he meant that the state must create the soil from with religion could grow, therefore it is safe to say that the Church had a place within the state and that with this it followed religious duties.Hobbes had a several(predicate) view on the ecclesiastical power of the state than Bodin the Commonwealth and the Church (are) of the same Christian men and exactly the same thing under two names. 33 Further Hobbes says that this synonymity rest upon the common feature between the two, the Christian people, and that the two instances is the only one to gather them. Personally, Hobbes was an erastian he believed that the state should rule the Church. For Bodin. Religion created obedience that form the basis of his version of the commonwealth. The sovereign is the voice of the Church, but his determination of practicing the religious faith is relative and rest upon his will to make it flourish or not.Indeed, in the Rebublic the word of the sovereign should be as sacred as a divine pronouncement. 34 Conclusion Throughout this analysis the attempt to create a fertile discussion of the nature of the state and its place in relation to the church have been central, which have been built upon the effort to create a narrow historical review in the wide field of history. There have also been provided an discussion of the similarities and differences between Thomas Hobbes and Jean Bodin within the selected themes of this assignment. What is clear is that one cannot simply divide 6? 7 ? ( 2 7 $? *3 (2 )? G 0A.? / 66 ? $ ? % ? (? ) *+ , + $ .? / 617 ? ( 2 7 $? *3 (2 )? G 0A.? / 6- ? 1113 Political Theory politics from religion in a time where they were inseparable, like one cannot divide Bodins idea of the family and Hobbes concept of the individual without removing the cornerstone of their theories. Both philosophers tried to provide the best solution to their contemporary struggles in France and England, and in case of their theory of absolute sovereignty it can be said their impetus was to lead the way out of the labyrinth of war with peace as their rewarding result. Both theories have portrayed a hierarchy of power, where God has the solemn authority and the earthly sovereign is positioned as subject to him but holds the right to interpreter of the faith of the state making him more or less the mouthpiece of God. create upon this statement the Church has a duty within the state it is just reliant on the degree of initiative practised by the sovereign in Bodin case and for Hobbes it is more a matter absolute affiliation to the religious role that the sove reign holds. To conclude, even though Bodin and Hobbes had different starting points, went by different routes they more or less reached the same goal placing the political and religious within the hands of the absolute sovereign List of references Allen, J. W. Political Thought of the Sixteenth Century. London Methuen Co Ltd, 1961.Franklin, Julian, H. International Library of Essays in the History of Social and Political Thought Jean Bodin. England Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2006 12 13 Political Theory King, Preston.The ideology of order. Great Britain George Allen Unwin, 1974 Laski, Harold J. The Foundation of Sovereignty and other writings. New York Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1921 Lewis, J. U. , Jean Bodins logic of Sovereignty, Political Studies 16 (1968) pp. 206 222 Lubienski. Z. Hobbes Philosophy and Its Historical Background, Journal of Philosophical Studies vol. 5, no. 4 (Apr.1930) 175 190, http//www. jstor. org/stable/3745504 Skinner, Quentin. The Foundations of Mo dern Political Thought Volume 1, The Renaissance.Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2002 Summerfield, Baldwin, Jean Bodin and the League, The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 23, no(prenominal) 2 (Jul. , 1937), pp. 160-184 Tooley, M. J, trans. Jean Bodin Six Books of the Commonwealth. Great Britain Basil Blackwell Mott, Ltd, 1967 Tuck, Richard Silverthorne, Michael, ed. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought Thomas Hobbes On the Citizen. United Kingdom Cambridge University Press, 2000 ?
Sunday, April 7, 2019
A Rescue at U.N. Headquarters EssayIn their article, A Rescue at U. N. Headquarters, as Other Wait and Hope, Thompson and MacFarquhar illustrated the attempt of the United Nations to save the lives of those still pin down victims of the earthquake in Haiti as well as the condition of the people of Haiti whose homes had been devastated. A week aft(prenominal) the earthquake, Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations secretary general, visited Haiti for the first time on Sunday (Thompson MacFarquhar, 2010). Thompson and MacFarquhar (2010) described that day as one of trials and triumphs for the agency. A abstracted United Nations official was pulled alive after five years of being trapped in the ruins of Christopher Hotel (Thompson MacFarquhar, 2010). A Danish employee, Jens Kristensen, was also rescued that day. Still, the families of those who are still missing urged Mr. Ban to hasten the search, Everywhere he went during his six-hour visit here, he was greeted by people who urged th e United Nations to do to a greater extent, act faster and plan more carefully (Thompson MacFarquhar, 2010).Nieves Alvarez, a staff member, not only asked to rush up the operation but also expresses her dismay because of the obvious nationalism showed by the Chinese rescuers who remaining after finding some of their peoples bodies as well as American rescuers who left-hand(a) after sometime (Thompson MacFarquhar, 2010). Food and shelter is also a great problem. Civilians in the food statistical distribution site are even complaining about the scarcity of the supply. Sally Lazard, 37, said We need more than cookies. You see where we live? We have no water, no toilets, no food.If people go too long without food, they will fight for it (Thompson MacFarquhar, 2010). Water supply is so scarce that taking a store off someones desk can lead to hurtful confrontations (Thompson MacFarquhar, 2010). Civilians also feared of being attacked by gangs in the street and asked for protectio n form the United Nation staffs after the first few days of the earthquake. citation Thompson, G. MacFarquhar, N. (2010, January 18). A Rescue at U. N. Headquarters, as Others Wait and Hope. The New York Times.
FEU Admission Policies for incoming Freshmen EssayThe following policies for admission and remembering sh in alone be effective School Year 2012-13 and apply to all incoming freshmen and transferees entering the school in that school year. 1. All incoming first year shall be subject to the Universitys admission requirements, as administered by the Admissions Office 2. Students pursuing a degree in Accountancy shall be enrolled initially in the Bachelor of Science in Business Administration-Major in Internal Auditing computer program (BSBA-IA). 3.To be eligible for admission to higher studies in the BSBA-IA program, BSBA-IA students shall pass a inclineing examination to be administered by the Institute later they have taken Fundamentals of Accounting Part 2. This is usually scheduled near or at the send away of the 1stSemester in the second year of the curriculum. Students enrolled in other BSBA majors who have completed 12 units of Fundamentals of Accounting Parts 1 and 2 may take the examination and be admitted to the BSBA-IA program if qualified.The result of the qualifying examination is final and not subject to appeal no retakes are allowed. Non qualifiers shall be certain to shift to another BSBA major. Non qualification after this first qualifying examination is a ineradicable disqualification from the BSBA-IA program. 4. To remain in the BSBA-IA program the student moldiness meet all of the following requirements A. GWA of 2. 0 or better in all accounting, law, and taxation subjects, with no grade lower than 2.5 in both of these subjects B. Students may continue in the program only if the non-qualified subjects are re-enrolled and the required passing grade is attained. C. operate a comprehensive examination at the end of each academic year covering all major subjects in the year level for the academic year unsuccessful examinees may be advised to shift to another major, re-enroll some courses, or retake the examination.Students who do not meet the grade requirement are barred from taking the comprehensive examination. 5. All 4th year BSBA-IA students who have completed all course requirements shall be eligible for graduation with the BSBA-IA degree. To be admitted to 5th year BS Accountancy, the student must pass a written comprehensive examination to be taken at the end of the 4thyear, BSBA-IA, Non-qualifiers may retake the comprehensive examination any number of times to qualify for 5th year BSA 6.To qualify for graduation with the BSA degree, the student must pass a comprehensive written examination at the end of the 5th year non passers may retake the examination any number of times until finally qualified. Students who miss for the third time shall re-enroll at least 6 units of 5th year subjects as recommended by the doyen or Associate Dean. Passing the written comprehensive examination is an absolute requirement for graduation.
Saturday, April 6, 2019
Learning Plan EssayThe study plan set forth in this paper is to progress to scholars debate a point related to the Civil War. The debate topic is Was the Emancipation Proclamation enacted for moral reasons or political reasons? The main concept of this encyclopedism plan is to have school-age childs work cooperatively to research facts, and yield and use facts from the Civil War unit to stop into their pedigrees. (It should be noted that the learning plan described in this paper go out score several(prenominal) classes to complete, however the learning plan performances give precisely address the class where the debate leave al one and only(a) occur. ) It is assumed that debate skills were taught in a previous class. The learning theory certainly incorporates constructivist aspects. They are constructing intimacy sort of than absorbing it. This is constructivist apostrophize is lucubrated through the collaborative nature of the assignment, as well as throug h the research that assimilators moldiness produce. In terms of the use of technology and media the educatees leave be instructed to research one source of learning, from the internet, related to their argument. They must submit a one-page outline of the information in which they found along with a references page.This must be submitted to the t all(prenominal)er a hebdomad onward the scheduled debate. The instructor allow for assess the content of the paper, be billets the references page impart also be important. Teacher must evaluate the kinds of internet sources that the students have used. The believability of the internet source, and the military capability of students research depart be analyzed by the teacher. The direct is to assess students traditional literacy and critical analytical skills (assessed when evaluating the content), and information literacy/interpretation skills of online material (assessed by reviewing the reference page). Finally, the teacher will hand back papers to the students, and he/she will instruct each group to use at least twain of their group members papers into their groups arguments.Media and technology will also be incorporated with the use of social media. The teacher will tell students that their debates will be recorded and submitted to youtube or a private school website (if issues of privacy are raised). Others will be allowed to view the video to evaluate the strength of each group ups arguments. Based on the comments of populace viewers, a winner will be chosen (by popular vote). This popular vote will be incorporated as a small percentage into the assessment. This is being through with(p) as to allow students to go into in new media opportunities within an educational context. Learning Plan ContextSettingThe high ineluctably school will be a High School in the Bay Area, either in San Francisco or Oakland. in that location will be 25-30 students in an individual classroom.The lesson will take place the week after the Civil War unit is finished. It is anticipated that the unit will last rough devil weeks, therefore the debate class will occur during the third week. The actual debate class will take up one class period. The content area is US History/Politics. The grade take is Juniors (11th grade). In sum, the curriculum unit is 11th grade, US History/Politics, Civil War unit. StandardsAccording to calcium standards for literacy in History/Social Studies in 6-12th grades. A student must be able to demonstrate abstract of primary and secondary sources, and connect these insights to the understanding of the whole text. This ability will be communicate and assessed when students must incorporate information learned from the text with information gained from the internet, and use both sources of information, into their debate. The students ability to undertake this task will be evaluated by the teacher with the submission of students sources, and also during the debate . (http//www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/finalelaccssstandards.pdf.) Also according to California standards, students must be able to evaluate divers(a) descriptions for events and actions.Learning ObjectiveStudents will be able to collaboratively demonstrate their knowledge of Civil War policy, events and information, from the textbook and from online sources, by formulating arguments to be presented within a debate. Learning Theory ApplicationsConstructivism is certainly at play in this lesson planThe activeness allows knowledge to be organized into schemas, concepts, and worldviews. This activity is emphasizing the use of authentic activities by constructing knowledge through interaction with the environments (internet and peers), and applying it to real-life situations (debate). The collaborative office certainly illustrates constuctivism apprentices will help each different create conceptual connections. Finally, students are working autonomously with the help of the te acher as facilitator, supporter, and model (Ormrod, 2006). Learning Accommodations individualise Education Plan for Special Accomodations In each aggroup, all students will be assigned a role. For example, speaker, writer, time-keeper. A students IEP will be taken into consideration when delegate roles. A student with an IEP, will be assigned a role that best fits their IEP. For example, a student with ADD, may be best suited to be a time-keeper since their attention span is not as focused. They may be anxious to change the pace of the groups discussions, and therefore they may be eager to keep track of the time. Language Development look ats When assigning the internet-based research the teacher will give ELL students a website to navigate to, instead of having the students navigate the internet themselves. Teacher will give univocal instructions as to where to look on the website so students do not feel too overwhelmed with the side language.Teacher will ask the students to t ry to comprehend some of the information, however if this proves too difficult, then the teacher will ask the students to receive 15-20 words from the website that the student did not understand. The student will then find the meanings of these words in their own language. They must write at least a paragraph about the Civil War unit incorporating five of the words that they found on the internet. Also,at least two of these words must be incorporated into the arguments of their team. Gifted and Talented needs This is a challenging component to consider because a gifted/ talented student does not necessarily mean an academic-rigorous student. To really geld the lesson to address the interests of a gifted/talented student, then the teacher will have to be known with the personality of that triggericular student. However, some situations will be addressed here. First of all, from the research, the lesson itself befits that of a gifted/talented student.Competition, which characteriz es a debate, usually suits the nature of gifted/talented students. The first situation to consider is a student who is gifted/talented, but not academically rigorous. This student will be given a pass away role within his/her team. He/she may be assigned to organize/manage all the ideas of the students. He/she is the one who will be given the rubric for what the teacher is assessing when observing the teams discussions and arguments. He/she is the manager, and he/she will be assessed on their ability to keep his/her team on task. In this way, this student isnt necessarily doing more academic work, but he/she is being challenged in a rather difficult manner. A second situation to consider is to have a gifted/talented student who is academically rigorous. The teacher will give this student a second component to add to his/her research paper. The student must connect textbook material and internet material to the US politics of today. This is change magnitude the cognitive process f rom analyze (which all students must do with their research papers) to evaluate (Anderson and Krathwol, 2001). The student fag end choose to incorporate this extra component into their teams arguments. Resource AccommodationsLow tech There are no computers, projector, or internet access in the classroom. If this is the case, teacher may have to portion out time in different lessons to use school facilities where computers are available. Computers must be used so that the teacher stick out march students the kinds of websites that are credible, as well as to use sites, identical youtube, to coming into court students examples of debates. Computer use is necessary so teacher may have to take time before or after school to meet with students (who are willing) to show them the above-mentioned websites. Mid tech hotshot computer connectedto a projector is available in the classroom. The teacher derriere use this computer to show examples of credible websites, as well as to show e xamples of debates online. High tech Class is equipped with several computers. Teams can go online themselves to view videos of debates and lucre research for their paper. In this way, the collaborative nature of the lesson will start even earlier (in the pre-planning stage). Content-Based Literacy SkillsIn terms of text-based literacy students must incorporate information from their textbook into their arguments Critical thinking, ruminative thought, and text-supported thinking will be illustrated when students must draw connections between internet-based information and textbook information musical composition doing their analysis/research paper. This connection will be evaluated when students cute their sources within their paper. (This explanation will also illustrate students information literacy.) New Media Literacy SkillsPerformance This skill is illustrated when students view sample debates on the internet and use this as models of performance in their own debates. Collec tive Intelligence This skill is done when students are within their respective teams and they must draw upon their own and others ideas, research, and knowledge to formulate strong arguments. shrewdness This skill is illustrated when students must judge which websites and information are to be included in their research/analysis paper. Networking Once again, this skill is illustrated when students must search, connect, and analyze information on the internet for the purpose of their research/analysis paper (Jenkins, 2001). Learning MaterialTextbook Learners will need textbook so that they can recall information. Paper, pen Leaners will need so that they can write down information. Rubric Both the learner and teacher needs. Learners need it so that they are aware of whats pass judgment of them while working in teams and formulating their arguments. Teacher needs it so that he/she can refer to it when assessing the teams progress. Notes Learners will need them as a reference when fo rmulating arguments. Stopwatch/watch This will be given tothe student whose handicraft is timekeeper. Video Camera Used to record the debateLearning Plan ProceduresPhase I motif ActivityTeacher will show a short clip of a very powerful, evoke debate. Possibly a presidential debate. The clip will only show the most poignant part (according to the teacher) of the debate. Hopefully the clip will be no longer than 5 minutes long. (if theres no computer available, then teacher must bring in her/his own computer.) In a class of 30 chair/table. There will be 15 chairs/ tables on each side of the room. They will be facing eachother. Learners will enter the classroom and sit down immediately with their team. The teacher will then show the video as soon as the class is seated and quiet. This activity is being done to motivate, encourage, and remind students of what a good debate looks like so that the output of the students debates can match skills such as speaking (clear and concise) and eye-contact of the debaters within the video. Phase II Input (Teacher Driven) ActivityDuring this class, the teacher will, serve well only as facilitator, therefore not much activity will be driven by the teacher. However, after the video, the teacher will remind students of the rubric that was given to them, and tell students that she/he is only their to assist in the logistics of the debate (time, flow, managing emotions if this becomes a problem). The teacher will also instruct students to take notes on each others arguments because this assignment will be important for their homework assignment. She/he will also remind student that they will be recorded. Teacher will tell all students to take out their rubrics.She/He will go over some key point from the rubric as it relates to the debate. The teacher will tell students to make sure that they keep these key points in mind because these points will be assessed during the debate. The teacher will instruct students to have their r ubrics out for the entire class so they can monitor their teams progress by themselves. Teacher will formally go over key questions from the rubric that he/she hopes the teams have incorporated into the nature of the debate (clear speech, eye contact,concise points, deferential behavior) as well as into the content of the debate. In term of the nature of the debate, questions might look like Is my team being quiet/respectful as the other team presents their arguments?, Are my responses to the others teams arguments not insulting? etc. In terms of the content of the debate, questions may look like, Did my team incorporate facts from the textbook?, Did my team use at least two credible internet sources within the argument?, Did my team follow excess instructions assigned by the teacher (e.g. incorporating ideas from IEP students, ELL student, gifted students)?. This activity and these questions serve to remind students of the importance of the collaborative nature of the learning ob jective. They also serve to remind students that they must be able to demonstrate their understanding of the Civil War unit, as well as their understanding of international sources within the context of an argument. Phase III Output (Learner Driven) ActivityStudents will take part in a debate. The topic is Was the Emancipation Proclamation enacted for moral reasons or political reasons? This activity will illustrate the learning objective in several ways. First, the collaborative nature of the previous classes will finally be demonstrated. Second, the students must illustrate their knowledge of Civil War policies within their arguments. Third, both sides arguments must include information from outside sources. The teacher will select one team to present their arguments first. Recording will takeThe speaker of that team will stand up and come to the front of the class. They will present their teams argument. In the argument they must mention the sources in which they got their info rmation. For example, if they got a particular piece of info from the textbook, then they must state As is presented in the textbook. If they got a particular piece of selective information from the internet then they must state, As is presented on so-called website, or by so-called generator They must also explicitly state how they used the special instructions from the teacher. For example, (ELLs students name) found that agree was not a possible solution of the Civil War. In this example, it is assumed that compromise was on a list of words that an ELL student did not understand. He/she presented these list of words tohis/her team. The team reviewed the list, and chose to use the word compromise as part of their argument. The student will finish the presentation of his/her argument. The teacher will tell the next team to present its argument. The team will follow the same procedure as above. The teacher will then stop recording of the debate.This debate will naturally lead to questions, comments from both the teacher and the students. Phase IV CulminationThe teacher will ask the groups to clear up any misunderstandings or misinformation the teams may have had within their argument. This is to give other team members a fall out to speak about the argument, which reinforces the collaborative effort of the lesson. The teacher will also ask students how their teams or the other teams information and debate skills differed and how these things were similar to the debate presented in the head start of the class. As a smaller activity, the teacher will instruct all the students to come up with one question, comment, critique of the other teams argument. This assignment will illustrate each students understanding of the Civil War Unit because it challenges students to relate, connect, or counter-argue their own knowledge of the unit. This question will be submitted to the teacher. Phase V ExtensionFor homework, students will write a one-page analysis of the op posing teams arguments. The student will address the opposing sides arguments. He/she will evaluate the arguments weaknesses, strengths and wherefore he/she disagreed or agreed with the points that were made. Learning Plan AnalysisFormative assessments will include analyzing the collaborative efforts of the team, the behavior of each team during the presentation of the opposing teams arguments, how well each team member took on their role within their team, and how well the team incorporated textbook information, outside information, and special instructions from the teacher into their argument. A summative assessment will include the teachers paygrade of the internet analysis/research paper, the one-page analysis of opposing teams argument, teachers evaluations of the strength of the arguments, and finally the popular vote (the results of youtube or school-based website).Weaknesses of this lesson plan include time constraints, and the many assessments involved. It may be difficul t to accurately assess how well each team members took on their roles. Some students may withal be taking on more work than others. Also, incorporating ELL/IEP students proved to be a difficult task.. saturation of the lesson is it fosters team work, analytical skills, and gives students more power in the direction and implementation of a lesson. The teacher will implement these varied assessments in its first year, and then will evaluate the effectiveness of these assessments for future classes.The learning theories applied in the first phase was Vygotzkys Cognitive Process. Students are witnessing two adults debating and they are expected to try to learn/imitate the behaviors of those adults. In the second phase, social cognitive theory is at play. The teacher both models desired behaviors/outcomes, as well as emphasizes self-efficacy and self-regulation. In the third phase, constructivism is illustrated. The debate is student-driven because the students are demonstrating their constructed knowledge within the debate. The assessments have a behaviorist component. Negative reinforcement (decrease a behavior) is illustrated when the teacher warns students that if they are not respectful or a team member does not contribute meaningfully, then they may be marked down (Ormrod, 2008).ReferencesAnderson, L. W. , Krathwol, D. R. (2001) . A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing, 28-31.California Department of Education. (2013) California Common Core State Standards. http//www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/finalelaccssstandards.pdf Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotma, R., Robison, A. J., and Weigel, M. (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture Media Education for the 21st Century. Chicago, IL MacArthur Foundation. Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Educational Psychology Developing Learners, 8. 25-36. Teachers First. (2014) http//www.teachersfirst.com/gifted_strategies.cfm