Thursday, December 26, 2019

Naturalism And Evolution - 1098 Words

Popularizing the claim that naturalism and evolution are mutual self-defeaters, Alvin Plantinga argues, in Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism (1993), that given unguided evolution, our beliefs have no intrinsic relation to the truth. Drawing on previous arguments made by C.C Lewis and Arthur Balfour, Plantinga claims that if humans are the product of undirected processes, then we cannot reasonably rely on our cognitive faculties. In fact, it’s just â€Å"as likely, †¦ that we live in a sort of dream world as that we actually know something about ourselves and our world.† Thus, if we cannot rely on our beliefs, then we cannot rely on our belief in naturalism and, ahem, evolution. And therefore naturalism is defeated. Well, if true, this†¦show more content†¦But, inserting a supernatural element (God) as a key fact is a circular argument. Viz. if God exists, naturalism is not true, so there’s no use invoking God as evidence that naturalism is untrue. (Prove God exists first!). Further, the Philosopher William Ramsay has observed how human faculties are, in fact, slightly unreliable – look at our impressive array of cognitive biases - and further posits that evolution and naturalism explain this better than theism. In fact, the well-established foibles in our thinking pose a considerable challenge to Plantinga’s suggestion that we are the perfect perceivers of truth one would expect as the product of an omnipotent Creator. Plantinga’s argument trades upon the philosophical knowledge-problem: the difficulty in providing a neat solution to the foundation of knowledge: how do we know we can rely on our beliefs? But this philosophical problem is not specific to either evolution of naturalism: the challenge pertains to all of our beliefs. In fact, our evolution by natural selection justifies a moderate level of trust in our cognitive faculties. The brain size of human species has increased from 400cc to 1350cc over several millions of years. In this time archaic humans developed more sophisticated stone tools, harnessed fire, developed language, and began to use symbolic thought. Natural selection seems to have been effective in providingShow MoreRelatedNaturalism And Evolutionary Theory Is Self Undermining1295 Words   |  6 PagesNaturalism in Conjunction with Evolutionary Theory is Self Undermining Naturalism is self undermining because if naturalism and evolution is true, we have insufficient reason to believe our cognitive faculties are reliable, which means that any human construct (including naturalism and evolution) is unreliable. Plantinga’s evolutionary argument against naturalism (EAAN) argues the combination of evolutionary theory and naturalism is self-defeating on the basis that naturalism and evolution is trueRead MoreThe Theories Of Scientific Naturalism1516 Words   |  7 Pagesscientific naturalism against Christianity. These worldviews are incredibly opposite, but there may be areas that the two opposing sides could meet on. Both views have valid ideas to contribute to the argument. We strengthen our beliefs through ideological conflict with others. Both view-points are strengthened when compared to each other rather than presented separately with no alternative view to oppose it. Before we start one question needs to be answered, what is scientific naturalism and whatRead MoreApologetics Application Paper Part 2 Submission Form Jeremy Story861 Words   |  4 PagesModule/Week 4. Add as much space as necessary to each section below. 1. Introduction Paragraph for Final Paper: Atheistic Naturalism an ever growing trend in the United States, and although it is not at a level to be concerned with at this point; it is an ever growing problem that needs to be addressed. The purpose of this research paper is to show that Atheistic Naturalism, when objectively examined according to the criteria for evaluating worldviews, fails and that Christianity ultimately providesRead MoreThe Age Of The Earth843 Words   |  4 Pagesit hurts the gospel message. Others have said young earth believers unwittingly damage Christianity s credibility. This is nothing more than arrogance, an ego built on trying to puff oneself up, in the philosophy naturalism. In fact, many evangelicals have started to believe in evolution, given that they believe in billions of years. I believe it hurts the church to believe in what secular science has to say about past events, since they view the world through a different set of glasses–glasses blindRead MoreJack London : An Oyster Pirate1204 Words   |  5 Pagesresponded it was for the money. Some basic themes that most of his works shared include: his life, evolution, brutality of society, socialism, and adjustment of man against elemental ways of life (Jack London Themes and Messages) 2. Many of his works were based off experiences London had in his lifetime, such as â€Å"Call of the Wild.† London was a serious believer of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and the theory of survival of the fittest can be found in everything he wrote. London was also a fo llowerRead MoreA Book Critique of The Advancement: Keeping the Faith in an Evolutionary Age1389 Words   |  6 Pagesno longer socially the majority in their beliefs regarding a world created by God and thus the civil authorities are no longer there to protect their beliefs, as in centuries past. Therefore, it is critical to have a Christian response to modern naturalism. Bush approaches this evolutionary worldview from a philosophical perspective and not as a scientist. The goal of his thesis is not to convince the reader of the scientific merits of Christianity, but to expose the erroneous beliefs found in theRead MoreGuided Evolution and Intelligent Design: A Guide to the Jewish Perspective783 Words   |  3 Pagesargues that proponents of naturalism, like Richard Dawkins and Daniel Dennett, tell us that, according to the theory of evolution, neither God nor any other agent has designed or created the living world, and that evolution, therefore, clearly contradicts the central tenant of theistic religion (which Dennett labels â€Å"entirely gratuitous fantasy† ). If what these experts say is true and we must understand evolution only in the context of naturalistic, unguided evolution, â€Å"then evolutionary theoryRead MoreNaturalism : The Great. Who Has Read American Literature1368 Words   |  6 PagesNaturalism the Great Anyone who has read American literature will know of the significance of naturalism as a literary genre in American literature. Merriam Webster’s definition of Naturalism is as follows: A theory that art or literature should conform exactly to nature or depict every appearance of the subject that comes to the artist’s attention, specifically a theory in literature emphasizing the role of heredity and environment upon human life and character development. Naturalism went fromRead MoreSummary And Critique Of Bush s Arguments1437 Words   |  6 Pagesconsequences of naturalistic philosophy over a theistic worldview and challenges Christians to defend and protect their religious rights (4). Bush presents how advancement has been detrimental to religion throughout history and points out the flaws of naturalism, classifying it as â€Å"internally inconsistent, empirically inadequate, and lacking in satisfactory explanatory power† (94). He presents Christianity as the true worldview, which â€Å"has passion and experience, but it also has superior intellectual†.Read MoreWhat Was The Day I Was Born?1229 Words   |  5 Pagesfascination with the past. Every day I analyze the founding documentations of our previous societal states. Through my research I have developed a deeper understanding of the previous items in our nation. These beginning organisms are referred to as the Naturalisms in the Pure State. When gathering information on our elders I began to realize the gradual creation of a cohesive society. Prior to their discovery of item interaction and the connection of beings to each other, the Naturalism’s lived in an existence

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

A Writing Assignment For College Students - 982 Words

A writing assignment used to mean an easy five-paragraph essay. It was an essay that students mastered and could complete in an hour. Unfortunately, that is no longer the case and we are now assigned papers with a requirement of at least five pages. Throughout the past week, I have asked several classmates about their assignments, specifically, about their writing process. From there, I noticed that several students did one thing similar†¦they all gave up after just an hour or so. While, I am no stranger to procrastination, I never thought this would be a common part of the writing process for college students. After carefully examining the responses I understood that while â€Å"taking a break†, students thought: new ideas would come to them, they would get more time to research, and maybe the requirements would change. First, my classmates assumed that if they simply stopped for a while then maybe they would get fresh ideas. Unfortunately, that is not the way it will w ork. Once I asked them, â€Å"did you receive ideas after waiting†, most of them said no. Instead, it seemed to be an excuse to find distractions like television or hanging out with friends. They assumed they would find inspiration for their paper by taking a break from it, but that did not work. Another common example I saw was taking a break to make sure the ideas were written correctly. However, while I can understand the rational behind this, I do not believe it is the correct step. Students should be rereadingShow MoreRelatedFox s College English Course1440 Words   |  6 PagesTimes, of the students that attend some form of post-secondary education, â€Å"Less than two-thirds end up graduating† (Porter). Considering these high dropout rates, students are having some form of difficulties with college. These difficulties can range from changing work schedules to prior commitments and priorities. In Ms. Fox’s College English course, this is no different. Ms. Fox’s college English course is difficult because of the time consuming work, the importance of writing assignments, and theRead MoreThe American High School System Handicaps Its Students1192 Words   |  5 Pageshandicaps its students academically. High school lacks the academic tools to properly prepare high school students for the college setting. Students who are accustomed to the high school teaching style will have a hard time adjusting to college educators. High school students most likely will be uncomfortable with a college educators strict rules during a course. Today, school students struggle with basic reading and mathematics. They aren t challenging themselves in reading. High school students dependRead MoreGraduation Speech : College And University Of Your Choosing920 Words   |  4 Pagesbeen accepted into the college or university of your choosing. The last six months, a time well spent perfecting your college entrance essays have paid off. The unexpected b liss of deciding your major, and knowing all of your schooling this far has lead you to this monumental milestone in your life. Although you feel prepared, you have lingering thought; did high school English prepare me for the challenges and expectations college professors expect in writing assignments? Unfortunately, â€Å"aboutRead MoreThe Passion Of Reading And Writing1300 Words   |  6 PagesThe Passion of Reading and Writing in College In the eyes of students, reading and writing seems to be a whole new world as they approach the semester in college. It seems as if students never worked with writing or reading in their years at high school. Should we consider college a new beginning in the lives of students? Is it a whole new world for them? Did high school really prepared students for college? To the eyes of everyone, education is a must to do in the lives of teenagers, but does itRead MoreWriting Skills For College Students1457 Words   |  6 Pagesthe world of education, a plague has struck many students. Instructors everywhere try to contain this epidemic call plagiarism. This struggle of writing has touchdown in many campus across the country. This is the result of students feeling the pressure of writing more than in the past. The problem with writing is not because students don’t know how, but rather feeling the pressure to meet socially place standards without plagiarizing. Many students plagiarize due to the burden of succeeding. TheseRead Moreuna‚Äà ²ÃƒÅ Ãƒ ²ÃƒËœ1561 Words   |  7 Pages Introductions Welcome to EAC 150! This semester we will be working hard on refining your English writing, reading, oral and analytical skills. The EAC150 subject outline is available at This addendum is your guide to the subject requirements and activities in my class. Texts and Materials Kanurkas, Irene and Darrell Nunn. An Anthology of Readings for College English Online. ISBN 017641579-3 A good quality English-language dictionary such as the Oxford CanadianRead MoreCryptography1082 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Ocean County College Professor s Syllabus Professor s Name: Jamie Bradley Course Title and Number: MATH 156 – Introduction to Statistics Semester: Summer 2014 Office Location: TBA E-Mail Address: Office Hours: By appointment Catalog Description: An introductory level course for non-mathematics majors who need or desire a working knowledge of statistics. This course is oriented towards all fields in which statistics finds applicationsRead MoreHi How R U Guys1542 Words   |  7 PagesTEXTS amp; MATERIALS Engkent, Lucia. Skill Set: Strategies for Reading and Writing, 2nd ed., Oxford, 2011 ISBN 978-0-19-544169-7 * All students are required to use the following Research Guide for their assignments: * Seneca Libraries. Guide to Research and Citation: MLA Style. 3rd ed. Toronto: Seneca College, 2010. Print. * A good quality English-language dictionary (The Oxford Dictionary and the Longman’s Dictionary are recommended.) * A folder/portfolio to keep all yourRead MoreMotivation For The College Student974 Words   |  4 Pages handsome princes. They were really her saviors and grounding force. The two princes became her motivation to start over, create a new life, and start rediscovering herself. For the college student, motivation is a personal aspiration with much hard work. The college writing student will focus on increasing writing abilities and becoming a better writer by class end. With a deep-rooted motivation, the learning to write process will continue to be built and perfected over the course of the student’sRead MoreThe Problems Of Attending College1240 Words   |  5 PagesEnglish 101 From any walk of life, attending college can be difficult. In fact, it can be overwhelming. If a student has just graduated or has been out of school for twenty years, going to college can be tough. For older students, homework is done in a whole new way, online. Younger students may be used to this method, but college is so much more demanding than high school. College is more challenging and every student is responsible for themselves. Students are expected to do their work/homework without

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

The Life of Norman Rockwell Essay Example For Students

The Life of Norman Rockwell Essay Norman Rockwell is best known for his depictions of dail life of a rural America. Rockwells goals in art revolved around his desire to create an ideal America. He said I paint life as I would like it to be. The second child of Jarvis W. Rockwell and his wife Nancy, Norman Perceval Rockwell was born in the famous New York City. In his summers he enjoyed life on the countryside, which made a profound impact on his art. Rockwell remained in Manhattan until 1903, when they moved to Mamaroneck, New York. It was there he decided to pursue a career as an illustrator. In 1908, He began attending the Chase School of Fine Art. At the age of fifteen he quit high school to enroll in classes at the National Academy of Design. He left the Academy a year after finding out that it was geared towards training of the fine artist rather than the illustrator. He then enrolled in the Art Students League studying inder George Bridgman and Thomas Fogarty. In addition to excelling in his skills in drawing and painting, Rockwell was introduced to the illustration of Howard Pyle. In 1911, Rockwell illustrated his first book, Tell Me Why Stories. Two Years later he contributed to Boys Life, He soon became art director of the magazine. Commissions for other childrens magazines, among them St. Nicholas, Youths Companion and American Boys, soon followed. In 1915, Rockwell moved to New Rochelle, New York, home to many of Americas finest Illustrators. He studied the work of older illustrators while painting crisply, painted renditions of fresh-faced kids and dogs. A turning point in Rockwells career occurred one year later when he sold five cover illustrations to George Lorimer, editor of the Saturday Evening Post. For the next four decades, Rockwells name would be synonymous with the Post. During that time he produced 322 covers for the magazine. By the 1920s, Rockwell achieved considerable success. He joined a country club, learned to ride a horse, and fraternized with society type people. Rockwell moved to Arlington, Vermont in 1939. He remained there until 1953, when he moved to Stockbridge, Massachusetts, his home for the remainder of his life. In the wake of his death, scholars began to re-assess Rockwells contribution, linking him to a tradition of genre painting. Then in 1978, after living a full life he died quietly in his Stockbridge home. Words/ Pages : 397 / 24

Monday, December 2, 2019

Williamson 2002 the Theory of the Firm as Governance Stru Essay Example

Williamson 2002 the Theory of the Firm as Governance Stru Essay The Theory of the Firm as Governance Structure: From Choice to Contract Oliver E. Williamson Oliver E. Williamson is Edgar F. Kaiser Professor of Business Administration, Professor of Economics, and Professor of Law at the University of California, Berkeley, California. His email address is . The helpful advice of Timothy Taylor and Michael Waldman for revising this manuscript is gratefully acknowledged. January 2002 2 The propositions that organization matters and is susceptible to analysis were long greeted by skepticism by economists. To be sure, there were conspicuous exceptions: Alfred Marshall in Industry and Trade (1932), Joseph Schumpeter in Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy (1942), Friedrich Hayek (1945) on knowledge. Both institutional economists (Thorstein Veblen (1904), John R. Commons (1934), and Ronald Coase (1937)) and organization theorists (Robert Michels (1915), Chester Barnard (1938), Herbert Simon (1947), James March (March and Simon, 1958) and Richard Scott (1992)) also made the case that organization deserves greater prominence. One reason why this message took a long time to register is that it is much easier to say that organization matters than it is to show how and why. 1 The prevalence of the science of choice approach to economics has also been an obstacle. As developed herein, the lessons of organization theory for economics are both different and more consequential when examined through the lens of contract. This paper examines economic organization from a science of contract perspective, with special emphasis on the theory of the firm. We will write a custom essay sample on Williamson 2002 the Theory of the Firm as Governance Stru specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Williamson 2002 the Theory of the Firm as Governance Stru specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Williamson 2002 the Theory of the Firm as Governance Stru specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The Sciences of Choice and Contract Economics throughout the 20th century has been developed predominantly as a science of choice. As Lionel Robbins famously put it in his book, The Nature and Significance of Economic Science (1932, p. 16), â€Å"Economics is the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. † Choice has been developed in two parallel constructions: the theory of consumer behavior, in which consumers maximize utility, and the theory of the firm as a production function, in which firms maximize profit. Economists who work out of such setups emphasize how quantities are influenced by 3 changes in relative prices and available resources, a project which became the â€Å"dominant paradigm† for economics throughout the twentieth century (Reder, 1999, p. 48). But the science of choice is not the only lens for studying complex economic phenomena, nor is it always the most instructive lens. The other main approach is what James Buchanan (1964a, b, 1975) refers to as the science of contract. Indeed, Buchanan (1975, p. 25) avers that economics as a discipline went â€Å"wrong† in its preoccupation with the science of choice and the optimization apparatus associated therewith. Wrong or not, the parallel development of a science of contract was neglected. As perceived by Buchanan (1987, p. 296), the principal needs for a science of contract were to the field of public finance and took the form of public ordering: â€Å"Politics is a structure of complex exchange among individua ls, a structure within which persons seek to secure collectively their own privately defined objectives that cannot be efficiently secured through simple market exchanges. Thinking contractually in the public ordering domain leads into a focus on the rules of the game. Issues of a constitutional economics kind are posed (Buchanan and Tullock, 1962; Brennan and Buchanan, 1985). Whatever the rules of the game, the lens of contract is also usefully brought to bear on the play of the game. This latter is what I refer to as private ordering, which entails efforts by the immediate parties to a transaction to align incentives and craft governance structures that are better attuned to their exchange needs. The object of such self-help efforts is to better realize the â€Å"mutuality of advantage from voluntary exchange†¦[that is] the most fundamental of all understandings in economics† (Buchanan, 2001, p. 29), due allowance being made for the mitigation of contractual hazards. Strategic issues—to which the literatures on mechanism design, agency theory, and transaction cost economics/incomplete contracting all have a 4 bearing—that had been ignored by neoclassical economists from1870 to 1970 now make their appearance (Makowski and Ostroy, 2001, pp. 482-483, 490-491). Figure 1 sets out the main distinctions. The initial divide is between the science of choice (orthodoxy) and the science of contract. The latter then divides into public ordering (constitutional economics) and private ordering parts, where the second is split into two related branches. One branch concentrates on front end incentive alignment (mechanism design, agency theory, the formal property rights literature) while the second features the governance of ongoing contractual relations (contract implementation). This paper is mainly concerned with governance, especially with reference to the theory of the firm. Organization Theory through the Lens of Contract Organization theory is a huge subject. Macro and micro parts are commonly distinguished, where the former is closer to sociology and the latter to social psychology. Also, it is common to distinguish among rational, natural, and open systems approaches (Scott, 1992). My concern is with macro organization theory of a rational systems kind (with special reference to the contributions of Herbert Simon). In addition to delimiting organization theory in this way, I also examine the lessons of organization theory for economics not through the lens of choice but through the lens of contract. Whereas those who work out of the dominant paradigm have been dismissive of organization theory (Posner, 1993; Reder, 1999, pp. 46-49), the lens of contract/private ordering discloses that lessons of organization theory for economics that are obscured by the dominant paradigm are sometimes fundamental. 5 Five Lessons from Organization Theory to the Economics of Contracts A first lesson from organization theory is to describe human actors in more realistic terms. Simon (1985, p. 03) is unequivocal: â€Å"Nothing is more fundamental in setting our research agenda and informing our research methods than our view of the nature of the human beings whose behavior we are studying. † Social scientists are thus invited (challenged) to name the cognitive, self-interest, and other attributes of human actors on which their analyses rest. Bounded rationality is the cognitive assumption to which Simon refers, by which he has reference to behavior that is intendedly rational but only limitedly so (1957, p. xiv). The main lesson for the science of choice is to supplant maximizing by â€Å"satisficing† (1957b, p. 204)—the quest for an alternative that is â€Å"good enough. †2 The study of governance also appeals to bounded rationality, but the main lesson for the science of contract is different: all complex contracts are unavoidably incomplete, on which account the parties will be confronted with the need to adapt to unanticipated disturbances that arise by reason of gaps, errors, and omissions in the original contract. Such adaptation needs are especially consequential if, instead of describing self-interest as â€Å"frailty of motive† (Simon, 1985, p. 303), which is a comparatively benign condition, strategic considerations are entertained (as well or instead). If human actors are not only confronted with needs to adapt to the unforeseen (by reason of bounded rationality) but are also given to strategic behavior (by reason by opportunism), then costly contractual breakdowns (refusals of cooperation, maladaptation, demands for renegotiation) may be posed. In that event, private ordering efforts to devise supportive governance structures, thereby to mitigate prospective contractual impasses and breakdowns, have merit. To be sure, such efforts would be unneeded if common knowledge of payoffs and costless bargaining are assumed. Both of these, however, are deeply problematic (Kreps and 6 Wilson, 1982; Williamson, 1985). Because, moreover, nonverifiability problems are posed when bounded rationality, opportunism, and idiosyncratic knowledge are joined (Williamson, 1975, pp. 31-33), dispute resolution by the courts is costly and unreliable. Private ordering efforts to craft governance structure supports for contractual relations during the contract implementation interval thus make their appearance. A second lesson of organization theory is to be alert to all significant behavioral regularities whatsoever. For example, efforts by bosses to impose controls on workers have both intended and unintended consequences. Out of awareness that workers are not passive contractual agents, naive efforts which focus entirely on intended effects will be supplanted by more sophisticated mechanisms where provision is made for consequences of both kinds. More generally, the awareness among sociologists that â€Å"organization has a life of its own† (Selznick, 1950, p. 10) serves to uncover a variety of behavioral regularities (of which bureaucratization is one) for which the student of governance should be alerted and thereafter factor into the organizational design calculus. A third lesson of organization theory is that alternative modes of governance (markets, hybrids, firms, bureaus) differ in discrete structural ways (Simon, 1978, pp. 6-7). Not only do alternative modes of governance differ in kind, but each generic mode of governance is defined by an internally consistent syndrome of attributes—which is to say that each mode of governance possesses distinctive strengths and weaknesses. As discussed below, the challenge is to enunciate the relevant attributes for describing governance structures, thereafter to align different kinds of transactions with discrete modes of governance in an economizing way. A fourth lesson of the theory of organizations is that much of the action resides in the microanalytics. Simon nominated the â€Å"decision premise† (1957a, p. xxx) as the unit of analysis, which has an obvious bearing on the microanalytics of choice (Newell and Simon, 1972). The 7 unit of analysis proposed by John R. Commons, however, better engages the study of contract. According to Commons (1932, p. 4), â€Å"the ultimate unit of activity†¦must contain it itself the three principles of conflict, mutuality, and order. This unit is a transaction. † Whatever the unit of analysis, operationalization turns on naming and explicating the critical dimensions with respect to which the unit varies. Three of the key dimensions of transactions that have important ramifications for governance are asset specificity (which takes a variety of forms—physical, human, site, dedicated, brand name—and is a measure of bilateral dependency), the disturbances to which transactions are subject (and to which potential maladaptations accrue), and the frequency with which transactions recur (which bears both on the efficacy of reputation effects in the market and the incentive to incur the cost of specialized internal governance). Given that transactions differ in their attributes and that governance structures differ in their costs and competencies, the aforementioned discriminating alignment hypothesis applies. A fifth lesson of organization theory is the importance of cooperative adaptation. Interestingly, both the economist Friedrich Hayek (1945) and the organization theorist Chester Barnard (1938) were in agreement that adaptation is the central problem of economic organization. Hayek (pp. 26-527) focused on the adaptations of autonomous economic actors who adjust spontaneously to changes in the market, mainly as signaled by changes in relative prices. The marvel of the market resided in the use of the price system to communicate information, whence â€Å"how little the individual participants need to know to be able to take the right action. † By contrast, Barnard featured coordinated adaptation among economic actors working through deep knowledge and the use of administration. The marvel of hierarchy is accomplished not spontaneously but in a â€Å"conscious, deliberate, purposeful† way (p. 9). 8 Because a high performance economic system will display adaptive properties of both kinds, the problem of economic organization is properly posed not as markets or hierarchies but rather as markets and hierarchies. A predictive theory of economic organization will recognize how and why transactions differ in their adaptive needs, whence the use of the market to supply some transactions and recourse to hierarchy for others. Follow-on Insights from the Lens of Contract Examining economic organization through the lens of contract uncovers additional regularities to which governance ramifications accrue. Three such regularities are described here: the Fundamental Transformation, the impossibility of replication/selective intervention, and the idea of contract laws (plural). The Fundamental Transformation applies to that subset of transactions for which large numbers of qualified suppliers at the outset are transformed into what, in effect, are small numbers supply relations during contract execution and at the contract renewal interval. The distinction to be made is between generic transactions where â€Å"faceless buyers and sellers †¦meet†¦for an instant to exchange standardized goods at equilibrium prices† (Ben-Porath, 1980, p. 4) and exchanges where the identity of the parties matters, in that continuity of the relation has significant cost consequences. Transactions for which a bilateral dependency condition obtains are those to which the Fundamental Transformation applies. The key factor here is whether the transaction in question is supported by investments in transaction-specific assets. Such specialized investments may take the form of specialized physical assets (such as a die for stamping out distinctive metal shapes), specialized human assets (that arise from firm-specific training or learning by doing), site specificity (specialization by proximity), dedicated assets (large discrete investments made in expectation of continuing business, the premature termination of which business would result in product being sold at distress prices), or brand name capital. Because parties to transactions that are bilaterally dependent are â€Å"vulnerable† (in that buyers cannot easily turn to alternative sources of supply, while suppliers can redeploy the specialized assets to their next best use or user only at a loss of productive value (Klein, Crawford, and Alchian, 1978)), value preserving governance structures—to infuse order, thereby to mi tigate conflict and realize mutual gain—are sought. Simple market exchange thus gives way to credible contracting (to include penalties for premature termination, information disclosure and verification mechanisms, specialized dispute settlement mechanisms, and the like). Unified ownership (vertical integration) is predicted as bilateral dependency hazards successively build up. The impossibility of combining replication with selective intervention is the transaction cost economics answer to an ancient puzzle: What is responsible for limits to firm size? Diseconomies of large scale is the obvious answer, but wherein do these reside? Technology is no answer sine each plant in a multiplant firm can use the least cost technology. Might organization provide the answer? That possibility can be examined by rephrasing the question in comparative contractual terms: Why can’t a large firm do everything that a collection of small suppliers can do and more? Were it that large firms could replicate a collection of small firms in all circumstances where small firms do well, then large firms would never do worse. If, moreover, large firms could selectively intervene by imposing (hierarchical) order on prospective conflict wherever expected net gains can be projected, then large firms would sometimes do better. Taken together, the combination of replication with selective intervention would permit large firms to grow without limit. Accordingly, the issue of limits to firm size turns to an examination of the mechanisms for implementing replication and selective intervention. 10 Examining how and why both replication and selective intervention break down is a tedious, microanalytic exercise and is beyond the scope of this aper (see Williamson, 1985, Chap. 6). Suffice it to observe here that the move from autonomous supply (by the collection of small firms) to unified ownership (in one large firm) is unavoidably attended by changes in both incentive intensity (incentives are weaker in the integrated firm) and administrative controls (controls are more extensive). Because the syndromes of attribut es that define markets and hierarchies have different strengths and weaknesses, some transactions will benefit from the move from market to hierarchy while others will not. Yet another organizational dimension that distinguishes alternative modes of governance is the contract law regime. Whereas orthodoxy implicitly assumes that there is a single, allpurpose law of contract that is costlessly enforced by well-informed courts, the private ordering approach to governance postulates instead that each generic mode of governance is defined (in part) by a distinctive contract law regime. The contract law of (ideal) markets is that of classical contracting, according to which disputes are costlessly settled by courts by the award of money damages. Galanter (1981, pp. 1-2) takes issue with this legal centralism tradition and observes that many disputes between firms that could under current rules be brought to a court, are resolved instead by avoidance, selfhelp, and the like. That is because in â€Å"many instances the participants can devise more satisfactory solutions to their disputes than can professionals constrained to apply general rules on the basis of limited knowledge of the dispute† (p. 4). Such a view is broadly consonant with the concept of â€Å"contract as framework† advanced by Karl Llewellyn (1931, pp. 36-737), which holds that the â€Å"major importance of legal contract is to provide†¦a framework which never accurately indicates real working relations, but which affords a rough indication around which such relations vary, an occasional guide in cases of doubt, and a norm of ultimate appeal when 11 the relations cease in fact to work. † This last is important, in that recourse to the courts for purposes of ultimate appeal serves to delimit threat positions. The more elastic concept of contract as framework neverteless supports a (cooperative) exchange relation over a wider range of contractual disturbances. What is furthermore noteworthy is that some disputes cannot be brought to a court at all. Specifically, except as â€Å"fraud, illegality or conflict of interest† are shown, courts will refuse to hear disputes that arise within firms—with respect, for example, to transfer pricing, overhead, accounting, the costs to be ascribed to intrafirm delays, failures of quality, and the like. In effect, the contract law of internal organization is that of forbearance, according to which the firm becomes its own court of ultimate appeal. Firms for this reason are able to exercise fiat that the markets cannot. This too influences the choice of alternative modes of governance. Not only is each generic mode of governance defined by an internally consistent syndrome of incentive intensity, administrative controls, and contract law regime (Williamson,k 1991a), but different strengths and weaknesses accrue to each. The Theory of the Firm as Governance Structure As Demsetz (1983, p. 377) observes, it is â€Å"a mistake to confuse the firm of [orthodox] economic theory with its real-world namesake. The chief mission of neoclassical economics is to understand how the price system coordinates the use of resources, not the inner workings of real firms. † Suppose instead that the assigned mission is to understand the organization of economic activity. In that event, it will no longer suffice to describe the firm as a black box that transforms inputs into outputs according to the laws of technology. Instead, firms must be described in relation to other modes of governance, all of which have internal structure, which structure â€Å"must arise for some reason† (Arrow, 1999, p. vii). 12 The contract/private ordering/governance (hereafter governance) approach maintains that â€Å"this structure† arises mainly in the service of economizing on transaction costs. Note in this connection that the firm as governance structure is a comparative contractual construction. The firm is conceived not as a stand-alone entity but is always to be compared with alternative modes of governance. By contrast with mechanism design (where a menu of contracts is used to elicit private information), agency theory (where risk aversion and multitasking are featured), and the property rights theory of the firm (where everything rests on asset ownership), the governance approach appeals to law and organization theory in naming incentive intensity, administrative control, and contract law regime as three critical attributes. It will be convenient to illustrate the mechanisms of governance with reference to a specific class of transactions. Because transactions in intermediate product markets avoid some of the more serious conditions of asymmetry—of information, budget, legal talent, risk aversion, and the like—that beset some transactions in final product markets, I examine the â€Å"make-or-buy† decision: Should a firm make an input itself, perhaps by acquiring a firm which makes the input, or should it purchase the input from another firm? The Science of Choice Approach to the Make-or-Buy Decision The main way to examine the make-or-buy decision under the firm as production function setup is with reference to bilateral monopoly. The neoclassical analysis of bilateral monopoly reached the conclusion that while optimal quantities between the parties might be realized, the division of profits between bilateral monopolists was indeterminate (for example, Machlup and Tabor, 1960, p. 112). Vertical integration might then arise as a means by which to relieve bargaining over the indeterminacy. Alternativ ely, vertical integration could arise as a means by which to restore efficient factor proportions when an upstream monopolist sold 13 intermediate product to a downstream buyer that used a variable proportions technology (McKenzie, 1951). Vertical integration has since been examined in a combined variable proportions-monopoly power context by Vernon and Graham (1971), Schmalensee (1973), Warren-Boulton (1974), Westfield (1981), and Hart and Tirole (1990). This literature is instructive, but it is also beset by a number of loose ends or anomalies. First, since preexisting monopoly power of a durable kind is the exception in a large economy rather than the rule, what explains vertical integration for the vast array of transactions where such power is negligible? Second, why don’t firms integrate everything, since under a production function setup an integrated firm can always replicate its unintegrated rivals and can sometimes improve on them? Also, what explains hybrid modes of contracting? More generally, if many of the problems of trading are of an intertemporal kind in which successive adaptations to uncertainty are needed, do the problems of economic organization have to be recast in a larger and different framework? Coase and the Make-or-Buy Decision Coase’s (1937) classic article opens with a basic puzzle: Why does a firm emerge at all in a specialized exchange economy? If the answer resides in entrepreneurship, why is coordination â€Å"the work of the price mechanism in one case and the entrepreneur in the other† (p. 389)? Coase appealed to transaction cost economizing as the hitherto missing factor for explaining why markets were used in some cases and hierarchy in other cases and averred (p. 91) that â€Å"The main reason why it is profitable to establish a firm would seem to be that there is a cost of using the price mechanism, the most obvious†¦[being] that of discovering what the relevant prices are. † This sounds plausible, but is it truly comparative? How is it that internal procurement by the firm avoids the cost of price discovery? 14 The â€Å"obvious† answer is that sole-source internal supply avoids the need to consult the market about prices becau se internal accounting prices of a formulaic kind (say, of a cost-plus kind) can be used to transfer a good or service from one internal stage to another. If, however, that is the source of the advantage of internal organization over market procurement, the obvious lesson is to apply this same practice to outside procurement. The firm simply advises its purchasing office to turn a blind eye to the market by placing orders, period by period, with a qualified sole-source external supplier who agrees to sell on cost-plus terms. In that event, firm and market are put on a parity in price discovery respects—which is to say that the price discovery burden that Coase ascribes to the market does not survive comparative institutional scrutiny. In the end, Coase’s profoundly important challenge to orthodoxy and his insistence on introducing transactional considerations does not lead to refutable implications (Alchian and Demsetz, 1972). Operationalization of these good ideas was missing (Coase, 1992, pp. 716-718). The theory of the firm as governance structure is an effort to infuse operational content. Transaction cost economizing is the unifying concept. 6 A Heuristic Model of Firm as Governance Structure Expressed in terms of the Commons triple of conflict, mutuality, and order, governance is the means by hich to infuse order, thereby to mitigate conflict and realize â€Å"the most fundamental of all understandings in economics,† mutual gain from voluntary exchange. The surprise is that a concept as important as governance should be so long neglected. The rudiments of the model are the attributes of transactions, the attributes of alternative modes of governance, and the purposes served. Asset specificity (which gives rise to bilateral dependency) and uncertainty (which poses adaptive needs) are especially important transaction 5 attributes. Incentive intensity, administrative control, and contract law regime is the syndrome of attributes that define a governance structure, where market and hierarchy syndromes differ as follows: incentive intensity is less, administrative controls are more numerous and discretionary, and inte rnal dispute resolution supplants court ordering under hierarchy. Adaptation is taken to be the main purpose, where the requisite mix of autonomous adaptations and coordinated adaptations vary among transactions. Specifically, the need for coordinated adaptations builds up as asset specificity deepens. In a heuristic way, the transaction cost consequences of organizing transactions in markets (M) and hierarchies (H) as a function of asset specificity (k) are shown in Figure 2. As shown, the bureaucratic burdens of hierarchy place it at an initial disadvantage (k=0), but the cost differences between M(k) and H(k) narrow as asset specificity builds up and eventually reverse as the need for cooperative adaptation becomes especially great (kgt;gt;0). Provision can further be made for the hybrid mode of organization X(k), where hybrids are viewed as marketpreserving credible contracting modes that posses adaptive attributes located between classical markets and hierarchies. Incentive intensity and administrative control thus take on intermediate values and Llewellyn’s concept of contract as framework applies. As shown in Figure 2, M(0) lt; X(0) lt; H(0) (by reason of bureaucratic cost differences) while M gt; X gt; H (which reflects the cost of coordinated adaptation). This rudimentary setup yields refutable implications that are broadly corroborated by the data. It can be extended to include differential production costs between modes of governance, which mainly preserves the basic argument that hierarchy is favored as asset specificity builds up, ceteris paribus (Riordan and Williamson, 1985). The foregoing relations among governance structures and transactions can also be replicated with a simple stochastic model where the needs for adaptation vary with the transaction and the efficacy of adaptations of autonomous and 6 cooperative kinds vary with the governance structures, and shift parameters can also be introduced in such a model (Williamson, 1991a). More fully formal treatments of contracting that are broadly congruent with this setup are in progress. Whereas most theories of vertical integration do not invite empirical testing, the transaction cost theory of vertical integration invites and has been the subject of considerable empirical ana lysis. Empirical research in the field of industrial organization is especially noteworthy because the field has been criticized for the absence of such work. Not only did Coase once describe his 1937 article as â€Å"much cited and little used† (1972, p. 67), but others have since commented upon the paucity of empirical work on the theory of the firm (Holmstrom and Tirole, 1989, p. 126) and in the field of industrial organization (Peltzman, 1991). By contrast, empirical transaction cost economics has grown exponentially during the past 20 years. For surveys, see Shelanski and Klein (1995), Lyons (1996), Crocker and Masten (1996), Rindfleisch and Heide (1997), Masten and Saussier (2000) and Boerner and Macher (2001). Added to this are numerous applications to public policy, especially antitrust and regulation, but also to economics more generally (Dixit, 1996) and to the contiguous social sciences (especially political science). The upshot is that the theory of the firm as governance structure has become a â€Å"much used† construction. Variations on a Theme Vertical integration turns out to be a paradigm. Thus although many of the empirical tests and public policy applications have reference to the make-or-buy decision and vertical market restrictions, this same framework has application to contracting more generally. Specifically, the contractual relation between the firm and its â€Å"stakeholders†Ã¢â‚¬â€customers, 17 suppliers, and workers along with financial investors—can be interpreted as variations on a theme. The Contractual Schema Assume that a firm can make or buy a component and assume further that the component can be supplied by either a general purpose technology or a special purpose technology. Again, let k be a measure of asset specificity. The transactions in Figure 3 that use the general purpose technology are ones for which k = 0. In this case, no specific assets are involved and the parties are essentially faceless. If instead transactions use the special purpose technology, k gt; 0. As hitherto discussed, bilaterally dependent parties have incentives to promote continuity and safeguard their specific investments. Let s denote the magnitude of any such safeguards, which include penalties, information disclosure and verification procedures, specialized dispute resolution (such as arbitration) and, in the limit, integration of the two stages under unified ownership. An s = 0 condition is one for which no safeguards are provided; a decision to provide safeguards is reflected by an s gt; 0 result. Node A in Figure 3 corresponds to the ideal transaction in law and economics: there being an absence of dependency, governance is accomplished through competitive market prices and, in the event of disputes, by court awarded damages. Node B poses unrelieved contractual hazards, in that specialized investments are exposed (k gt; 0) for which no safeguards (s = 0) have been provided. Such hazards will be recognized by farsighted players, who will price out the implied risks. Added contractual supports (s gt; 0) are provided at nodes C and D. At node C, these contractual supports take the form of interfirm contractual safeguards. Should, however, costly breakdowns continue in the face of best bilateral efforts to craft safeguards at node C, the 18 transaction may be taken out of the market and organized under unified ownership (vertical integration) instead. Because added bureaucratic costs accrue upon taking a transaction out of the market and organizing it internally, internal organization is usefully thought of as the organization form of last resort: try markets, try hybrids, and have recourse to the firm only when all else fails. Node D, the unified firm, thus comes in

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Specific Heat Capacity Definition

Specific Heat Capacity Definition Specific Heat Capacity Definition Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a substance per unit of mass. The specific heat capacity of a material is a physical property. It is also an example of an extensive property since its value is proportional to the size of the system being examined.In ​SI units, specific heat capacity (symbol: c) is the amount of heat in joules required to raise 1 gram of a substance 1 Kelvin.   It may also be expressed as J/kg ·K. Specific heat capacity may be reported in the units of calories per gram degree Celsius, too. Related values are molar heat capacity, expressed in J/mol ·K, and volumetric heat capacity, given in J/m3 ·K. Heat capacity is defined as the ratio of the amount of energy transferred to a material and the change in temperature that is produced: C Q / ΔT where C is heat capacity, Q is energy (usually expressed in joules), and ΔT is the change in temperature (usually in degrees Celsius or in Kelvin). Alternatively, the equation may be written: Q CmΔT Specific heat and heat capacity are related by mass: C m * S Where C is heat capacity, m is mass of a material, and S is specific heat. Note that since specific heat is per unit mass, its value does not change, no matter the size of the sample. So, the specific heat of a gallon of water is the same as the specific heat of a drop of water. Its important to note the relationship between added heat, specific heat, mass, and temperature change does not apply during a phase change. The reason for this is because heat that is added or removed in a phase change does not alter the temperature. Also Known As: specific heat, mass specific heat, thermal capacity Specific Heat Capacity Examples Water has a specific heat capacity of 4.18 J (or 1 calorie/gram  °C). This is a much higher value than that of most other substances, which makes water exceptionally good at regulating temperature. In contrast, copper has a specific heat capacity of 0.39 J. Table of Common Specific Heats and Heat Capacities This chart of specific heat and heat capacity values should help you get a better sense of the types of materials that readily conduct heat versus those which do not. As you might expect, metals have relatively low specific heats. Material Specific Heat(J/gC) Heat Capacity(J/C for 100 g) gold 0.129 12.9 mercury 0.140 14.0 copper 0.385 38.5 iron 0.450 45.0 salt (Nacl) 0.864 86.4 aluminum 0.902 90.2 air 1.01 101 ice 2.03 203 water 4.179 417.9 Sources Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (2013).  Fundamentals of Physics. Wiley. p.  524.Kittel, Charles (2005). Introduction to Solid State Physics (8th Ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley Sons. p. 141. ISBN 0-471-41526-X.Laider, Keith J. (1993). The World of Physical Chemistry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-855919-4.unus A. Cengel and Michael A. Boles (2010). Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach (7th Edition). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 007-352932-X.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Cmo inversin inmobiliaria calificara para visa E-2

Cmo inversin inmobiliaria calificara para visa E-2 Una duda muy comà ºn entre personas extranjeras que desean obtener una visa de inversià ³n para vivir en Estados Unidos es si una inversià ³n inmobiliaria da derecho o no a optar por la visa E-2. La respuesta es clara. En principio, no. Excepto si se le da la forma que se necesita para cumplir con los requisitos legales y econà ³micos que imponen las leyes migratorias.  ¿Quà © requisitos se necesitan para que las inversià ³n inmobiliaria permita para calificar para la visa E-2? La ley dice que para calificar para la visa E-2 de inversià ³n se tiene que crear o comprar un negocio que tiene que ser real y activo.   Pero,  ¿cà ³mo entender esos requerimientos? La mejor forma es a travà ©s de ejemplos. Cundo la inversià ³n inmobiliaria NO califica para la visa E-2 Es comà ºn que una persona extranjera compre uno o varios inmuebles en Estados Unidos, desde su paà ­s o aprovechando una visita a Estados Unidos con una visa de turista. Por ejemplo, que invierta medio millà ³n de dà ³lares en un condominio en Miami porque le gusta viajar   de vacaciones a esa ciudad. Esta situacià ³n no califica para la visa de inversià ³n. En otro ejemplo, un extranjero compra varios apartamentos por un valor de un millà ³n de dà ³lares con la idea de que con el tiempo incrementar su valor y que podr venderlos por ms dinero que el abonado por su compra. En este caso, tampoco se califica. En ninguno de esos ejemplos se trata de un negocio real y activo. Entonces,  ¿quà © es eso? Ejemplos de inversiones inmobiliarias que sà ­ califican para la E-2 Para cumplir con los requisitos de las leyes migratorias debe: tratarse de un negocio real, no de una mera inversià ³nla persona que solicita la visa E-2 debe dirigir el negocio El negocio debe repercutir favorablemente en la economà ­a de los Estados Unidos Un ejemplo de ello serà ­a, por ejemplo, el caso en el que una persona extranjera compra por valor de $300 mil dà ³lares unos apartamentos y se dedica al negocio de rentarlos favoreciendo a la economà ­a al crear empleo americano contratando a personal de seguridad, limpieza, etc. Otro ejemplo serà ­a el caso en el que el inversor se dedica a comprar inmuebles en mal estado, a repararlos y a venderlos. Tendrà ­a que gestionar el negocio y el requisito de repercutir favorablemente en la economà ­a se cumplirà ­a contratando a empresas americanas para llevar a cabo las reparaciones. Por lo tanto, lo importante no es que se trate de una inversià ³n inmobiliaria o no ni siquiera es tan importante el monto, lo fundamental es que se trate de un negocio real y activo y que tenga un efecto favorable en la economà ­a estadounidense. Y todos esos requisitos se prueban con un aspecto fundamental del proceso de peticià ³n de la visa: el plan de negocios. Ese es un punto fundamental que el oficial consular va a analizar con lupa antes de decidir si aprueba la solicitud de visa. A tener en cuenta antes de solicitar una visa E-2 No todos los extranjeros pueden solicitar este tipo de visa. Es necesario ser ciudadano de un paà ­s que tiene firmado con Estados Unidos un contrato bilateral de visas de inversià ³n. No confundir con un Tratado de Libre Comercio, ya que nada tienen que ver. Si no se tiene ciudadanà ­a de un paà ­s incluido en el listado, olvidarse de la E-2 y examinar otras posibles opciones como la green card por inversià ³n o la L-1 de transfer en el caso de tener ya una empresa en el paà ­s de residencia habitual. Si se reà ºne el requisito de la nacionalidad, es el momento de prestar atencià ³n a otros puntos de la E-2. Por ejemplo, es necesario que se trate de una inversià ³n en un negocio, siendo posibles toda clase de opciones. Incluso la cantidad a invertir no est definida y va a depender del tipo de negocio. El inversor que solicita la visa debe darle al negocio la forma jurà ­dica que ms le convenga. Pero en el caso de que el negocio pertenezca a ms de una persona, tener presente siempre que para obtener la visa E-2 hay que ser propietario al menos del 51 por ciento del negocio. Por lo tanto no sirve en el caso de hermanos o socios que se dividen las acciones de la empresa  al 50 por ciento o menos. Antes de solicitar la visa hay que hacer pasos importantes, como constituir la empresa o, en su caso, comprarla, girar dinero a Estados Unidos a la cuenta corporativa, llevar a cabo contratos de arrendamiento, elaborar el plan de negocios, etc. Y sà ³lo luego despuà ©s se solicita al consulado o embajada la visa E-2. Como muchos elementos del negocio se deben poner en marcha antes de saber si se obtiene la visa es recomendable hacer un pago mediante el sistema de escrow cuando se compre un negocio, y que el pago al vendedor quede condicionado a que la visa se obtiene. Y si lo que se busca no es una visa sino una tarjeta de residencia, conocida tambià ©n como green card, tener en cuenta que el camino no es la E-2 sino una EB-5, cuyos requisitos son ms severos, pero es indudable que brinda ms ventajas para las personas interesadas en mudarse, con sus familias, a los Estados Unidos. Finalmente, para tramitar la visa E-2 es recomendable contar con un abogado especialista en este tipo de visas y que pueda demostrar un rà ©cord excelente en su tramitacià ³n. Son visas muy especializadas y no todos los abogados tienen el conocimiento ni la experiencia. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Upper Paleolithic Cave Site of Lascaux Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Upper Paleolithic Cave Site of Lascaux - Essay Example Cattle and bison can be seen, including birds, felines, bear, human beings and rhinos. It is a bit surprising that the cave lacks drawings of reindeers regardless of the fact that it formed part of their main sources of food. Ultimately, geometrical illustrations were also evident in the walls. Illustrative skills of the AMHS The cave entirely shows an out of the ordinary piece of art and skills of the AMHS, who created them. In particular, a painting known as The Crossed Bison, inscribed in the Nave panel is a significant result of skilled Paleolithic cave painters. This piece of art introduces a wonderfully painted bison where its hind legs present a false impression that one bison is nearer to the viewer than the other one (Lascaux, n.d.). This creates a remarkable and illustrative depth that expresses a prehistoric aspect that was distinctively way ahead of the period. This extent of dexterity is also apparent in the Great Hall of the Bulls where some bulls appear moving to a viewer. Functions of the paintings The paintings symbolized many functions where many believe that they represented beauty, hunting techniques or magical power. This is supported by some of the rooms or wall panels being profoundly adorned with paintings than others. This shows that some isolated quotas were used for highly sacred activities than others, such as the Apse (Abside). This is typical of sacred premises.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

A series suggestion of principles and strategies that could be Essay

A series suggestion of principles and strategies that could be employed to create more urban ecovillages and sustainable urban n - Essay Example The explosion of technologies of the 1700s caused by the unbridled combustion of fossil fuels and a greater than seven fold increase in human numbers has put at risk the very basis of the earth’s social and institutional resiliencies. The beginnings of the perception of the changing natural environment and its repercussions were felt in the early 19th century itself when Henry David Thoreau (1854) published his book Walden. The movement to preserve the environment started in the 1960s in the form of the Green Anarchist movements. Murray Bookchin also in the 1960s put forward the social issues effecting the environment at the time and went on to coin the term social ecology in 1974. His belief was that all environmental problems were rooted in deep- seated social problems. Ecovillage Concept and Sustainability Over the years that followed ecology and conservation gained momentum as the period of industrialisation and economic development in terms of productivity and cost- benef it ratios grew. Urban areas expanded exponentially with little or no concern for the ecological quotient. Concern for the environment brought interest in the study on environmental mapping along with the growing realization that the parameters that determine the quantity of industrial productivity and economics don’t add up to an increased happiness quotient or quality of life for humans and the biodiversity. The realisation that the environment was reaching appoint of no return gave way to the ethos of sustainable development and a quest to achieve sustainability through judicious use of resources. The advent of the ecovillage concept or the sustainable neighbourhood initiative was one such effort to mitigate and arrest the loss of habitat and to take nature as a component in the economics and ecology of human living. Hildur and Ross Jackson the pioneers in this field, set up the Gaia Trust In 1987. Their 20 years experience in cohousing gave a head start to the Danish ecovi llage network. The ecovillage concept continued without any set definition or principles until 1991 when The Gaia Trust entrusted Diane and Robert Gilman to identify and report on the best ecovillages. The report Ecovillages and Sustainable Communities carried the definition of an ecovillage as stated by Gilman as â€Å"a human scale, full-featured settlement, in which human activities are harmlessly integrated into the natural world, in a way that is supportive of healthy human development and can be successfully continued into the indefinite future.† In 1993 Gaia Trust also took the initiative to form the Danish Ecovillage Network and in 1995 at the fall conference of the Gaia Trust at Findhorn Where 400 people from ecovillages from across the world participated the Global Ecovillage Network (GEN) was launched. This global ecovillage concept has now come to transcend the urban-rural dichotomy and is fast becoming the post industrial way of organizing society at the grassroo ts level. Principles Successful neighbourhood initiatives are being based on certain universal principles of sustainability, self reliance and social integrity. These are broadly classified into four components- the social, ecological, economical and spiritual/cultural components. Hildur Jackson (1998) on the other hand visualized the elements in an ecovillage in the form of 4 dimensions-earth, air, fire and water. In each she placed another set of 4 categories of determinants that would

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Short History on Cyber Space Essay Example for Free

Short History on Cyber Space Essay The Internet has been designed as a ‘pool of endless information’ for anyone who has access. With its introduction in the mid 1990’s, it has vastly changed the way we do business, obtain all kinds of data and the way we communicate in the world today. With its sheer potential, we have created the most powerful tool of our modern day technology. In a series of memos that were first written in 1962, by an MIT expert of the name of J. C.R Licklider, he had envisioned a type of ‘network’ in which a set of computers were globally interconnected in sharing information and anyone could access data from anyone of these terminals (Leiner, Cerf, Kahn Clark, 1962-1974). The Internet society believe that the Internet should be used by everyone freely, meaning that the number one objective is to promote the development, security and stability of the World Wide Web. Malicious attacks such as viruses, spams, spyware and other viscous attacks on hardware and software have become well known wide spread through the web. These attacks often result in irreparable damage and abuse the very freedom the Internet principles were based on (Internet security, 2012). Many aspects of our lives include the electronic transferring of data through some means of electronic devices such as cell phones, computers and other mobile devices such as emails and text messaging. Everything from traffic signals, car technology and airport/airplane navigation has been linked to the usage of transferring vital information via the web and through other communication channels. Government data such as birth records, social security documentation and tax records also need to be protect ed. This information is very confidential and establishes the identity of millions of people in the world today. What exactly is cyber security? In its broadest definition, it is the protection of information and computer systems in we rely on, whether at work or at school. Information is crucial and it may not be altered incorrectly. It should only be shared with the appropriate users and intentional parties. There are, of course, many different levels of security. The information must only be accessible to those who need it and have been intended to see it, for example, medical records. They should have a different level of security and only be made available to those who need this information such as the appropriate doctors, hospitals, insurance companies and other medical staff. These records need to be well protected to prevent anyone from making unauthorized changes resulting in harmful activities. Cyber security is becoming increasingly more important, because every day, new attack methods are being launched and thousands of web pages are discovered continuously in the involvement of illegal data breaches. Several examples of types of ‘electronic infections’ include ‘Denial-of-Service’, which includes the actual shut-down of many legitimate websites and denies access to its existing user base, rendering many users unable to access important information. Another type of malicious attacks is ‘Malworms’ or ‘Trojan Horses’; these are viruses spread by email and instant messaging, sometimes unaware by the user. They may be downloaded simply by visiting the wrong websites. ‘Botnets or Zombies’ use several computers to launch the attack and steal information across a spread of terminals, copying the ‘evil software’ from one device to the next. Social network attacks are also on the rise and sometimes a link may be posted to steal personal information or download a virus hidden by the attacker. User’s inherent trust in posting vital information for their friends is what causes these social networks to be prime targets for the attackers (Internet security, 2012). Today, 70% of large companies rank viruses and hacking ahead of fraud and physical break-ins as their greatest threat. The importance of protecting vital electronic data is more important today than it has ever been. Whether it is the stealing of information, the planting of malicious malware or simply the intention to ‘search and destroy’, hackers have become the nation’s number one threat in creating immense damage to businesses of all sizes and can severely impact a company’s integrity or capability to perform at its peak potential. IT security has now been placed very high on the risk management agenda of any major corporation (â€Å"Why cyber security, 2010). There are several examples of attacks on computers to obtain private information. One of many examples involves a 20 year old kid, by the name of Christopher Maxwell who created a 50,000 computer zombie network that caused approximately $135,000 in damage by infecting a Seattle hospital and various military locations. The attack shut down not only the finance departments, but also attacked computers in the hospital’s intensive care unit, seriously compromising many patients welfare (OBrien, 2007). With the high demands of IT versatility, companies are more and more in need of more flexible hardware and software to cater to the ever growing demands of data transfer and information storage capabilities. The technology is becoming more advanced and creates endless opportunities for today’s businesses however this also creates more opportunity for cyber criminals to launch attacks and become more proficient in succeeding with new ‘gateways’ to cause great harm or steal valuable data. A new recent trend in stealing data is when traveling employees use these so called ‘hot-spots’ to obtain internet access. Clever hijackers have found ways to throw up ‘splash pages’. These splash pages track user data, credit card details used to pay for the wireless service and other information that may be used to harm the employee and/or the company the person works for. This also applies to home networks. Usually, individuals do not invest into the same type of security that companies may do, making these home networks viable for attacks. This is very crucial, because the home computer can become infected with vicious malware and introduced into the workplace or vital information can be stolen that is confidential to the company (â€Å"Why cyber security, 2010). It is now known that the Secret service maintains its own Electronic Crimes Task Force (ECTFs), which focus on identifying and locating cyber criminals involved in all types of criminal activity such as bank fraud, sensitive data breaches and other cyber related issues. The DHS (Department of Homeland Security) prevented the potential losses of nearly $1.5 Billion through cyber crime and brought charges against 72 individual cyber criminals for their direct or indirect participation of wide-spreading the use of children pornography (â€Å"Combat cyber crime,n.d.). In most recent news, President Obama is considering issuing an executive order that would require the DHS to prepare a set of guidelines and rules in the combat against cyber criminal activity. In April of 2012 (this year) the Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act (CISPA) was introduced into the House of Representatives, but failed to pass the Senate due to privacy issues, shows how serious Americans are on creating a plan of attack. Even though CISPA was not passed, the executive order that would be issued would not surpass the privacy issues that were the reason for CISPA not passing the Senate’s approval. The reason the CISPA bill did not pass is that several privacy advocacy groups oppsed the bill strongly because it would have allowed private companies to sell or exchange user data with the federal government for critical cyber security information (Koebler, 2012). Cyber security is the processes and practices designed to protect programs, networks and computers (and other devices) from malicious attacks and unsupervised access. It represents the body of technologies to understand and fight back in the event of unlawful damage and unnecessary harm (cybersecurity, 2010). The conclusion is to do our best to try and prevent as much cyber criminal activity as possible. There a few things that companies and individuals can do. Stop. Think. Connect. These basic rules and guidelines have been measured by the industry and several help factors have been evaluated. The first of many basic rules is to keep your firewall and security software (ani-virus programs) up-to-date. Computer viruses and hackers are like any other common flu virus, they evolve and become stronger with each step in their evolutionary path. Constantly changing your passwords on your devices/software is also recommended. On average (at a minimum) these passwords should be changed at least once every three months. The second recommendation is to shop online with the utmost care. Make sure you are on a HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) website when submitting personal information such as credit card numbers and bank account records or transactions. Another is laptop security. If a laptop is stolen, make sure you have the proper software installed. There is tracking software available to pinpoint where you laptop is and there is also software available that can remotely access your computer’s files, erase them on the stolen device, and then place them in a secure data center for recovery. Another important tip is to avoid spam and scams. Questions every email of which the origin you do not know or trust, because simply by opening the wrong email can one access a virus or other harmful software. Social networking has become huge and it is also a great tool to obtain and research valuable information. It is highly recommended that not all data be put out there for one to see. This information is sometimes easily accessible to the wrong individuals. Also, don’t just open any attachments or click on any suspicious links. Download with caution, because the Internet has a lot of harmful software out there that can cause serious damage to either your hardware or data files (and software). References cybersecurity. (2010, December). Retrieved from Combat cyber crime. (n.d.). Retrieved from Internet security. (2012). Retrieved from Koebler, J. (2012, September 11). Obama may use executive order to advance cybersecurity policies. Retrieved from Leiner, B., Cerf, V., Kahn, R., Clark, D. (1962-1974). Brief history of the internet. Retrieved from OBrien, R. (2007, January 22). Cyber crimes impact on

Friday, November 15, 2019

Prevent Pollution :: essays research papers

All time-management courses boil down to one basic piece of advice: set priorities and allocate the bulk of your time to tasks that are crucial to meeting your goals. Minimize interruptions and spend big chunks of your time in productive and creative activity. Unfortunately, current information systems encourage the opposite approach, leading to an interrupt-driven workday and reduced productivity. Here are six steps to regaining control of your day: Don't check your email all the time. Set aside special breaks between bigger projects to handle email. Don't let email interrupt your projects, and don't let the computer dictate your priorities. Turn off your email program's "Biff" feature (the annoying bell or screen flash that notifies you every time an email message arrives). If you're using Microsoft Outlook, go to Tools > Options > Preferences > E-mail Options and uncheck "Display a notification message when new mail arrives." Don't use "reply to all" when responding to email. Abide by the good old "need to know" principle that's so beloved by the military and send follow-up messages only to those people who will actually benefit from the reply. Write informative subject lines for your email messages. Assume that the recipient is too busy to open messages with lame titles like "hi." Create a special email address for personal messages and newsletters. Only check this account once per day. (If you're geekly enough to master filtering, use filters to sort and prioritize your email. Unfortunately, this is currently too difficult for average users.) Write short. J. K. Rowling is not a good role model for email writers. Avoid IM (instant messaging) unless real-time interaction will truly add value to the communication. A one-minute interruption of your colleagues will cost them ten minutes of productivity as they reestablish their mental context and get back into "flow." Only the most important messages are worth 1,000 percent in overhead costs. What Companies Can Do At the corporate level, we need to implement four more steps: Answer common customer questions on your website using clear and concise language. This will save your customers a lot of time -- thus making you popular -- and will keep them from pestering you with time-consuming phone calls and emails. User test your intranet. Clean it up so that employees can find stuff faster, and make the intranet homepage their entry point for keeping up on company news and events.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Nepalese migration to Japan

Nepal is landlocked between India and China, situated between the Himalayas. With no industrialization worth the name, its mainstay is agriculture. Its major export is labor; most of the rural households have one family member abroad and expect the inward remittances from them month after month for their livelihood. The Nepali migration to Japan is governed by the Labor Act of 1985. The armed conflicts between the forces loyal to the King and Government and Nepal and the Maoist People’s War groups, have created a fear psychology in the Country and encouraged migration. Historical & Structural contexts: The majority of the Nepalese workers in Japan hail from ethnic group designated as ‘martial races’. They are popularly known as ‘Gurkha’ soldiers. They were an important segment of the Indian and British Army. In India, even now, they are the prominent part. Nepal has a long history of migration; Nepalese migrated to the city of Lahore and joined as soldiers in the army of Sikh Ruler, Ranjit Singh. The martial aspect has now taken the form of economic criteria with the fast advancement of the modern materialistic civilization consequent to the industrial and internet revolutions. A new culture of emigration and remittance economy in rural Nepal has taken concrete shape. Migration is, mostly, an economic option now. From the cinders of the II World War, Japan’s industrial structure took an unprecedented leap. Manufacturing and construction industries created a vacuum consequent to shunning of the jobs by the Japanese workers. Economically distressed migrants from countries like Nepal, secure elevated wage levels, and that in turn accelerated the process of migration from Nepal. The subsequent living conditions, isolation, distress and discrimination added to their woes, but the offsetting factor was the financial rewards. As for the women immigrant workers, Japan’s share is 9%. Most of them work in the service sectors or as domestic helps. Push –Pull factors: Economic agents are responsible for the homogenous optimizing behavior as for various theories of migration. In contrast, â€Å"Lipton assumes heterogeneity of group behavior – rich persons optimize whereas poor persons are more reactive than proactive. Hence, the migratory decisions of the rural poor are more likely to be influenced by push factors while pull factors more likely apply to the rural rich.†(Asian, 2000†¦) To some extent the conditions obtaining in the migration scene in Nepal today in relation to Japan, gives credence to Lipton’s hypotheses as for migratory and remitting behavior of both poor and rich families. Socio-economic differentials are one of the important factors for migration determinants. Globalization has worked wonders in all the segments related to human beings. For economies and individuals who possess mobile capital and knowledge, it has proved to be a boon. But the conditions of the less educated workers have remained the same, as their options are limited. The bargaining power of the employers is in tact, if anything it has increased because of their capacity to adopt latest technology, with less labor requirements, outsourcing and moving elsewhere. The labor migration, both short term and long term, to countries like Japan from Nepal has adverse effects on account of this development. Network and social capital: Indian sub-continent was the traditional destination for the migration of the Nepalese labor, but with the passage of Labor Act of 1985, countries like Japan became the much sought after destinations.   The trade unions also began to show interest in the welfare and working conditions of the overseas workers. â€Å"Foreign labor migration from Nepal is still largely a privately organized affair in which individuals make use of their own personal networks or make arrangements through a number of private, government-registered manpower or recruitment agencies.†(Seddon, 2005). As for Southeast Asia, the popular destination at that time was Japan. Immigration then was not legal, the repatriation incidents occurred often, but the reward for the lucky ones who stayed on was high. The wages were 10 times the average wage in Nepal. The remittances from Japan to Nepal recorded a steep increase. This further kindled the curiosity and enthusiasm of the rural folks of Nepal, both men and women to migrate. â€Å"The implications of this situation are far-reaching for Nepal as a whole, for the structure and dynamics of regional and local economy and society, and — perhaps most of all — for households and individuals all over the country, both those directly involved in foreign labor migration and those left behind.†(Seddon, 2005) Labor migration increases unity of the countries of sending and receiving migrants. Migration serves useful purposes for both the countries. It is the twice-blessed concept. It blesses those who receive, and those who give. The reality behind this poetic comparison is that the two ethnic groups have to come to terms for a happy living. Legal citizenship is one thing. The actual assimilation and the willing acceptance from the local society is another thing. The development of commonality is a slow process. To oppress the minority and obliterate the differences is not a welcome procedure and the consequences will be bitter. History has enough examples of such disastrous failures. Historical conditions and the related racial stigma, will not get obliterated easily. References Cited: Article: ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL, 1999, – 26k – Retrieved on October 2, 2007 Seddon, David-Article: Nepal’s Dependence on Exporting Labor, January 2005-Migration Information Source – 35k –   Retrieved on October 2, 2007         

Sunday, November 10, 2019

History of Ballet

Ballet is one of the most beautiful, graceful dances known to the dancing world. From the tutu to the pointe shoes the need to see the expression of the steps given. Being able to see how the illusion of a flying princess is one of the most mysteries that come with a ballet show. The history of Ballet has evolved into one of the most well-known type of dances in the world this is from only the men having roles in the ballet to women being able to express emotion. History Then: Ballet started in the late 1400s during the Renaissance. When Catherine de Medici who married King Henry the second of France know for throwing large parties. These parties would last for 8 hours straight of music, food, dancing and other entrainment. These parties would be held for the King, Queen and nobles plus military. With these big beautiful parties going many got interest in this dancing the people saw. Now by the many people of the noble and military began to study dance. This study of dance was now today called ballet. King Louis XlV the worlds first ballet school in 1661. Till this day the position that were used in school back then are used today to keep the tradition alive. Since ballet was born in France most of the position and steps are in French. For example Grande pose means big pose and this is when one arm is in second position, and the other is in third position. With the years over time around the 1800 the new style of type of ballet was born called Romantic ballet. The new style brought ballet to be more less with costumes because its a lot lighter and less restricting when it came to show skin for the females who were dancing. Plus women started dancing on pointe and preformed roles that were graceful and fairly like roles. With this came impressive partner work and lifts were added. There are three man types of ballet one is Italian Ballet it’s dancers are known for their ability to execute different steps and turns. Second is French and their known for how elegant and graceful the dancers are. And last but not least is the Russian ballet is known for their extreme emotional expression and is also the combination of the other two ballets. With ballet being going from all men to women, it has proven that this dance will continue to change. History now: Ballet has kept its classic and elegant movements the same but the way they see the female dancers has change the look of it. With ballet there are little dark secrets that are hidden and with it. No matter how nice the dance is there is going to be women that want look better than the next girl on the barre. The old look for dancers was to be short and have muscle because being on pointe is very hard. But now sense society wants girls to be all skinny so ballet with that took it to the extend. And with this many higher schools require their girls to not be on diets so that their fat they eat will be burned up by the end of practice. Having the thought many of the parents of young daughters are brought in to have a talk about how they can portion out their kid and also talk about the training they need to make a career out of this. But ballet is not all bad it has become to know with the more modern song, in which mean that ballet has became also fast beat and sassy when it came to the girls role. No matter what there is there is a fence with ballet that many love it or hate it just depends what side you’re on. Play one Giselle: Giselle is one of the few many famous ballets still know in the ballet world today. A little about this ballet is a peasant girl in a village that was surround by hills in the medieval days. With that there is a Count name Albrecht who dresses up as one of the peasants who lived at the village. So going down there he meets a village girl by the name of Giselle who was very much so pretty. The town didn’t like the noble Count to be dating this peasant girl and her mom didn’t think that her daughter could handle falling in love with someone so soon knowing that a heart break could happen. Giselle later goes to die because of being so mad and filled with grief. When she dies she has to be a ghost for her man from being thrown in the lake because the Queen wants him to dance. At the end she save him and returns back to her grave where she lays. This is a very beautiful ballet but the work the dancers do in the behind the sense is way more to make it the ballet it is. One of the activities is the main character has intermission which is a break in between plays and for this the ballerina must change in a gown and white powder also wings to get that ghostly affect. When dancing the ballerina will slam her pointe shoes on a hard surface so that they are soft, so when on the dance floor they will not make a sound. The dancer must transform the thoughts of a human to the thoughts of the spirit she will dance. A quote from the Cynithia Gregory stated that â€Å"Every step is like a sentence, with the dancer talking to her partner is the audience†. This quote means that dance is like a mine in which a dancer must be able to portray the right emotion and expression that the ballet set for them. Giselle is a love story many can and cannot relate to but many people say it is just beautiful to see. Play two Nutcracker: The Nutcracker is one of the Christmas tales that everyone can see. This ballet is about a family who has a Christmas Eve party at their house and a magician was invited to come. With that he brought gifts in which the gifts seem to come alive. So then there were life size toys that these boys at the party are attacking and Clara the main character doesn’t like the fighting and begins to cry. So the magician gives her a doll which is a Nutcracker doll, the little boys start to get jealous about the getting the doll and them nothing. Instead the boys take it and break it; Clara at night goes to bed and finds at that when she creeps down stairs to find a live size nutcracker doll fighting with toy mice and toy soldiers. Once the nutcracker fights all them he turns into a handsome price who takes Clara on an adventure kingdom and other places. At the end Clara gets back home and still doesn’t know whether the trip she took was a dream or not with her price. The Nutcracker is not just for young people, it’s all ages just because everything is there romantic, action, comedy this ballet is a great family one. Play three Swan lake: Physical Demands: Ballet it’s self is a physical demand on peoples bodies and can cause things to go wrong. Ballet movement aren’t in the human nature to do just off the back, that why training is so important. But don’t let the pretty tutus and the amazing make up fool you the pain a dancer goes through can wipe off of anyone. The lower legs and foot of ballet dancers is impact in their movements. This increases the pressure on the knees and can cause sprains real fast. In point shoes the toes nails split so this will happen when in a show where there is no time to switch shoes so they dance it out and most likely the toe nail is gone and you must peel it off and put a band aid on t and continue dancing with a smile. The pointe shoes in not comfortable for the dancers it is just a new way of dancing so there is a box shape in the shoe which can cause cramping and from that can cause blister that mainly burst right during a show or practice because you’re constantly on them. Some of the injures a ballet dancers get are hyperextension of the spine, hip tentinitis, and k nee and ankle complications. How other dances relate to ballet: 2 famous ballet dancers: Conclusion:

Friday, November 8, 2019

Essay on Com155 Appendix+C

Essay on Com155 Appendix+C Essay on Com155 Appendix+C Associate Program Material Appendix C Rhetorical Modes Matrix Rhetorical modes are methods for effectively communicating through language and writing. Complete the following chart to identify the purpose and structure of the various rhetorical modes used in academic writing. Provide at least 2 tips for writing each type of rhetorical device. |Rhetorical Mode |Purpose – Explain when or why |Structure – Explain what organizational |Provide 2 tips for writing in | | |each rhetorical mode is used. |method works best with each rhetorical mode. |each rhetorical mode. | |Narration |The purpose of narrative writing|The organizational method that works best for|1. Create strong details.2. | | |is to tell stories. |narrating is chronological order. |Focus on the details that are | | | | |related to sight, smell, | | | | |taste, and touch. | | | | | | | |The purpose of illustration is |The organizational method that works best for|1. Do not rely on just one | |Illustration |to clearly demonstrate and |illustration is order of importance. |phrase. 2. Use a variety of | . | | | | | | | | | | | |Description |The purpose of description is to|The organizational method that works best for|1. Choose a strategy and stick| | |make sure their audience is |description is spatial order. |to it. 2. Have vivid sensory | on | |details. | | |the page. | | | | | | | | |Classification |The purpose of classification is|The organizational method that works best for|1. Have a topic, subtopic, | | |to break subjects down into |classification is subcategories. |rationale. 2. Have strong | | |smaller, more manageable, more | |details, explanations, and | | |specific parts. | |examples. | |Process |The purpose of a process | |1. Choose a topic that is | |analysis |analysis essay is to explain: 1.|The organizational method that works best for|interesting. | | |How to do something. 2. How |process analysis is typically follows a |2. Choose a process that you | | |something works. |chronological sequence. |know well. | | | | | | |Definition |The purpose of the definition |Consider the context of the word you are |1. Choose a word or phrase | | |essay

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Death of Balder in Norse Mythology

The Death of Balder in Norse Mythology Odin, the king of the Norse gods, often sat upon Hildskialf, the throne of the Aesir gods, with his companions, the two ravens, Hugin (Thought) and Munin (Memory), whispering in his ears. From this position, he could look out on all of the nine worlds. Sometimes his wife Frigg would sit there, too, but she was the only other god who was so privileged. Frigg was the second and favorite wife of Odin, whose daughter she may also have been. She was the only Aesir as clever and knowledgeable about the future as Odin, although her foreknowledge did not depress her as it did her husband. Frigg had her own palace, which was known as Fensalir, where she sat spinning clouds to float above Midgard. Fensalir also served as the afterlife home for married couples who wished to be together. It was a counterpart to the famous home of valiant warriors, Valhalla, where Odin spent much of his time - drinking (he is said to have stopped eating when he heard about the inevitable doom of Ragnarok) with his feasting and fighting companions and the Valkyries. Balder the Handsome The most handsome of the gods was born to Frigg and Odin. He was named Balder (also known as Baldur or Baldr). He was a god of truth and light. Balder was also knowledgeable in healing herbs and runes, which made him a favorite among the people of Midgard. Balder lived in a palace named Breidablik with his wife Nanna (n.b. there is also a Mesopotamian goddess of this name), a vegetation goddess. It was believed that no lie could pass through the walls of Breidablik, home of the god of truth, so when Balder started having frightening nightmares about his own demise, the other Aesir gods took them seriously. Unlike gods in other pantheons, the Norse gods were not immortal. They cataloged everything that might possibly cause Balder harm, from weapons to diseases to creatures. With the list in hand, Balders mother, Frigg, set out to exact assurances from everything in the nine worlds not to harm Balder. This wasnt hard because he was so universally loved. When she had completed her mission, Frigg returned to Gladsheim, the gods meeting hall, for a celebration. After a few rounds of drinks and toasts, the gods decided to test Balders invulnerability. A pebble thrown at Balder bounced off without hurting Balder, in honor of its oath. Larger weapons were used, including Thors axes and all refused to hurt the god. Loki the Trickster Loki is known as a trickster god. Sometimes he was mischievous, but he hadnt really been malicious. The giants were evil, but Loki, who was the son of a giant, hadnt been known as such. It seems his self-appointed job was to stir things up when things were going well. Its a Loki-type action that one wishes to avert when telling an actor to break a leg before a performance. Loki was disturbed by all the gaiety and decided to do something about it, so in disguise as a disgusting old hag, he went to Frigg while she was at Fensalir taking a break from the festivities. What was going on at Gladsheim, he asked her. She said it was a celebration of the god Balder. Loki-in-disguise asked why, then, were people throwing weapons at him? Frigg explained about the promises shed exacted. Loki kept at her asking questions until she finally revealed that there was one thing she hadnt asked because she thought it too small and inconsequential. That one thing was mistletoe. With all the information he needed, Loki set off to the forest to get himself a branch of mistletoe. He then returned to the festivities at Gladsheim and sought out Balders blind brother, Hod, god of darkness, who was in a corner because he couldnt aim and therefore couldnt participate in the test of Balders invulnerability. Loki told Hod he would help him take aim and handed Hod a piece of apparently innocuous mistletoe to throw. Hodur was grateful and accepted the offer, so Loki steered Hods arm. Hod launched the branch, which caught Balder in the chest. Balder died instantly. The gods looked towards Hod and saw Loki beside him. Before they could do anything, Loki fled away. Celebration turned to lamentation since the most beloved of the gods had died. Odin alone was aware of how disastrous this event really was for them all, for he knew that with the loss of light and truth, the end of the world, Ragnarok, was due soon. A funeral pyre was made that was so enormous the gods had to ask the help of the giants. They then placed their most valuable worldly possessions as gifts upon the pyre. Odin placed his golden armband Draupnir. Balders wife fell down dead of grief at the pyre, so her body was placed beside her husbands. [  The most beautiful and beloved of the gods, Balder, son of Odin, had been slain by his blind brother wielding a misletoe shaft aimed by Loki. Balders wife had joined him on the funeral pyre. After their funeral, they were in the world called Niflheim.] An attempt was made to resurrect Balder, but due to more of Lokis mischief, it failed. The goddess of death, Hel, promised that Balder could return to earth if every living creature shed tears of grief for Balder. It looked as though it would work, for everyone loved Balder, but Loki arranged for a single exception. Loki disguised himself as the giantess Thok. As Thok, Loki was too indifferent to cry. And so, Balder could not return to the land of the living. Balder and his wife remained in Niflheim. Another son of Odin, Vali,  revenged  the death of Balder, but not by getting back at  Loki. Instead, Vali slew his brother, the blind god Hod. Loki, who had fled the initial scene of Balders death in Gladhseim, and then re-appeared in disguise as the giantess Thok, tried to get to safety by turning into a salmon. The salmon-Loki hid in a waterfall. But the Aesir, who knew where he was, tried to catch him in a net. Loki was too clever for that and jumped right over the net. Thor, however, was fast enough to catch the leaping fish in his bare hands. Then Loki was bound in a cave with venom dripping onto his body, which caused him to writhe in pain - until the worlds end in Ragnarok. (The story of  Prometheus  has a similar punishment.) Sources Ragnarok. Roberts, Morgan J. Norse Gods and Heroes. Myths of the World, Reprint edition, Metro Books, December 31, 1899.