Friday, May 31, 2019
right of first publication and ordinary function are prominent topics in todays society where loudness pirating of secure material occurs. A product is considered copyrighted when something is put into tangible form the creator of the pasture owns a copyright, (Simpson, 2005). Such tangible forms include movies, books, music, and etcetera (Simpson, 2005). Therefore, copyright is the natural law of the United States that protects the works of authors, artists, composers, and other from being used without permission, (Cyberbee, n. d.). This means that if one wishes to use more than a limited amount of a copyrighted material, they will withdraw to ask permission from the owner of the copyright (Richter, 2003). Although, one needs to be careful, because the copyright sign does not necessarily need to be present for a work to be considered copyrighted (Cyberbee, n. d.). So how does fair use play a part in the copyright law? join use allows an author may make limited use of another authors work without asking permission, (Nolo Law for all, 2011). If one uses copyrighted material beyond fair use, it is considered an infringement. Infringement is basically a violation of the copyright law although, its been stated that the distinction between fair use and infringement may be unclear and not easily defined, (United State Copyright Office, 2009). To avoid the possibly of an infringement, there are guidelines that need to be followed under the fair use doctrine. world-class off, there are four questions one must consider when using copyrighted material under the fair use doctrine break up of use, temper of work, proportion/extent of the material used, and the effect on marketability, (Newsome, 2000). Purpose of use refers to what a copyrighter material is going to be used for (i.e. education). The nature of the work deals with the display case of material being used. For example, one needs to ask if the copyrighted work published or unpublished, is the copyrighted work out of print, and is the work genuine or artistic, (University of Maryland University College UMUC, 2011). The next point to consider is the amount of copyrighted material being used. However, allowed amounts depend on the type and length of material. For instance, ten per centum or thirty seconds of a song may be used (depending on which one is less) (Information Technology Evaluation Services Public Schools of North Carolina, 1997).Copyright and Fair Use Legal Issues, EthicsCopyright and fair use are prominent topics in todays society where mass pirating of copyrighted material occurs. A product is considered copyrighted when something is put into tangible form the creator of the work owns a copyright, (Simpson, 2005). Such tangible forms include movies, books, music, and etc. (Simpson, 2005). Therefore, copyright is the law of the United States that protects the works of authors, artists, composers, and other from being used without permission, (Cyberbee, n. d.). This means that if one wishes to use more than a limited amount of a copyrighted material, they will need to ask permission from the owner of the copyright (Richter, 2003). Although, one needs to be careful, because the copyright sign does not necessarily need to be present for a work to be considered copyrighted (Cyberbee, n. d.). So how does fair use play a part in the copyright law?Fair use allows an author may make limited use of another authors work without asking permission, (Nolo Law for all, 2011). If one uses copyrighted material beyond fair use, it is considered an infringement. Infringement is basically a violation of the copyright law although, its been stated that the distinction between fair use and infringement may be unclear and not easily defined, (United State Copyright Office, 2009). To avoid the possibly of an infringement, there are guidelines that need to be followed under the fair use doctrine. First off, there are four questions one must consider when using copyrighted material under the fair use doctrine purpose of use, nature of work, proportion/extent of the material used, and the effect on marketability, (Newsome, 2000). Purpose of use refers to what a copyrighter material is going to be used for (i.e. education). The nature of the work deals with the type of material being used. For example, one needs to ask if the copyrighted work published or unpublished, is the copyrighted work out of print, and is the work factual or artistic, (University of Maryland University College UMUC, 2011). The next point to consider is the amount of copyrighted material being used. However, allowed amounts depend on the type and length of material. For instance, ten percent or thirty seconds of a song may be used (depending on which one is less) (Information Technology Evaluation Services Public Schools of North Carolina, 1997).
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Doppler RadarThe Social realm of Doppler radar relates to many different things we do in everyday life, anytime you are freeing kayoeddoors anywhere in the world you can find out what it is going to be like before you even step outside. This is made practicable with the use of Doppler Radar. In this section I am going to discuss the social realm of Doppler radar in the local, regional, national and global areas. First we moldiness know what is Doppler radar? Doppler radar is a device that measures the Doppler shift in a radar beam reflected from an objects motion towards or a look(predicate) from the radar aerial. (from WeatherOnline.com) In our local area we use Doppler radar for many different things in the social realm. We use is for safety when bad weather is costly. Doppler radar has saved many lives since it was first used to track weather in $%$%% $%?... When a tornado is near we take cover and when a flood is near we do all we can to protect what we can in the time we fox. Fortunately we dont live near the coast where hurricanes occur. It also helps us in the social realm in the winter when we have snow and ice, when driving conditions are at there worse. Nobody wants to risk their lives when the roads are icy so we tend to cancel more and more of our social gatherings during the winter, and if you have a television and or radio you can find out most of the cancellations before you head out the door and risk your life on snow and ice covered roads. Anyone and everyone who has a job that requires them to be alfresco is almost always watching the weather. Many different jobs depend on the weather, for instance concrete layers cant pour concrete when it is raining, they also have to look to see when it is going to rain next, because they have to give the concrete time to set. cover workers also look at what the temperature is, the temperature can effect the way that a certain concrete will set, how long it will take and if it is too hot or cold out the concrete will crack. Concrete layers are always watching the weather because much of what they do depends on the weather. Another one of these jobs that requires a constant eye on the weather is farming.
Strategy evaluation is an attempt to look beyond the axiomatic facts regarding the short-term health of a business and appraise instead those more fundamental factors and trends that govern success in the chosen field of endeavor. Strategy jackpot also be outlined as a set of objectives, policies and plans that, taken together, define the scope of the enterprise and its approach to survival and success. Alternatively, we could say that the particular policies, plans, and objectives of a business express its dodging for coping with a complex competitive environment. A good business scheme squeeze out be broadly categorized into functions like consistency, consonance, advantage, and feasibility.A strategy that fails to meet one or more of these criteria is strongly in suspect. It fails to perform at least one of the key functions that atomic number 18 necessary for the survival of the business. horror in business is not simply a flaw in logic. A key function of strategy is to will coherence to organizational action. A clear and explicit concept of strategy can foster a climate of tacit coordination that is more efficient than intimately administrative mechanisms. Organizational contravene and interdepartmental bickering are often symptoms of managerial disorder, but may also indicate problems of strategic inconsistency.It is no parody that to say that competitive strategy is the art of creating or exploiting those advantages that are most telling, enduring, most difficult to duplicate. Competitive strategy, in contrast with generic strategy, focuses on the differences among firms kind of than their common missions. Competitive advantages can normally be traced to one of the three roots (1) superior skills, (2) superior resources, and (3) superior position. Positional advantage is of two types, commencement ceremony mover advantages and reinforcers. First movers may also gain advantages in building distribution channels, in trying up spareized sup pliers, or in gaining the oversight of customers. Reinforcers are policies and practices acting to corroborate or preserve a strong market position and which are easier to carry because of the position. Other position- substructured advantages include the ownership of special raw material sources or advantageous long-term supply contracts being geographically located near key customers in a business involving epoch-making fixed investment and postgraduate transportation costs being a leader in a service field that permits or requires the building of a unique experience base while serving clients being a full-line producer in a market with heavy trade-up phenomena having a wide genius for providing a needed for providing a needed product or service trait reliably and dependably.Business Strategies essays research papers Strategy evaluation is an attempt to look beyond the obvious facts regarding the short-term health of a business and appraise instead those more fundamental f actors and trends that govern success in the chosen field of endeavor. Strategy can also be defined as a set of objectives, policies and plans that, taken together, define the scope of the enterprise and its approach to survival and success. Alternatively, we could say that the particular policies, plans, and objectives of a business express its strategy for coping with a complex competitive environment. A good business strategy can be broadly categorized into functions like consistency, consonance, advantage, and feasibility.A strategy that fails to meet one or more of these criteria is strongly in suspect. It fails to perform at least one of the key functions that are necessary for the survival of the business. Inconsistency in business is not simply a flaw in logic. A key function of strategy is to provide coherence to organizational action. A clear and explicit concept of strategy can foster a climate of tacit coordination that is more efficient than most administrative mechanis ms. Organizational conflict and interdepartmental bickering are often symptoms of managerial disorder, but may also indicate problems of strategic inconsistency.It is no exaggeration that to say that competitive strategy is the art of creating or exploiting those advantages that are most telling, enduring, most difficult to duplicate. Competitive strategy, in contrast with generic strategy, focuses on the differences among firms rather than their common missions. Competitive advantages can normally be traced to one of the three roots (1) superior skills, (2) superior resources, and (3) superior position. Positional advantage is of two types, first mover advantages and reinforcers. First movers may also gain advantages in building distribution channels, in trying up specialized suppliers, or in gaining the attention of customers. Reinforcers are policies and practices acting to strengthen or preserve a strong market position and which are easier to carry because of the position. Othe r position-based advantages include the ownership of special raw material sources or advantageous long-term supply contracts being geographically located near key customers in a business involving significant fixed investment and high transportation costs being a leader in a service field that permits or requires the building of a unique experience base while serving clients being a full-line producer in a market with heavy trade-up phenomena having a wide reputation for providing a needed for providing a needed product or service trait reliably and dependably.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Cultural Deprivation The Hispanic ChallengeWhy do most groups not succeed in academic settings? One theory brought up in Understanding inequality suggests that the gap in the socioeconomic status drives the inequalities in the school system. The low and working class have less time and income to intervene with schooling. This means they have less time to meet with teachers, hire tutors, and erect continuous transportation. Therefore the lower class cant possibly compete with the middle and upper classes. Angela Valenzuela gives the accounts of some Hispanic students experiences in school. These students feel that it is the in contrary nature of the schools in the US that contribute to the low success levels. The schools in Mexico have teachers that value and nurture in their students an ability to communicate and express themselves with confidence (Valenzuela). This is what leads to success in schooling, which the United States does not provide them. Another explanation to this is a theory of cultural deprivation. This is the idea that certain cognitive styles connect to different ethnic groups. It just so happens that what school demands from students is a characteristic of the White and Asian races, which is abstraction , while other less successful groups like African Americans and Latinos possess more concrete thinking. Current manifestations of this can be seen from Samuel Huntingtons article The Hispanic Challenge....
Smith v. AllwrightA resolution of the pop Party of Texas, a group that the Texas Supreme Court had deemed a " unbidden association," allowed only whites to participate in antiauthoritarian primary elections. S.S. Allwright was a county election official he denied Lonnie E. Smith, a black man, the right to vote in the 1940 Texas Democratic primary. Question Presented Did denying blacks the right to vote in primary elections violate the Fifteenth Amendment?Conclusion The Court overruled its decision in Grovey v. Townsend (1935) and found the restrictions against blacks unconstitutional. Even though the Democratic Party was a voluntary organization, the fact that Texas statutes governed the selection of county-level party leaders, the party conducted primary elections under state statutory authority, and state courts were given exclusive archetype jurisdiction over contested elections, guaranteed for blacks the right to vote in primaries. Allwright engaged in state action ab ridging Smiths right to vote because of his race. A state cannot " appropriate a private organization to practice racial discrimination" in elections, argued Justice Reed. (The Courts decision in this matter was amended on June 12, 1944.)Buckley v. ValeoFacts of the Case In the wake of the Watergate affair, Congress attempted to ferret out corruption in political campaigns by restricting financial contributions to candidates. Among other things, the law set limits on the amount of money an individual could contribute to a single campaign and it required reporting of contributions above a certain threshold amount. The Federal preference Commission was created to enforce the statuteQuestion Presented Did the limits placed on electoral expenditures by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, and related provisions of the cozy Revenue Code of 1954, violate the counterbalance Amendments freedom of speech and association clauses?Conclusion In this complicated case, the Court arrived at two important conclusions. First, it held that restrictions on individual contributions to political campaigns and candidates did not violate the First Amendment since the limitations of the FECA enhance the "integrity of our system of representative democracy" by guarding against unscrupulous practices. Second, the Court found that political restriction of independent expenditures in campaigns, the limitation on expenditures by candidates from their own personal or family resources, and the limitation on total campaign expenditures did violate the First Amendment. Since these practices do not necessarily enhance the potential for corruption that individual contributions to candidates do, the Court found that restricting them did not serve a government saki great enough to warrant a curtailment on free speech and association.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
The MoonThe Moon is the only natural satellite of domain orbit 384,400 km from priming diameter 3476 km mass 7.35e22 kg Called Luna by the Romans, Selene and Artemis by the Greeks, and many other names in other mythologies. The Moon, of course, has been known since prehistoric times. It is the secant brightest object in the sky after the Sun. As the Moon orbits around the Earth once per month, the angle between the Earth, the Moon and the Sun changes we see this as the cycle of the Moons phases. The time between successive new moons is 29.5 days (709 hours), slightly different from the Moons orbital period (measured against the stars) since the Earth moves a significant distance in its orbit around the Sun in that time. Due to its size and composition, the Moon is sometimes classified as a terrestrial planet along with Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The Moon was first visited by the Soviet spacecraft Luna 2 in 1959. It is the only extraterr estrial body to have been visited by humans. The first landing was on July 20, 1969 (do you remember where you were?) the last was in December 1972. The Moon is also the only body from which samples have been returned to Earth. In the summer of 1994, the Moon was very extensively mapped by the little spacecraft Clementine and again in 1999 by Lunar Prospector. The gravitational forces between the Earth and the Moon cause some interesting publications. The intimately obvious is the tides. The Moons gravitational attraction is stronger on the side of the Earth nearest to the Moon and weaker on the opposite side. Since the Earth, and particularly the oceans, is not perfectly rigid it is stretched let on along the line toward the Moon. From our perspective on the Earths surface we see two small bulges, one in the direction of the Moon and one directly opposite. The effect is much stronger in the ocean water than in the solid crust so the water bulges are higher. And because the Ea rth rotates much faster than the Moon moves in its orbit, the bulges move around the Earth about once a day giving two high tides per day.
The MoonThe Moon is the only natural satellite of Earth orbit 384,400 km from Earth diameter 3476 km mass 7.35e22 kg Called Luna by the Romans, Selene and Artemis by the Greeks, and many other names in other mythologies. The Moon, of course, has been known since prehistoric periods. It is the second brightest object in the sky after the Sun. As the Moon orbits most the Earth once per month, the angle between the Earth, the Moon and the Sun changes we see this as the cycle of the Moons phases. The time between successive new moons is 29.5 days (709 hours), slightly different from the Moons orbital period (measured against the stars) since the Earth moves a significant distance in its orbit slightly the Sun in that time. Due to its size and composition, the Moon is sometimes classified as a terrestrial planet along with Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The Moon was first visited by the Soviet space vehicle Luna 2 in 1959. It is the only extra terrestrial body to have been visited by humans. The first landing was on July 20, 1969 (do you remember where you were?) the function was in December 1972. The Moon is also the only body from which samples have been returned to Earth. In the summer of 1994, the Moon was very extensively mapped by the little spacecraft Clementine and again in 1999 by Lunar Prospector. The gravitative forces between the Earth and the Moon cause some interesting effects. The most obvious is the tides. The Moons gravitational attraction is stronger on the side of the Earth nearest to the Moon and weaker on the opposite side. Since the Earth, and particularly the oceans, is not perfectly rigid it is stretched out along the byplay toward the Moon. From our perspective on the Earths surface we see two small bulges, one in the direction of the Moon and one directly opposite. The effect is much stronger in the ocean water than in the solid crust so the water bulges are higher. And because the Earth ro tates much faster than the Moon moves in its orbit, the bulges move around the Earth about once a day giving two high tides per day.
Monday, May 27, 2019
dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol February 10, 2013 Introduction This experiment was done to demonstrate the practical use of dehydration reactions and produce three different produces. Dehydration reactions are reactions that involve the leaving of an -OH or -H group resulting in the formation of a double bond between two carbons. For the experiment we used 2-Methylcyclohexanol as a beginning reagent to dehydrate and possibly form 3-methylcyclohexene, 1-methylcyclohexene, or methylenecyclohexane.Drierite (Calcium Sulfate) was used as a drying agent to help break the alcohol and hydrogen groups from the carbons. unvoiced phosphoric acid was used as a catalyst to help move the reaction towards the products motioned above. To determine the successfulness of the experiment and the amount of product(s) recovered, IR spectroscopy, petrol Chromatography and pct yield calculations were used. Equations and Structures 6. References 1. 18. Dehydration of 2- Methylcyclohexanol. Organic C hemistry Lab 2040L. XU Chemistry, n. d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. 2. Material rubber info Sheet 2-Methylcyclohexanol. Http//www. coleparmer. com/Assets/Msds/97403. htm. Coleparmer, 19 Mar. 1998. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. 3. Material Safety Data Sheet Methylcyclohexane. Sciencelab. com. Science Lab, 09 Oct. 2005. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. 4. Helmenstine, Anne M. , Ph. D. How to Write a LabAReport. About. com Chemistry. About. com Guide, n. d. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. . 5. Theoretical Yield. Theoretical Yield. Ed. University of Colorado at Boulder. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, n. d. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. . 7. Data Chemicals In Experiment B.P. Amount Used **Observations 2-Methylcyclohexanol 164-166C 0. 75mL Colorless liquid that had similar fume to gasoline. Calcium Sulfate (Drierite) 1193C Half Hickman noneffervescent tweed powder that resembled kitty litter. Phosphoric Acid 158C Approx. 1mL Clear liquid & Odorless 3-Methylcyclohexene 104C N/A Colorless liquid that had similar face to g asoline. 1-Methylcyclohexene * 110C N/A Colorless liquid that had similar smell to gasoline. Methylenecyclohexane 102C N/A Colorless liquid that had similar smell to gasoline. *Major Product **Not All Observations were noted in lab manual, many stated are from memory from the experiment. Observations It took a lot of time for the Hickman assuage to display any signs of condensation. The sand bathtub was adjusted to 60 power when 40 did not yield any visible results. The addition of a palpebra to the Hickman Still seemed to expedite the entire process. Colorless liquid began to collect rapidly in the first section of the Hickman Still. Weight of ampoule without Product 4. 284 grams Weight of Vial with Product 4. 550 grams Weight of Product 0. 266 gramsTheoretical Yield 0. 63 grams Percent Yield of Product 42% of Product was Recovered GC Interpretation The GC reading showed 3 peaks that were the products and one blip that is attributed to the air in the system. The different boi ling points of the different molecules in the sample cause the different peaks to be explicit in the GC. Of the 3 peaks, 1-Methylcyclohexene proved to be the most abundant product due its large area percentage. Percent Air Ignore Percent Methylenecyclohexane 1. 64555 = 2% Percent 3-Methylcyclohexene 17. 97600 = 18% Percent 1-Methylcyclohexene 79. 8650 = 80% IR Spectroscopy Reading of Sample Gas Chromatography Data 8. Calculations 9. Conclusions In conclusion, we were successfully able to dehydrate 2-Methlycyclohexanol to combine all three of the above products most notably 1-Methylcyclohexene. Adding approximately 1mL of 83% concentrated phosphoric acid to serve as the catalyst to the starting reagent and use calcium sulfate as a desiccant in the Hickman Still allowed the reaction to occur. The process of getting the products to condense on the first section of the Hickman Still took quite a while of time.After the product was collected, IR spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical make up and purity of the product. The IR reading of the product collected in comparison to the IR of the starting reagent 2-Methylcyclohexanol showed in the 3400 cm? 1 that the OH had went from a broad peak to a small blip. This gives evidence to the course of successfulness of the dehydration preformed but also shows that some OH was still in the product. The hypothetical GC data provided for this experiment demonstrates the purity of the sample along with the percent of each molecule found in the product. -Methlcylcohexene proved to be the major product of the reaction due to the 80% area in the GC data and the regions expressed in the IR reading. Due to human errors such as not allowing enough time for the product to collect, using more desiccants than needed, allowing for the temperature of the sand bath to reach the boiling point of 2-Methylcyclohexanol or not retrieving the entire product, the percent yield was only 42%. The experiment is considered a success becaus e all the evaluate products were produced and very little OH was found in the sample.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Our cleverness to engage in abstraction is, indubitably, a rum gift invest to our kind cognition. And the reason for much(prenominal) a telling affray is near to being self-evident i. e. , only hu creation persons have the ability to see through otherwise distinct and separate entities, a unifying concept that reveals these things common spirit, if non their defining result. To this end, it is necessary to point that our tender thoughts preponderance to abstracting the nubbles is another facet of gentlemans gentleman cognition.This is because distinguishing, akin to seeing, affords us an immediate grasp of realitys nature and purpose for by the unblemished experience of something, affirm a table, we almost instantly furnish ourselves with a working concept about the things essence i. e. , we know what a table is, what is it for. Thus, it makes sense to say that abstracting essences form part and parcel of both the intuitive and inductive process of a persons ability to know reality. Our understanding of the concept of essence draws chiefly from the scheme provided by the Greek metaphysics.And herein it would insightful to take cue from Aristotles hylemorphic framework. According to Aristotle, anything that exists say, a direct or a dog is constituted of both an universe of discourse and an essence i. e. , all things both have material and formal constitutions. On the angiotensin-converting enzyme hand, foundation pertains to the act of being, or the facticity of a thing. For example, that table is being actual right when one sees it. On the other hand, essence pertains to the nature of a certain thing.It is that which makes a thing to be what it is an abstracted concept which makes us see the connection between the entities that we are perceiving (say, a table) and the other things (say, a classroom filled with tables) be to the same genre or species (Lavine 71). Essence thus defines the nature of a certain thing or describes the aspect proper to the same. If we proceed with this line of argumentation, we commode go on to claim that one can apply the concept of essence to pertain to reality of human persons.From here, we can move to identify visible aspects which whitethorn be deemed proper to human persons, so as to glean what we may call human essence i. e. , that a person is an existing being, that he shows characteristic elements proper to animals, but that he possess a faculty of intellect and freewill proper to him and him alone. In the ultimate analysis, one can say that the essence defining a human person lies in framing him as a living creature that shares certain characteristic traits of animals, but is endowed nevertheless with the unique faculty of intellect and freewill.Key to this process, it must be lay outd, is describing the determinate aspects of his very existence. To be sure, we may still identify a trustworthy number of characteristic elements that could equally describe what it means to be human person. And sure, we cannot stop at construing fundamental animality and rationality as aspects that sufficiently come the whatness of charity for the reasoned construction of human essences does not entail that we have completely circumscribed the total reality of human persons.That having said, Jean Paul Sartre believes that humanity has no fixed essence. In other words, he believes that humanity cannot be framed within the parameters of determinateness or the limits we impose by construing human essences. At the very least, Sartre contends that we cannot define the contours of what it means to be a person because our freedom determines the unique mien of our very existence. J. Sartres contention fundamentally draws from his concept of imperative human freedom.A thinker who belongs to the erstwhile group of philosophers known as Existentialists, Sartres philosophy puts higher premium than most on appreciating human existence as a concrete and perpetual striving for o nes own becoming (Marias 436). This means that, for Sartre, we as human persons must constantly jimmy the fact we exist, more than the fact that we have an essence to frame our subsequent courses of actions. Sartre believes that we are necessarily free, and that the burden of making our own human essence lies in the picks that we make (Marias 440).Put in laymans terms, Sartre believes that our freedom is autocratic, and that, even more importantly, the choices we make determine the kind of person that we are. In a way, Sartre reverses the logic of human essence i. e. , human actions does not flow from ones own essence instead, human essence is molded by the actions that we as persons commit to doing. For such reason, and as mentioned earlier, Sartre believes that humanity has no fixed essence.And insofar as the concrete form of our human essence takes cue only from the activities which human persons do, Sartre rests his case on the plain assumption that ones life cannot be place d within any restricting concepts of essence, for any reason any(prenominal) (Marias 440-441). There are reasons to think, however, that Sartre may have framed human freedom quite radically and that his wholesale denial of an identifiable human essence may have been taken quite drastically.To this end, strains of Aristotles philosophy may be helpful in shedding light into some of the oversights Sartre may have pull in denying the tenability of human essence on account of absolute freedom. Firstly, it may be insightful to be reminded of the fact that Aristotle understands human essence as an aspect of life that does not effectively restrict human capacity to determine ones path according to the sets of actions a person may willingly opt for. Human essence precisely speaks of the kind or quality of existence which is construable from and identifiable in a certain thing (Lavine 71).It merely serves to help man appreciate what kind of creature he is by way of categories and definition s. Conversely, the concept of human essence does not, in any whatsoever, imply an absolute determination of human reality according to these set of classification or categorization. An example may help further situate the conundrum when someone thinks of man as essentially a spiritual being i. e. , the capacity for spiritual relations with God belongs properly to the characteristic trait of humanity one does not rule out the possibility of not believing in God all together.Instead, one merely makes a statement about the humanitys general preponderance to worshipping a deity, notwithstanding personal choice to dissent. The same goes true for human essence. Sartre thinks that humanity has not a fixed essence on account of a human freedom that determines a resulting human nature. Unfortunately for Sartre, human essence and human freedom are not mutually exclusive. In fact, a persons freedom is only affirmed, if not accentuated by the fact that the human essence is defined by a tacit identification of mans of staple rationality and capacity for freewill.Secondly, Sartres contention that human persons have no fixed essence is certainly difficult to argue precisely because human freedom is really not absolute and that humanitys basic essence does not depend on human choice but on what nature has fundamentally given. Two aspects come into play with in this particular rebuttal. In the first place, Sartre may have taken human freedom quite radically in arguing that it our capacity to determine ourselves must be taken in absolute terms i. e. , we can do whatever we wish besides, we are the ones determining our resulting essence in the process.This, unfortunately, is untenable. For instance, if I, born as a human person, were to choose living like a dog, I would probably get down certain dog-like activities incongruent with my natural bodily processes. I would find it difficult to bark, let alone walk in a four-legged manner as these are not consistent with how was I born and raised. The point in contention here lies in arguing that human freedom, contrary to Sartres arguments, cannot be taken as an absolute determinant of human nature.On the contrary one may find it difficult to deliberately deviate from the demands of our basic human essence. Such difficulty should bring us more into an appreciation of our human nature not really as an aspect dependent on human choice, but an aspect that is made perfect by the choices that we make. Herein Aristotles teleological philosophy appears to take shape. According to Aristotle, essence precedes actions, or essence precedes existence and that the perfection of all actions comes when they fulfill the essence in question (Marias 74).For instance, when a person uses critical thinking before making a judgment, such an act can be considered as a perfection of the mans nature as a rational entity. The point in contention here lies in arguing that we cannot really do away with human nature. On the contrary, our actions must run consistent with it for only when we act according to our nature can our actions be perfected according to our essence. By way of conclusion, I wish to end with a thought that dismisses Sartres contention i. . , that humanity cannot find a common essence proper to himself and himself alone on account of its patent inability to take into account the true state of human affairs. In the discussions that were developed, it was learned that Sartres refutation of human essence stems from his belief that human freedom is absolute, and that human persons are the ones molding their respective essences. However, there are surely good reasons to think that this philosophical stances does not hold water.First, it has been argued that the concept of human essence does not in any way defeat the reality of human freedom. Human nature and human freedom, it was argued, are not mutually exclusive. Second, Sartre appears to have neglected the fact that human freedom cannot be equ ated with the capacity to do what one wishes, regardless of what nature has already given. There is no such thing as an absolute freedom. And in the final analysis, we have to admit that we are fountain by a certain essence, no matter how hard try to deviate from it.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Spina Bifida A type of birth defect that affects the skeletal system is Spina Bifida. Spina Bifida is a nueral tube defect that occurs when the bones of the spine or the vertebrae do not form accurately around the spinal cord. In severe cases it can inhibit a persons walking or daily activities. There be threesome basic forms of Spina Bifida. The mildest form is Occulta, the next would be Meningocele and the most severe is Myelomeningocele. (http//www. uptodate. com/contents/overview-of-the-management-of-myelomeningocele-spina-bifida 2012) Myelomeningocele is the case that affects the skeletal system the most.With this, the nerves in the spine protrude show up of the spinal canal and a bulge in the skin may appear. If nerves become damaged, there may be a high aspect that there could be problems with walking, coordination and bowel and bladder control. The exact cause of Spina Bifida is not known. (Foti 2012) Some say that it could be genetic and is more likely to happen in women that are obese and have diabetes. Symptoms that may indicate that a child has Spina Bifida, include, a curve in the spine, nerves coming out of the back and stumblebum of the spine.Also, the child will have nerve damage, which can mean that they will have little or no feeling in the legs, feet and or arms. (http//www. mayoclinic. com/ health/spina-bifida/DS00417 2012) Another indicator could be a build up of fluid in the brain. Spinal deformity occurs most frequently in patients with Myelomeningocele. It can unembellished as kyphosis, scoliosis or lordosis. Most children diagnosed with Spina Bifida also have an allergy to latex. (http//www. everydayhealth. com/health-center/spina-bifida-symptoms. aspx 2012) The diagnosis for Spina Bifida is usually determined by a blood test that a woman has during pregnancy.Most people find out that their child has this defect before he or she is born. If it is not determined before birth, it may be diagnosed by how the youngsters back looks an d as they get to the pint of where they should start crawling and standing. You will be able to notice how the weekness in the muscle and bones are. Children that are born wih Spina Bifida may also have mental disabilities as well because it affects the brain just as much as it affects the spine and nerves. (http//www. spinabifidaassociation. org/site/c. evKRI7OXIoJ8H/b. 8029563/k. 83B2/
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Money, fame, a successful c areer these are among the involvements many tribe would consider to be the most important things in life. What do you think do you consider the factors above to be the chief things in life? low though, let us agree that regard slight of the route we calculate, our goal in all our pursuits remain essentially the same Happiness. The problem with most people is that in their pursuit of this state of mind, they often sacrifice too oft, sometimes sacrificing even happiness itself along the wayAs a result, just when they think they eat finally captured the cage that should hold joy and satisfaction, such as by getting to the peak of ones career, they soon discover that the cage is empty. How tragic Take gold or financial success for example. The extent to which money contributes to happiness is probably the most misunderstood phenomenon on earth. Now please do not take me wrong. Money is very important to have in our society. In fact the Late Jim Rohn Say s it ranks right up there with oxygen. But as a result, it is passing overrated by most people.Meanwhile various researches have repeatedly proven that slightly above the poverty line, subsequent financial success contributes less and less to a persons state of happiness. This has to be straightforward otherwise, why are suicide rates among wealthy people and lottery winners among the highest? Likewise those who see fame as the ultimate in life they soon get disillusioned. Drug overdose and, yes, suicide are particularly high among very famous people. Why? Surely fame has brought them existing happiness. So then what? Yes, what things are truly the most important in life?I would propose that the most important things in life are those that bring the greatest happiness to ourselves and those around us. Top on this list would be genuine love and rich relationships, such as is shared among true friends and family members. Next on my list would be a measure of good health and a good relationship with the creator, God. It goes without saying that love is the chief thing in life. What would life amount to if nobody, not even God, shows us affection? Newborn babies soon die when they are denied affection.And adults do not fare much better. We can as well say the same thing about relationships. Developing a healthy relationship with others creates interdependence, which is vital to both personal and your pipeline growth. This is not to say that money and financial success are of no use. No. It is just that they should not be your major focus in life. And that leads us to another item on the most important things in life wisdom. I will define wisdom as the correct application of knowledge. scholarship is hugely important in our lives.For example, it takes wisdom to balance your personal MLM business pursuits without sacrificing vital family and other relationships. In deed, it is when we go about our pursuits in this way that we reject the chance of being happy a t their attainment. On the other hand, a failure to get these factors in proper order leads so many persons to frustrations. This is because either person has a set of beliefs, or mindset which guides them as they make decisions. This mindset is often shaped by such variables as our individual experiences in life, our education and the environment where a person grew up.This mindset may either be working in our favor or against us. The difference lies in the cumulative outcome of all our decisions. Good results mean that our mindset is working, and vice versa. Bearing in mind that your decisions today will have a significant launch on how the rest of your life turns out. Would it not be better to pay greater attention to the most important things in life as you likewise go after your MLM success? Interestingly, most wealthy people find that once they get things in proper order, other things naturally fall into place. So enrich your life, approach things in this way.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Psychology as a recognized science is a fairly bran-new revelation, falling into favoritism only within the preceding(a) century. Philosophy bears the roots of psychology, and philosophers have been pondering the inner workings of the mind and body for many centuries onwards psychology came in to favor. One of the key philosophers crucial in the development of psychology in to a formal discipline was Descartes. Their writings influenced more juvenile Western philosophers such as joke Locke and John Mill. From this point, psychology grew into the science it is now recognized as.The PhilosophersThe 17th century is the cornerstone of philosophy evolving into psychology. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) is often considered to be the inspiration for and credited to be the father of our modern philosophy, and psychology. He is most famously quoted for I think, therefore I am (Descartes, 2006). A humans ability to reason is the only to find truth. Descartes would also non accept anything t o be truth unless there was no discernable reason for doubt. The only stylus to get to the certainty of truth is to arrive at oneself, relying on the clear use of ones own reasoning powers (Goodwin, 2008, p.33).Disenchanted with the philosophy he was taught, Descartes found nonhing in his learning that could not be left to question. He was said to only believe as truth what could not be doubted and Descartes pursued to find the knowledge he could find within himself (Goodwin, 2008). Descartes was a rationalist and dualist, making him firm believer in the mind and body creation two completely separate entities. His beliefs on this atomic number 18 debatable in philosophy and psychology and have been so in the centuries following his life.Philosophers and psychologists to this day are still trying to find the connection between the mind and the body. Western Influences John Locke John Locke was a 17th century British philosopher who is credited with creation the founder of Empiri cism, the idea that our experiences are our only true source of knowledge. Lockes view on the formation of ideas was sensation and reflection is the only foundation on which we form ideas. He believed we acquired all of our knowledge form our experiences in the world and in life. Locke compared the human mind to a sheet of white paper.Over the rowing of life, all of our experiences are recorded upon this paper, our sensations. These sensations can later be recalled, in reflection, to add to new sensations and to acquire new compounded knowledge. John Mill John Mill is considered to be the most important contributor during the British Empirical movement. His contribution stated all knowledge is attained through experience and noninheritable ideas do not exist. Mill also believed a man should be able to do anything desired as long as the actions do not harm or hurt fellow man in the process.This also affected his views on the necessity of government. The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community against his will is to resist harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient warrant. (Mill, 2008). Mill found the government to only be necessary for the protection of the people in defense of a war, safety against violence, and to prevent cheating or fraud. Modern Psychology The evolution of philosophy into the science of psychology rapidly took shape in the 19th century.The world was also rapidly changing the Industrial Revolution created new technologies to help in the advancement of many facets of science. Moving into the next century, advances in the knowledge in anatomy and of the headway further assisted the progress of psychology being a science. Robert Watson was crucial in the study of the history of psychology. Founding a new division of the American Psychological Association, he encourages a study of the history of psychology. As a result, nearly all psychology program s today require a course in psychologys history. (Goodwin, 2008) Conclusion.Psychology as the science we recognize today is barely more than a century in the making. When following the links to the past and the minds that have gotten us to where we are in psychology today, much it to be learned. From modern medicine and science all the way back to ancient philosophers, psychology is a longstanding and diverse study. References Descartes, Rene (2006). A discourse on method/ by Rene Descartes Kindle DX version. Retrieved from Amazon. com Goodwin, C. J. (2008). A history of modern psychology 3rd ed. . Mill, John S. (2008). On conversance/ by John Stuart Mill Kindle DX version. Retrieved from Amazon. com.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Nurses atomic number 18 self directed and can solve verit qualified(a) the most complex problems with proper drawing cardship and commitment in their set. It is important for a apply to work in a cohesive and strong breast feeding team, as this result in to an effective delivery of client cover. In building this empowered nursing team, it is all attributed to the nurse executive director.A nurse executive often holds the title of the vice president or is the director. The executives position within an organization is critical in uniting the strategic vigilance of the organization with the philosophical values and goals of nursing. The nurse executive is a clinical attracter and business attraction in organization, the person responsible and concerned with maximizing quality care and cost effectiveness.The most important responsibility of the nurse executive is to establish a vision for nursing the lays groundwork which enables the directors and staff to admit quality care. This forms the essence and value of the nursing care and is the foundation of quality practiced nursing regime. It is important for the nurse executive, as leader to expand his or her role from collaboration, coaching, monitoring, communicating, coordinating and coinciding with the staffs and other related health care providers.A nurse executive must serve as the role copy that exemplifies the mission and vision of the organization. It is important that the values are diversified and promoted by the nurse executive in order to have a culturally competitive group of health care workers. As a leader, is open to change that would help innovate the staffs and promote creativity which will improve the quality of care they are providing.It is important that she or he demonstrates a sound judgment regarding the decisions and regulation that is formulated in the administration, these should be within the scope of the staffs and as sanitary as coincide to the patients. It is important that as a leader he or she would be able to make haste the designed delivery of care that is suited with the inescapably of the patient. The nurse leader should be able to make a strong connection with the group in order to unit the group with ane aim to provide the best quality care to patient in line with the cost effectiveness that is inline with treatment.It is important that the nurse executive delegate the tasks appropriately to the staff in order for them to function accordingly. In most cases, failed relationship with the nurse executive and the staff is one of the reasons why health care serve are unmanageable.It is important that the nurse executive and the nurse manager to support each other in order to establish the necessary management social organization that would help in attaining the organizational goals and provide the appropriate support to the care delivery staff. Within this created connection of the executives, staffs and members of the health groups it would create an environment that nursing practice would thrive. Involvement of staff is beneficial because with the participation of each member it would help incorporate the knowledge and skills into one.This relationship that is formed within the structure of the nursing administration is important because it is the one that determines the roles and task of the members. Some tasks are carried out personally by the nurse executive but it is important that she is lock in able to delegate tasks to its member.The leader should be able to interact. Through this interaction, relationships are built and this would be dependent on the tasks that will be formulated by the role holder. This relationship building is the foundation of trust on the members of the organization which is beneficial in carrying out the tasks needed. Each member of the health organization should be entitled to give their perceptions and understanding regarding the current health administration and in turn as the nurse executive she or he should be able to accumulate this and present a substantial form of management.Rosemarie Rizzo Parses human becoming theory abides with three themes meaning, rhythmicity, and transcendence. The first theme is meaning which pith that people participate in creating something if it is real for them through their self expression and the values that they have. As a nurse executive, she or he must be able to consider the values and individual perceptions of the members of the team. With this she would be able to understand them and in turn would be able to recognize the needs and improvements.The culture and mood is often the key to how the members will be able to act accordingly. The culture is the routines, rules and how they do things that have been past on by the past and former leaders. The mode on the other hand is the perceptions and behaviour of the members. This influences individual and team motivation that is why it is important that the nurse execu tive to do things according to the values attributes, skills and priorities which would also consider the ethical rights. It is important that the behavior of the leader is well founded with this so she would be able to have her staffs involvement and they in turn with participate to what she asks them to do.The reciprocal ohm theme is rhythmicity which means that the self can limit or set the opportunity that emerges which can either be a way of moving or being apart from others. The nurse executive should know when or which opportunity to grab. These opportunities should be with the scope of its members and should also be within the patients needs. The concern should be tush on the people in which he or she is in control of.The nurse executive cannot have a one way approach of addressing the needs of the administration because it may not coincide with the needs and understanding of the staffs, it is better that they are both able to acknowledge their concerning by having two wa y system. The executive listen to the ideas of the members as the members do the same with regards to the ideas of the executive.The third theme is transcendence which means that one must be able to cope up with the changes that are on going and would be able to stand out in it. A nurse executive should be open to change and is open for improvements whether it is regarding the attitudes and behavior or the organizational structure of the administration. She or he as well should be open for this change because in order for her to be an effective leader the change should start from her in order for her members to that too.Decentralized management is the type of structure that enables the nurse executive to have a greater collaborative effort, increase competency of the staff and ultimately a greater sense of professional accomplishment and satisfaction. The decision making is move by the nurse executive to the manager going to the staff. It is important that as a nurse executive she o r he would be able to voice out the concern of his or her member in order to have a centralized decision making.The nursing administration is very much dependent on the roles of this nurses that is why the role of the nurse as an advocate is important in order to motivate the staffs and involve them to health care innovations that would help improve the quality of nursing care.As a leader it is important that she would be able to identify the process that needs to be improved. Set her vision and mission that her members could be able to understand, and she could easily facilitate on. In order for them to act she should be able to provide the needed materials and methods in order to carry out the tasks and solve problems.As a leader she should be able not only to carry out the task but carry it out on herself as well, a good leader knows and shows how things could be done. It is important that despite the hardships and differences each one has a good leader and advocate of health sho uld encourage her members in promoting and improving the quality of health care delivery.ReferencesExecutives, A. O. O. T. N. (2007). Nurse Executive. 2007, from http//www.nursesource.org/executive.htmlTheory.com, R. (2007). Human Becoming Theory.Perry, P. (2001). Fundamentals of nursing 6th edition Mosby Inc.
A good electoral system is, therefore, the seam rock of genuine representative government. The architects of the Indian constitution attached the highest signifi freighterce to arzon-dependent electoral machinery for the transmit of options. For this it was necessary that an autarkical election commission with its vast paraphernalia should be set-up in country such a commission could ensure fair and free elections of the representatives of the pie at wholly levels. Articles 324, Dr.Ambedkar contended, proposed centralise the election machinery in pass on of a single commission, be assisted by regional commissioners working chthonian the supervision precaution control of the election commission and not and under e control of the state government as envisaged earlier. Composition of the alternative commitment Of the four pillars of the Indian constitution, the option commission is one, the other three be the Supreme Court, the public service commission and the comptroller and Auditor General of India.On the resource commission depends the rectitude of election, which truly is the oxygen of democracy. Thus viewed, its independence d impartiality assume critical importance to the countrys st each(prenominal)ion policy-making system. To ensure free and fair and impartial elections, the constitution establishes the option Commission, a body independent in character and free from political orenecutive influence. The commission is an All India body having jurisdiction over, elections to parliament, fate Legislatures, posts of the chairwoman and vice- prexy.The resource Commission consists of the of import choice Commissioner, and such number of Election Commissioners if whatsoever as the professorship may fix from time to time. The Chief Election Commissioner stands at the apex of the hierarchy of the Election Commission of India. All these commissioners ar appointed by the president subject to the renders of each law enacted by parliament for the heading. The Chief Election Commissioner acts as the chairman of the Election Commission . n case any other Election Commissioner besides him is appointed. The tenure of the Chief Election Commissioner is independent of the executive discretion, for he cannot be removed from his of face except in the like manner and on the like grounds as a judge of the Supreme Court. The conditions of service of the Chief Election Commissioner cannot be varied to his disadvantage aft(prenominal) his appointment. The president also promulgated an ordinance amending the Chief Election Commissioner and ther Election Commissioner Act providing for unanimous deed of business and decisions but in case of differences of opinion among the three members the matter shall be decided harmonize to the opinion of the majority. The Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioner Act, 1991 as existed before the issue of ordinance was weighed in favour of the chief election commissioner on decision making in case of differences among the members of the commission. The constitution provides for a single member or multimember Election Commission.Where there is more than one I members the CEC acts as its chairman. The mission on Electoral Reforms has made certain recommendations with regard to the items and conditions of service Of the Chief Election Commissioner and the other Election Commissioners. After having studied those recommendations the chief Election Commissioners of India conditions of service rules 1972 were amended with introspective, effect from 1st January 1986. The Chief Election Commissioner of India testament not be entitled to the salary and other facilities, like rent free accommodation, equivalery to that of a judge of Supreme Court.The term of his office has also been extended upto 6 years, from the date he assumes office or till the day he at his the age of 65 years. To assist the Chief Election Commissioner in the performance of his onerous dut ies there exists a large paraphernalia of the incumbents and the staff subordinate to him. Among them is the regional commissioner. Deputy Election Commissioner, secretary, Under secretary, Research ships policemans etc. In the place of the regional commissioners a refreshful post of Deputy Election Commissioner was created in the Election Commission for the first time in 1956.Since he Deputy Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the president and is usually sent on deputation, he can be recalled by the central govt, at the request of the chief Election Commissioner at any time. At the state or the union territory level there is the Chief Election officer as the kingpin in the Electoral machinery. He is nominated by the Election Commission in consultation with the state Govt. He is usually a senior executive or judicial officer of the state Government.He is assisted by the joint deputy or assistant Chief Election officers as well as the rest of the staff appointed by him in consultation with the state government. He may be a whole time or part time officer. At the district level the electoral duties are discharged by the District officer or the Executive officer in addition to his normal administrative routine. The responsibility for the preparation and revision of electoral rolls is rested in an officer called the Electoral enrollment officer. He may strike under him Assistant Electoral Registration officers.The election in every constituency is supervised by an officer known as the returning officer nominated by the Election commission in consultation with the govt, of the state. The same officer can be nominated as returning officer r more than one constituencies. He is assisted by one or more assistant Returning Officers so designated by the Election Commission. The staff consisting of presiding and polling officers, for the real(a) conduct of the poll is appointed by the District Election officer. The District Election Officer may appoint a presiding officer for each polling invest and such polling officers are necessary.The presiding officer keeps ordering of the pooling station and ensures the fair conduct of the poll. Functions and advocates of the Election Commission The Election Commission of India has to perform multifarious duties assigned to it under the constitution. Some of the principal functions of the commission are (1) Demarcation of constituencies To facilitate the process of elections a country has to be divided into several constituencies. The travail of delimiting constituencies is generally performed by a delimitation commission.But the exponent to delimit parliamentary and assembly constituencies for the first general elections in 1951 was conferred on the president. The Election Commission distributed the seats district perspicacious in each one of the states and directed the Chief Electoral Officers to fake proposals for the physical demarcation of constituencies gibe to the prescribed cri teria. The procedure adopted in the delimitation of constituencies in 1951 led to a virtual power in the hands of the ruling party to decide the contours of the constituencies as it suited its designs.The association of parliamentary advisory committees with the delimitation commission gave top priority to political consideration. The Election Commission strongly pleaded for taking away(predicate) this power from the parliament. The Delimitation commission was to consist of three members, two of whom were to be nominated by the president from serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts while the Chief Election Commissioner was to be an ex-officio member. (2) Electoral RollsThe second important but tedious function of the Election Commission is to prepare for identification the upto date list of all the persons who are entitled for voting at the poll. (3) Recognition of political parties and Allotment of Symbols A new part IV A has been added to the representation of the people Amendment Act, 1951 on modification of political parties. Section 29 A now inserted provides for registration with the commission, of associations and bodies of individual citizens of India as political parties for purpose of this Act. This provision came into force from June 15, 1989.A recognised political party has been classified either as a guinea pig Party or a state party under paragraph 7 of the Elections symbol order 1968. Another important function of the Election Commissioner is to allot symbols to the political parties and the candidates, and also to accord recognition to the political parties. The commission has stipulate certain symbols as reserved and others as free. The reserved symbols are only ready(prenominal) for candidates sponsored by the political parties and the free symbols are equally available to other candidates.The Election Commission has power to adjudicate upon disputes with regard to recognition of political parties and rival claims t o a particular symbol for the purposes of elections. (4) Scrutiny of the nominating address Papers Another function of the Election Commission is to examine the nomination text file of the candidates. These papers are accepted if found in order, but rejected otherwise. This duty is performed by the returning officer who notifies to all the contesting candidates the date, time and place for the formal scrutiny of nomination papers.The Returning officer summarily but judicially examines all the nomination papers and decides the objection raised. He is also to see whether the requisite requirements of security deposit, election symbol, election agent etc. have also been fulfilled. He is empowered to reject the nomination papers either by upholding the objection raised by a rival candidate or on his own motion or any of the following (a) that the candidate either is not qualified or is disqualified to fill the seat under any of the relevant essential provisions viz. Articles 84. 02, 1 73 and 191 (b) that the provision of sections 33 and 34 of the representation of the peoples Act 1951 have not been complied with and (c) that the signature of the candidate or the removal firm on the nomination or papers is not genuine. (5) The conduct of the poll Another stupendous task that the Election Commission has to undertake is the conduct of the poll throughout the whole of India. In a parliamentary constituency, the returning officer is to make suitable arrangements for conducting the poll with the prior approval of the Election Commission.The commission can order a Ripoll for the whole constituency under compulsion of circumstances. Articles 324 confers on the Election Commission necessary powers to conduct the elections including the power to countermand the poll in a constituency and ordering a fresh poll there in because of hooliganism and break down of law and order at the line of polling or ascertain of votes. (6) Election Expenses Another most controversial funct ion that the election commission has perform is no inventory the accounts of election expenses submitted by contestants in elections.In India every contesting candidate is required to maintain and file the accounts of his election expenses. at heart a prescribed period after publication of the result of his election within 10 eld from the last date of filing the returns the Returning Officer submits to the Election Commission a list of all the candidates and their agents together with their returns as also his observation in respect of candidates who have failed to lodge returns in the specified time and a accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.The commission scrutinizes the accounts and dudes whether the returns are in worthy form and whether they have been lodged in time. In case of default it notifies the candidates or their agents of there disqualification by produce these in the official Gazette. Role of the Election Commission Election is the contrivance through which a fresh state creates amongst its citizens a sense of involvement and participation in public affairs. It is through popular elections that the authorization of a govt, is clouted with legitimacy and peaceful and orderly transfer of authority to new leaders is ensured.For this it was necessary than an independent Election Commission with its vast paraphernalia should be set up in the country. Such a commission would ensure fair and free election of the representatives of the people at all levels. fit in to L. K. Advani, The Election Commission occupies a pivotal place in the scheme of the Indian constitution. During recent years it has volitionally or unwillingly abdicated its independent Supra governmental authority and accepted for itself the role of a untainted official department charged with the conduct of elections. The relations between CES and the central and state Governments are not cordial. The confrontation and the ensuing embarrassment for the Governments as a result of the ruling given by Chief Election Commissioner J. N. Seshan have only been increasing. With a critical evaluation of the working of the Election Commission of India so far as we can now infer that Firstly, the working of the Elections Commission of India during the last four decades has shown that the Election Commission worked independently and impartially, as well as efficiently.Secondly, the Election Commission has fulfilled all the constitutional obligations, and has never tried to go beyond or over step the limits of the constitution. It always worked within the material body work of the constitution. Thirdly, when the Election Commission conducted the first General Election in 1951-52 the electorate were just 17 one million million but the present strength of the electorate is about 50 crores. The commission, has however been able to cope with its ever attach responsibilities. It has the capacity to meet new challenges and faced the situation boldly.Fourthly, a lthough the faith of the people in democracy, its institutions and political parties has gnaw at but their faith in the Election Commission has all the more strengthened or fortified. According to the Election Commission, the very fact that in almost all states the ruling parties have suffer setbacks shows that the elections have been free and fair. It has given the lie to the wide spread belief that the party in power will use official machinery and influence the voters in its favour.
Monday, May 20, 2019
PepsiCo is one of the good-nigh achieverful beverage and snack food business in the world. The comp any(prenominal) consist of Frito Lay Co., Pepsi-Cola Co., and Tropi pota Products.PepsiCo was funded in 1965 by Donald M. Kend distributively(prenominal) Pepsi-Cola president, and Herman W. Lay, president of Frito-Lay.Caleb Bradham, a New Bern, N.C. pharmacist, created pepsi-Cola in 1890. Frito-Lay, Inc. was organize by the 1961 merger of the Frito confederation, founded by Elmer Doolin in 1932, and the H. W. Lay Company, founded by Herman W. Lay, also in 1932.In 1998 PepsiCo acquires Tropi dis empowera Products from Seagram Company Ltd. Anthony Rossi founded Tropi tricka in 1947.Frito-Lay, Inc was funded in 1961, by merging of The Frito Company and H.W. Lay Company.Today, Frito-Lay brands account for 40% of the world, snack snatch industry, and 56% of the U.S. industry.Often, Frito-Lay Company products be don by local names (Matutano in Spain, Walkers in the fall in Kingdom and early(a)s.)Caleb Bradham founded pepsi-Cola in 1890. Brand Pepsi and other Pepsi-Cola products account for nearly one-third of total soft deglutition sales in the United States, a consumer mart totalling about $58 billion.Outside the United States, Pepsi-Cola beverages argon available in about 160 countries.Today Pepsi-Cola products account for about a quarter of all soft drinks sold internationally. The party has also launch operations in the emerging merchandises of the Czech Re national, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Russia, whither Pepsi-Cola was the beginning U.S. consumer product to be marketed.Pepsi-Cola provides advertising, marketing, sales and promotional support to Pepsi-Cola bottlers and food service customers. This includes some of the worlds best and close recognized advertising. New advertising and exciting promotions keep Pepsi-Cola brands young.Anthony Rossi founded Tropi good deala in 1947. The company entered the concentrate o operate juice business i n 1949, registering Tropicana as a trademark.In 1954 Rossi pioneered a pasteurisation process for orange juice. For the early time, consumers could enjoy the taste of pure not-from-concentrate 100% Florida orange juice in a ready-to-serve package.The company went public in 1957, was purchased by Beatrice Foods Co. in 1978, acquired by Kohlberg Kravis & Roberts in 1986 and sold to The Seagram Company Ltd. in 1988. Seagram purchased the Dole spheric juice business in 1995. PepsiCo acquired Tropicana, including the Dole juice business, in August 1998.Today, Tropicana is the worlds largest marketer and producer of mark juices with products available in 50 countries worldwide.The Pest Analysis identifies the political, economical, social a technological influences on an organization. The pay bump off dispersal and use of numerous of PepsiCo product are effect to various federal laws, such as the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Occupational Safety and Health Act ad the Americans with Disabilities. The businesses are also exposed to state, local and foreign laws. The international businesses are subject to the Government stability in the countries where PepsiCo is trying read into ( develop markets). The federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations. The businesses are also subject to de taxation policy in apiece boorish they are operating. They also get down to comply with federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations. The companies are subject to the harvest of the raw material that they use in their snack foods, soft drink and juice, a wish well corn, oranges, grapefruit, vegetables, potatoes, and so forth Because of they rely on trucks to move and distribute many of their products, sack is also an alpha subject, so they are subject to the fuel prize fluctuation, and to practical fuel crisis. Operating in International Markets involves exposure to fickle movements in foreign exchange rates. The econo mic impact of foreign exchange rates movements on them is manifold because such changes are often united to variability in solid issue, inflation, interest rates, governmental actions and other reckons. PepsiCo is also subject to other economical factors like cash supply, energy availability and cost, business cycles, etcetera PepsiCo and to a greater extentover Pepsi is subject to the lifestyle changes, because of it bases her advertising campaigns in a concrete sweet of people with an fussy lifestyle, it is for that PepsiCo has to pay a special anxiety on the lifestyle changes. Particularly in the United States Pepsi drinkers are precise defined, there is a kind of people who drinks Pepsi another kind who drinks Coca-Cola, it is for that they pass to pay tending to the social mobility for not losing a possible market. Taking into account that PepsiCo is trying to introduce itself in underdeveloped markets, they have to be careful with the possible difficultys with th e governments of this countries, and with the problems could rise from PepsiCo act with the people of this countries. PepsiCo is subject to newfangled techniques of manufacturing, for their three business sectors, snack food, juices and soft drinks. It has to pay attention to the new distribution techniques. And they have to fix their attention in the competence developed, to know about the new products.The Porters Diamond Analysis tries to rationalise the Competitive Advantage of Nations. There are four attributes of a nation comprise Porters Diamond of national advantage, they areThe basic factor conditions are natural resources, climate, location, the more advanced factor conditions are skilled labour, infra organize and technology.There are some of these factors that can be obtained by any company (like unskilled labour and raw materials) and, hence, do not generate sustained competitive advantage. eve though, we have to take into account that specialized factors involve a h eavy and sustained investment, we have to know that if we are able to achieve them, we could generate a competitive advantage.Some of the factor conditions PepsiCo has to take into account, in each country where they want to introduce are Interest rate. (Short term, long term).We have to know that the reputation of a country demand makes PepsiCo dependent on them.For example if in one country exists a sophisticated demand, these customers pressure firms to be competitive. Is for that, firms that face a sophisticate domestic market are probably to sell superior products because the market demands high prime(prenominal) and a close proximity to such customers modify the firm to better understand the needs of the customers, in the same way it is easier spread their firms in the orbicular market.Some of the demand conditions PepsiCo has to take into account en the countries where they want to introduce are And with competitors are established in the country.For any company it is r eal important the Related and Supporting Industry. Knowing who are the range of suppliers, and the connect industries, is necessary for deciding where we have to place our company.In some cases the concentration of related and documentation industries provoke the concentration of the similar industries in the same areas. Some advantages and disadvantages of locating close to your rival whitethorn beSome advantages to locating close to your rivals may beo Potential technology intimacy spillovers,o An association of a region on the fork of consumers with a product and high quality and therefore some market power, oro An association of a region on the part of applicable labour force.Some disadvantages to locating close to your rivals areo Potential poaching of your employees by rival companies ando Obvious join on in competition possibly decreasing mark-ups.Concerning to the strategy and the organize of the firm, they would be conditioned by the tradition of the country. There ar e different management styles in each country, and besides they vary depending on the industry.PepsiCo has to study the different styles of management, for acting in the best way in each country, adapting its strategy and its structure as far as possible.As far as possible the rivalry, in general is better the national than the international. In the case of PepsiCo (Pepsi) for them it is more advisable that when they are introducing in a new market, its main rival (Coca-Cola) not be positioned or at to the lowest degree it is not to absolute leader of the market.We do the same analysis for the three different markets of PepsiCo the soft drink market, the snacks market and the chilled orange juice market. We treated the three markets as a the same industry, with some exceptions as the competenceEstablished brands with a lot of experience in the market that a have a better channel of distribution. The brands deliver the products enjoinly to the supermarket, this means that is neces sary a big company structure (lorries, warfareehouses, producing plants, etc.) to suffer at retailers and supermarkets, all of this requires a big investment of money.Well looks that at first sight, suppliers are not a problem because its easy to find potatoes, corn and oil suppliers. The problem that we find here is the possibility of variability of prices in the raw materials caused for example by a bad year of harvesting, or there is another petrol crisis. Also in some countries that have not petrol normally fuel petrol is more expensive and the fuel suppliers have an oligopoly of the market.Considering that buyers are the final consumers, we can tell apart that in this markets the consumers get used at one kind of taste, and they have this products for the importance of the brand, its a marketing issue as well.In these three markets is quite demanding to find substitutes. More than substitutes we can talk more of fashion, trends, or costumers tastes. Suddenly people stop has orange juice for breakfast and take more milk or coffee in mornings. Its quite difficult to find a substitute for these products because normally the people get used at one kind of taste of cola for example, then is very difficult to try to adapt the public to a new cola.Well these three markets are really full of rivalry.First there is the Cola market where Coca-Cola owns an undreamed of 51% market share, followed far away Pepsi with a 21% of market share, is very difficult to pass by dint of in this market.Then there is the Snack market where Lays have the 40% of market share, the second most important brand is Procter &Gamble (P&G), in this market the shares are more distributed, but still universe two major(ip)s competitors that have most of the market.An at the choke we have the orange Juice market, this by chance is the most open market, there is a lot of competence and there is not a major brand that controls all the market. There are three important brands that have mo re market share, like Tropicana Coca-Cola Company and Chiquita.Because the company is in a competitive environment is not possible to recover the annex costs with a higher pricing of the final products. For this reason PepsiCo have special way to purchase the raw materials. They use futures contracts for cover different fluctuation in the raw material market (Primarily oil, corn, fuel, etc.) is like speculate with the market.In Orange juice products, they whole use non-concentrate orange juice for creates a very tasty and healthy product completely natural.Pepsi they just create the liquid that is sold to the bottlers, these bottlers then they can the liquid and then is sold to the costumers. PepsiCo owns at same time shares from the four bottlers companies. In fact in the past PepsiCo owned Pepsi Bottling Group, and had as a franchise Pepcom industries INC companies.PepsiCo use the system direct store distribution. This implies that PepsiCo products are delivered to the retailer and put it directly to the shelves, this provide a great business control to PepsiCo, and contract work to the retailers and that fact give more advantage over most competitors.This is a very hefty tool that PepsiCo use. It would be developed in another chapter.We can consider that the service that makes PepsiCo value is the direct store distribution explained forward.Here PepsiCo uses economies of scale.Also the raw materials are bought in future contract to sustain higher costs in the future because the high prices of the raw materials.More than Technology development we can talk of costumer preferences. Is very important to know what the costumers prefers and wants, then is necessary to study the costumers behaviour. For example Tropicana crack shelf-stable juice products had a very important volume growth because the PepsiCo relaunched the brand in 1.75 plastic bottles rather of smaller glass bottles. This provides to the costumers more value and convenience.Benefits At P epsiCos Worldwide Headquarters Bonus opportunities at many levels Eligibility for storage options for almost all positionsThe PepsiCo stemma option plan is called SharePower. Here are some of the flesh out Once eligible, you receive PepsiCo stock options normally each year based on at least 10% of your prior years earnings. Share Power stock options let you purchase shares of PepsiCo stock in the future at a set price. You make money if the stock price goes up and you stay with the Company. The yearlong you work for the Company, the more stock options you get.Share Power is one way for PepsiCo employees to share in the success that they create.A Pension Plan fully paid for by the Company. A 401(k) Plan which allows you to save up to 15% of your pay on a pre-tax basis and invest in any publicly traded stock or bond or in any of over 200 mutual funds. A stock purchase program, allowing you to purchase PepsiCo stock through payroll deductions, with no fees or commissions.In additio n, PepsiCos portfolio of benefits includes such important programs as Matching Charitable ContributionsCorporate Officers (Roger A. Enrico)a) Frito-Lays this product is a Cash Cow for PepsiCo it generates more hard cash than it needs to maintain its share market. Frito-Lays is the leader of its market, and it has its principal competitor very far in the market share. PepsiCo should maintain this product, in the same way, and invest its profits in other company products.b) Tropicana it is a inquiry mark for PepsiCo, it is, due to, it is a new acquisition, and although it is a product leader in its market, PepsiCo has to invest in Tropicana for achieving a bigger market share, and for trying to extend the international market share.c) Pepsi it is very difficult place to Pepsi, in one of the squares, because in spite of it generates more cash than it needs to maintain its share market, it is not the leader of its market, and we can neither considerate it as a star product, because of the same reason, them it probably could be place, in the middle of the matrix.PepsiCo had reduce the total net sales in 2,000 millions $ during the 1999, this was due to PepsiCo sold the bottling company. scarce at same time the total sales from the three Business (Snacks, Soft Drinks, Orange Juice) had increase in 4,000 millions $. This means that the company his growing in the markets.Because the selling of the bottling Company the total cost and expenses minify in 2,000 millions of $. Because the reduced costs and the growth of the net sales in the Snacks, soft drinks, and Orange juice, the company had at the end of the 1999 more profit. (Source 1999 Annual report of PepsiCo)Resuming PepsiCo had in 1999 a total net income of 2,050 millions $ more or less the same as at 1997 (2,142 millions of $), but with the difference that in 1999 they stop earning money with the bottling company. This means now the company generates more profit. (Source 1999 Annual report of PepsiCo)Is ne cessary to emphasise as well that PepsiCo reduced a lot one of the big loans that he had due to PepsiCo didnt has the necessity of espousal money. The loan had an amount of 4,53 millions $ and was reduced to 1,55 millions $ in 1999. (Source 1999 Annual report of PepsiCo)PepsiCos earnings per share jumped 17% in the third quarter ended September 2 to $.40 from a pro forma $.34 in the prior year, the quarter consecutive double-digit gain. Revenues grew 7% to $4.9 billion, reflecting strong volume growth in worldwide snacks and juices. Operating profit grew 12% to $826 million as every division generated double-digit growth.Roger Enrico, chairman, said Four consecutive quarters of double-digit EPS growth affirm that PepsiCo today is strong and getting stronger. We are fulfilling our goal of delivering healthy earnings gains generated by volume growth across our portfolio.This means the company is going well but is not offering more dividends to the shareholders, by and by some bad y ears now the company is having n important growing. And this will be reflected in the dividends during the next years.PepsiCo nowadays it is a very strong Company with no financial problems, and with three important brands. Where Frito-Lays is a very Strong brand, World leader in sells in the world snack poker chip industry, with a 40% of the market share. (Source 1999 PepsiCo Annual report)In the last 3 years the company had increase his sales (without bottling operations) in a 33% since 1997. (Source 1999 PepsiCo Annual report)Pepsi maybe is one of the weakness of PepsiCo, due that is really far away from the leader Coca-Cola in the international market. Pepsi-Cola is the second largest soft drink Company with a 21% of volume, far from the terrific 51% of volume of Coca-Cola.The net sales of PepsiCo had increase in the last 3 years, this is important but is necessary to say that is due the increase in sales except in USA, PepsiCo didnt growth so much in the international market, what is happening then that only growing in USA.New markets are beginning to open in the world (China, mainly in Asia).The opportunity to enter in the markets where the competence is not established yet.For example in China, China is the country with more population in the world, enter in the Chinese market and establish there before the competence arrive can give to PepsiCo a great opportunity to success in the future.The problem that in these new markets the products of PepsiCo will not have a good welcome by the Asian consumers. The flavours of the products are not really adequate for these countries.Roger Enrico will leave the direction of PepsiCo in 2 years, this can create a little situation of panic inside the Company.The increase the prices of the raw materials or the fuel can cause an increase of the costs, and in the business environment that PepsiCo live is not possible to increase the product price because is a very competitive environment.Until now PepsiCo brand image was very linked to Pepsi image, which has label of second best brand.But in the last four years, that has changed, they have tried to anomic the label of loser, linking its image to the rest of firms company, that have a strong brand image in their markets. They have achieve that through advertising campaigns where appeared together with other PepsiCo Brands.During the last decade Pepsi had a war with Coca-Cola, in which Pepsi always lost. In the last stage (since the arrival of Enrico) PepsiCo decides move away from that war, for focusing in its own problems.Another step in the new strategy was the acquisition of the leader companies in related markets, for achieving a new image of powerful and consolidated corporation.In other way PepsiCo is giving a corporation image, which is committed with subjects like racial and sex discrimination, and environmental problems. All that through the special programs concentrate on each area.In the last four year PepsiCo has suffered group cha nges in its internal structure and in its market strategies.All these changes were propitiated by the arrival in the direction of R. Enrico, who implemented a radical change in PepsiCos mentality.He made very important decisions like to come off the restaurants (Pizza Hut & KFC) and the bottlers, due to they were a heavy weight for the company.Although they were come off them, they follow linked to PepsiCo through strategic alliances, it is to say, that the restaurants still sell PepsiCo products and the bottlers follow bottling Pepsi. Moreover PepsiCo has a minority percent of share of these companies. some other important decisions that Enrico made were the strategic acquisitions of leader companies in related markets, like Tropicana and Mountain Drew.These acquired companies have prone to PepsiCo as much profits as stronger company brand image of New PepsiCo.After analysing PepsiCo we have noticed that in spite of the company has increased its net product sales, that is not a re al increase because the sales have increased due to the new acquisitions, and not because of the increase of the products, which already existed in the company. For this reason we recommended that, they should consolidate its old product and try to increase they sales.Another section, where we would like to make a recommendation, it is into the international section of PepsiCo, we think that they are too focused in the U.S. (although it is true that it is the market where they have biggest volume of sales), but they should try to consolidate in the international markets, and as well to try to perforate in undeveloped markets, where its competitors are not established yet (i.e. Chinese market).
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Consider the role of Iago in act III scene 3 and show how Shakespeare portrays Iago, and the effect he has on Othello
Iago is one of Shakespeares most haunting desperados. In Act III guesswork 3 Iagos tone of voiceings are driven by a impatience of much(prenominal) intense strength that, even though we might understand his motives, it is delicate to feel that anything other than pure evil could compel him to such extremes of behaviour as a result. We withal see Iago victorious a powerful, sadistic delight in the damage which he causes throughout the scene, and how he has a cancerous essence on Othello and his relationship with Desdemona.Iago manipulates the perceptions of other characters with great sk tuberculous, using lies which contain sufficient truth. He is an opportunist, and takes reward of anything.Ha I like non that.Iago plants a seed of guilt, which he nurtures throughout the scene. He advocates that the direct he has seen leaving can non be Cassio, because he is a respect sufficient and worthy man who would non crook to such a sneaking and fraudulent kind of behaviour. By suggesting that an action, which might seem innocent, may in reality conceal something altogether more suspicious, Iago cleverly hints that Cassio has a guilty conscience. The effectiveness of the compound contrive guilty-like used by Iago puts an element of doubtfulness and apprehension in Othello.At the beginning of the scene in that location is an open, wagerful, loving relationship amidst Othello and DesdemonaTis as I should entreat you wear gloves,Or feed on nourishing dishes, or keep you warm,This flirtatious discussion is the last time we see love and happiness between Othello and Desdemona.Excellent WretchThis is Othellos last statement of happiness. The words fork over an eternal world of love and crave Othello loves Desdemona deeply. From that moment on Othello suffers a torment of jealousy his happiness is being ate away by the covetousness seed that Iago has planted. Iago is a fine judge of character he k at presents what masses like and what makes people irritate d and infuriated.Did Michael Cassio,When you wooed my lady, hit the hay of your love?Iago is prodding Othello. He is not giving him a straight answer, and this deeply exasperates and annoys Othello. Iago uses safe tactics to form a sense of culpability and doubt in Othello. Iagos swings frighten Othello.In a performance of this scene, the actor playing Iago should put prominence and emphasis on think as this would compose an impression of guilt.Men Should be what they seemThis statement is ironic. If Iago was what he seemed he would be good, trustworthy and loyal, scarcely he is not. He is iniquitous and impious. He is able to put on false front. Iago is a consummate dissembler.Iago has now begun to plant a seed of hesitation and uncertainty in Othello.As wheres that palace, whereinto foul thingsSometimes jab not?Iago articulates how the purest spirit may still endure from foul things. This echoes exactly what is happening in this scene. Iago is gushy his foul, evil poison in to the promontory of Othello. This causes Othello to doubt what is really happening.No matter how many dreadful things Iago says, Othello is remaining with the abiding belief that he knows more terrible things than he has been told and is trying to diminish the upset because of his simple friendship and regard for himThough I perchance am vicious in my guessIago once more uses the extremely effective tool of appearing to be very reluctant in speaking ill of others whereas at the same time managing to advocate that he knows much more which would cause distress to Othello if he were to know the truthWho steals my purse, steals trash tis something,nothingTwas mine, tis his, and has been slave to thousandsBut he that filches from me my good nameRobs me of that which not enriches himAnd makes me poor indeed.Here we see the effect Iago has had on Othello. Iago has threatened Othello in his most defenceless battlefield his reputation. Iago is very dexterous. He tells Othello that his r eputation is everything. This is the opposite of what he said to Cassio, telling him that his status was not everything. Iago thusly ingeniously tells Othello to be aware of being jealous, to hide his jealousy. This cunningly plants the thought of being covetous in his question. Iago is again taunting Othello. He is building up his heat-oppressed mind.Thou dost conspire against thy friend, Iago,Othello knows that Iago is keeping something terrible from him. Shakespeare uses spectacular irony. Othello says that Iago is plotting against him by not telling him his thoughts, only when Iago is telling Othello his thoughts whilst at the same time plotting against him. Iago is getting Othello emotionally prepared for what he is planning to inform him. Iago uses good psychology by keeping Othello at a distance by not expressing his thoughts to him.HaOthellos short, sharp speeches portray the effect Iago has had on him, emotionally.It shows the state of mind that Iago has reduced Othello to.Othello has been emotionally reduced. This shows that Iago is gaining the ascendancy. The roles have swapped. Iago is now the more dominant of the two.Iago introduces the word cuckold. He explains to Othello that it is better to know Desdemona is having an affair compared to not knowing and the torment of a man who is infatuated but insecure, who suspects his wife but continues to love and adore.Iago is again taunting Othello. He is purposely building up an element of doubt and misgiving in Othello. At this point Iago assumes he has convinced Othello that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio, but things go wrong. Othello tells Iago that he is not going to doubt Desdemona until he sees it and therefore if he does, Othello can then prove that Desdemona is disloyal and unfaithful. For a short period of time this throws Iago off track. Up until now Iago has just dropped hints. This has not worked to his best advantage. in a flash he becomes much more direct and focused and at tempts an innovative, diverse approach. Although we condemn and depreciate Iagos malevolence, it is very difficult for us not to admire his skill and creativity.I speak not yet of proof notion to your wife, observe her with CassioIago skilfully twists his words so that the fact of Desdemonas deceitfulness and dishonesty appears not to be in question. Iago tells Othello of his innocence and ingenuity of Venetian customs.I know our country disposition wellThis further persuades Othello to believe his lies by pointing out how Desdemona has already deceived her father in marrying him. This echoes Brabantios final words in Act I scene 3.She had deceived her father, and may thee.Iago reminds Othello this at the best possible time, when he is feeling at his most vulnerable. Iago tells Othello how Desdemona is exceptionally good at deceiving people, as she did it to her aver father. This is also ironic as Iago is a skilled dissembler, and yet is incriminate Desdemona of also being a consu mmate dissembler.Othello is reduced to single utterances, which show he is losing confidence and has something on his mind. It shows the impact Iago is having on him. Again, it illustrates to us that Iago is now the much more dominant of the two and is gaining control.Othellos diminutive answers show he is reading into what Iago is saying.This also emphasizes our sense of Othellos significant theatrical status as an outsider, someone so unfamiliar with the Venetian customs and society that Iagos lies will seem conceivable, and who will borrow as lawful the suggestion that all Venetian women routinely commit treachery and betrayal.Iago is not only an expert at manipulating people, but also at manipulating words.I think shes honestIago ingeniously picks up on words and fills them with hesitation and doubt. Othello reacts to this by leaving the stage. This shows us that the poison, which Iago planted, is now spreading. Iago has a cancerous effect on him.Iago then continues to rush u ncertainty and suspense in Othello by putting forward the idea that it was un-natural in Desdemona for choosing Othello. She refused proposals from men who were from her own country, men of the same race, and in the same rank as her, and she chose Othello instead. Iago takes a risk. He implies that Desdemona is un-natural and lustful, as she has chosen someone older than her and someone not of the same race.We can see the dramatic impact Iago has had on Othello. In Act III Scene 3, Othello is bursting with love for Desdemona Excellent Wretch Now Othello is asking himself why did I marry? This shows how successful Iago has been bringing down Othellos happiness. He has taken his height of happiness and make full it with covetousness, distrust and jealousy. Iago has done all this without any proof, which shows that he is a brilliant operator. He has taken Desdemonas justice and corrupted it into a vice of loyalty. Iago has a deep knowledge of the human psyche and is smartly and in geniously able to manipulate feelings- for his benefit. Iago has convinced Othello that Desdemona has committed adultery because of his race and because he does not have a smooth engaging conversation like some other men have.This fellows of exceeding honestyThis is the first soliloquy given to Othello. This allows us to see the inner workings of Othello, which have been unable to be seen until now. The correspondence between the outward appearance and inner reality begins to break down. Othello dwells upon what he has come to see as his deficiencies in the eyes of others. Desdemona may well see him as a black man and who has few genteel graces of more sophisticated men. Desdemona enters and is concerned her husband is not well. Othello is unwell, but not in the way Desdemona thinks, for he is sick of spirit, not of body.Othello has convinced himself hes been abused and his only relief is to despise her. There is a total argumentation between the contentment and delight in Desdemo na and the tormented and crucifyd soul of Othello. Iago mentions the prospect of providing Othello with proof. Yet in no circumstances proof has been impending, and still Iago is able to skilfully able to compose characters to act and feel guilt and hesitation to act with certain proof on many occasions.Iago sees innocent things and turns them into acts of guilt and causes suspicion in people. This allows him to move the criteria for Desdemonas remorse and guilt onto such a modest thing as a handkerchief.I will in Cassios lodging lose this napkin,And let him find it.In Iagos soliloquy he reveals the key to his success, in proving that Desdemonas adultery is in no doubt. It is Othellos weakness, which will bring out his destruction.The mines of sulphurThis gives us the go through of hellfire. Iago is often connected with the powers of hell, evil and torture.Othello re-enters. This shows he is confused and has a perplexed state of mind.I slept the night well, was free and merryI f ound not Cassios kisses on her lips.Iago obtains a sinister, evil, malicious enjoyment from the torture and torment he has caused Othello. He has turned the loyal Othello into a confused, eager man who has been totally consumed by jealousy and melancholy. Othello has been deduced. He says goodbye to a peaceful mind. The repetition of farewell shows the completeness of his loss. But the sad thing is he has lost nothing. Yet he does not know that.We see a human being apace destroyed by another human. Othello is declining and emotionally becoming bitter, almost approaching insanity.I think my wife be honest, and think she is not,I think thou art just, and think thou art notOthello is waving between suspicion and loyalty as he struggles with himself to determine the truth. In choosing between Desdemona and Iago, it is Othellos inability to accept his own potential for love and trust which destroys him. This is an important turning point for Othello. Othellos vision of himself and his wife excludes such compromise, and so when Iago offers Othello proof he is savage in the passion with which he believes her to be guilty. What we see here is demo of Iagos mastery of intrigue and deception.Give me a living reason, that shes disloyal.Iago has put himself in an awkward situation. Iagos bombardment has an effect on Othello.He has awakened Othellos wrath and if he cannot support his suggestions of Desdemonas infidelity he will give birth dearly for it. Othello is now desperate to be certain, that he seems almost keen to pounce upon Iagos account as true. This is ironic, as the roles of the characters are briefly changed, when Iago comments on Cassio speaking in his sleep. Othello is convinced of Desdemonas betrayal and Iago who is arguing in support for Cassio, it was but his dream. Othello has now overtaken Iagos plotting and sweeps the action along. Iago is unable to give Othello proof, so Iago cunningly makes proof bottom dirty so that Othello will not ask any fur ther questions. The image Iago paints in Othellos mind is repulsive, sordid and disgusting. Iago uses animal images to describe the action of Cassio and Desdemona together. This is significant as he is again reducing dishful to a disgusting act. He reduces the sex act to a bestial and foul level.Do not rise yet.Iago kneels with Othello as they swear a sacred vow to seek black vengeance against Desdemona and Cassio.As Iagos work on Othello begins to stoke up a furnace of jealousy and his sense of wronged honour, we see a change in Othellos behaviour. We also see how the delivery of Iago and Othello has been interchanged with the roles. Iago is now clearly the master in the relationship, as the villain speaks of vows to heaven. Othello, using language more appropriate to that of Iago, says of Desdemona Damn her, lewd minx.His effectiveness as a character in the play rests upon the way he is seen differently by the other characters, who see loyalty, honesty and trustworthiness, and b y the audience, who see a malevolent, who manipulates others with the intention of completely destroying them.Iago is portrayed as a self-admiring, vicious, weak, cruel and arrogant character that is only able to achieve his ends through the weakness of others. He is not merely a symbol of iniquity and malevolence, but is much more. The malign Iago turns Othello, from a noble, heroic, loving innocent man and destroys him.Iago falls prey to the same suspicion he generates in Othello and, through controlling the plot for most of the scene, moves Othello towards his cynical view of the world.