Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Abnormal psychology is the area that looks at psychopathology and abnormal behavior. 2. Behavioral Psychology (Behaviorism) )Is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. 3. Biopsychology It is focused on the study of how the brain influences behavior is often known as biopsychology. 4. Cognitive Psychology Focuses on internal states, such as motivation, problem solving, decision-making, thinking and attention. 5. Comparative Psychology Comparative psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal behavior. 6. Cross-Cultural Psychology Branch of psychology that looks at how cultural factors influence human behavior. 7. Developmental PsychologyThis branch of psychology looks at development throughout the lifespan, from childhood to adulthood. 8. Educational PsychologyBranch of psychology concerned with schools, teaching psychology, educational issues and student concerns. 9. Experimental PsychologyBranch of psychology that utilizes scientific methods to research the brain and behavior. 10. Forensic PsychologyForensic psychology is a specialty area that deals with issues related to psychology and the law 11. Health PsychologyIt is focused on how biology, psychology, behavior and social factors influence health and illness. 12. Personality PsychologyIt is focused on the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. 13. Social PsychologySocial psychology seeks to explain and understand social behavior and looks at diverse topics. 4. Sports psychology Is a interdisciplinary science that draws on knowledge from the fields of Kinesiology (human kinetic) and Psychology. Mathematical psychologyÃ Is an approach toÃ psychologicalÃ research that is based on mathematical modeling(mathematical concept and language) 16. Clinical psychology Clinical psychology also promotes adoption, adjustment and personal development. 17. Evolutionary psychology This looks at how human behavior has been affected by psychological adjustments during evolution. 8. NeuropsychologyStudy the structure and function of the brain in relation to clear behaviors and psychological processes. 19. Occupational psychology Study the performance of people at work. 20. Integral psychologyÃ Branch of psychology that presents an all-encompassing holistic rather than an exclusivist or reductive approach 21. InternationalÃ orÃ global psychology Is an emerging branch ofÃ psychologyÃ that focuses on the worldwide enterprise of psychology in terms of communication and networking. 22. Legal psychologyBranch of psychologyÃ involvesÃ empirical,Ã psychologicalÃ research of the law, legal institutions, and people who come into contact with the law. 23. Media psychology Seeks an understanding of how people perceive, interpret, use, and respond to a media-rich world. 24. Systems psychology Branch of bothÃ theoretical psychologyÃ andÃ applied psychologyÃ that studiesÃ human behaviourÃ andÃ experienceinÃ complex systems. 25. Theoretical psychologyÃ It is concerned with theoretical and philosophical aspects of the discipline ofÃ psychology.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The History Of Ecommerce, The Early Years In the 1960s, very early on in the history of Ecommerce, its purpose was to exchanging electronic data long distance. In these early days of Ecommerce, users consisted of only very large companies, such as banks and military departments, who used it for command control communication purposes. This was called EDI, and was used for electronic data interchange. In the late 1970s a new protocol was developed known as ASC X12 which was used for the exchange of business documents and information electronically.Another system was being developed at the same time by the Military known as ARPAnet, and was the first to use the Ã¢â¬Å"dial upÃ¢â¬ method of sending information via telephone networks. It was considered the grandfather of the modern Internet. I guess we can thank the cold war for something! In 1982 Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol known as TCP & IP was developed. This was the first system to send information in small packets along different routes using packet switching technology, like todays Internet! As opposed to sending the information streaming down one route.These were amongst the largest developments in the history of Ecommerce that set the stage for a revolution in the exchange of electronic data, but it was not for another quarter of a century that Ecommerce became accessible to everyday people like you and me. he History Of Ecommerce, Beginnings Of An Electronic Revolution The Internet took a giant leap into the modern age in 1991 when a computer scientist working under contract forÃ CERNÃ Ã¢â¬Å"Tim Berners-LeeÃ¢â¬ made a huge advancement by communicating via the Internet usingÃ HTTP. The birth of theÃ World Wide WebÃ was upon us!He is now considered the father of the World Wide Web. This opened up the door for everyday people like you and me to use this wonderful new technology, however it was not until 1994 that the first truly user friendly browser was developed with built in security protocol to protect peoples personal information online. This made way for secure transactions to be conducted on the internet. A year later 3rd party credit card payment services became available to the still small online community. The stage was set, and theÃ future of EcommerceÃ was about to take off.The History Of Ecommerce, The Revolution Takes Off! In 1995, with the introduction ofÃ online payment methods, two companies that we all know of today took their first steps into the world of Ecommerce. Today Amazon and Ebay are both amongst the most successful companies on the Internet! One month after selling his first book online, founder of Amazon Jeff Bezos was selling to every state in the U. S and over 40 other countries. Ecommerce allowed the easy processing of orders and shipping also enabling him to buy directly from the publishers.Ebay saw growth that was just as staggering. By allowing anyone to buy and sell online, in just a few short years the co mpany became a household name with a turnover of hundreds of millions a year. From its humble beginning in 1995 modern Ecommerce has become the fastest growing area of business, showing continued growth year after year. Technology has advanced further making it so much more accessible to people from all walks of life, and entire industries have been built around Ecommerce which are today, the who's who of the business world.Today virtually anything can be purchased online, from your pizza to your car. And people love to shop online, figures show that in the U. S over 60% of adults have purchased goods online this is a figure that is set to explode over the coming years as the youth of today mature fast, being the first to have been raised with this exciting environment interwoven into all aspects of life. If there is one thing we can learn from the history of Ecommerce it is that anyone given a little motivation and drive can become successful.It has never been easier to get a footh old into the exciting online world of Ecommerce, all anyone needs is an internet conection a computer and an idea. TheÃ advantages of EcommerceÃ are endless. Ecommerce has become the great leveler, giving anyone the ability toÃ build an Ecommerce website, and sell to a world wide market with outstanding results. The history of Ecommerce has shown us just how fast people can embrace a new technology, It has evolved in leaps and bounds to become what it is today and the future is looking bright. History of E-Commerce The History Of Ecommerce, The Early Years In the 1960s, very early on in the history of Ecommerce, its purpose was to exchanging electronic data long distance. In these early days of Ecommerce, users consisted of only very large companies, such as banks and military departments, who used it for command control communication purposes. This was called EDI, and was used for electronic data interchange. In the late 1970s a new protocol was developed known as ASC X12 which was used for the exchange of business documents and information electronically.Another system was being developed at the same time by the Military known as ARPAnet, and was the first to use the Ã¢â¬Å"dial upÃ¢â¬ method of sending information via telephone networks. It was considered the grandfather of the modern Internet. I guess we can thank the cold war for something! In 1982 Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol known as TCP & IP was developed. This was the first system to send information in small packets along different routes using packet switching technology, like todays Internet! As opposed to sending the information streaming down one route.These were amongst the largest developments in the history of Ecommerce that set the stage for a revolution in the exchange of electronic data, but it was not for another quarter of a century that Ecommerce became accessible to everyday people like you and me. he History Of Ecommerce, Beginnings Of An Electronic Revolution The Internet took a giant leap into the modern age in 1991 when a computer scientist working under contract forÃ CERNÃ Ã¢â¬Å"Tim Berners-LeeÃ¢â¬ made a huge advancement by communicating via the Internet usingÃ HTTP. The birth of theÃ World Wide WebÃ was upon us!He is now considered the father of the World Wide Web. This opened up the door for everyday people like you and me to use this wonderful new technology, however it was not until 1994 that the first truly user friendly browser was developed with built in security protocol to protect peoples personal information online. This made way for secure transactions to be conducted on the internet. A year later 3rd party credit card payment services became available to the still small online community. The stage was set, and theÃ future of EcommerceÃ was about to take off.The History Of Ecommerce, The Revolution Takes Off! In 1995, with the introduction ofÃ online payment methods, two companies that we all know of today took their first steps into the world of Ecommerce. Today Amazon and Ebay are both amongst the most successful companies on the Internet! One month after selling his first book online, founder of Amazon Jeff Bezos was selling to every state in the U. S and over 40 other countries. Ecommerce allowed the easy processing of orders and shipping also enabling him to buy directly from the publishers.Ebay saw growth that was just as staggering. By allowing anyone to buy and sell online, in just a few short years the co mpany became a household name with a turnover of hundreds of millions a year. From its humble beginning in 1995 modern Ecommerce has become the fastest growing area of business, showing continued growth year after year. Technology has advanced further making it so much more accessible to people from all walks of life, and entire industries have been built around Ecommerce which are today, the who's who of the business world.Today virtually anything can be purchased online, from your pizza to your car. And people love to shop online, figures show that in the U. S over 60% of adults have purchased goods online this is a figure that is set to explode over the coming years as the youth of today mature fast, being the first to have been raised with this exciting environment interwoven into all aspects of life. If there is one thing we can learn from the history of Ecommerce it is that anyone given a little motivation and drive can become successful.It has never been easier to get a footh old into the exciting online world of Ecommerce, all anyone needs is an internet conection a computer and an idea. TheÃ advantages of EcommerceÃ are endless. Ecommerce has become the great leveler, giving anyone the ability toÃ build an Ecommerce website, and sell to a world wide market with outstanding results. The history of Ecommerce has shown us just how fast people can embrace a new technology, It has evolved in leaps and bounds to become what it is today and the future is looking bright.
Definition of Plagiarism Plagiarism is an attempt (deliberate or inadvertent) to gain advantage by the representation of another personÃ¢â¬â¢s work, without acknowledgement of the source, as the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s own for the purposes of satisfying formal assessment requirements. Recognised forms of plagiarism include 1. the use in a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s own work of more than a single phrase from another personÃ¢â¬â¢s work without the use of quotation marks and acknowledgement of the source; 2. the summarising of another personÃ¢â¬â¢s work by simply changing a few works or altering the order of presentation, without acknowledgement; 3. the use of ideas or intellectual data of another person without acknowledgement of the source, or the submission or presentation of work as if it were the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s own, which are substantially the ideas or intellectual data of another person; 4. copying the work of another person; 5. the submission of work, as if it were the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s own, which has been obtained from the internet or any other form of information technology; 6. the submission of coursework making significant use of unattributed digital images such as graphs, tables, photographs, etc. taken from books/articles, the internet or from the work of another person; 7. the submission of a piece of work which has previously been assessed for a different award or module or at a different institution as if it were new work; 8. a student who allows or is involved in allowing, either knowingly or unknowingly, another student to copy anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s work including physical or digital images would be deemed to be guilty of plagiarism. 9. If plagiarism is suspected students will be required to supply an electronic copy of the work in question so that it may be subjected to electronic plagiarism detection testing. Therefore students are required to keep work electronically until after they receive their results as electronic detection may be part of the investigative process. Source: Assessment Handbook 15f. In submitting this work I confirm I have read and understood the regulations relating to plagiarism and academic misconduct that I signed when I submitted my Assessment Confirmation Form. In submitting this work I confirm I have read and understood the regulations relating to plagiarism and academic misconduct that I signed when I submitted my Assessment Confirmation Form. ASSIGNMENT TITLE Human Growth and Development PortfolioI am observing a 22 month old boy, who for this report I will call Tom. Tom lives with his Mum, Dad and older sister Molly who is 3 years of age and has just started nursery. His Mum stays at home with the children whilst Dad works. Both parents are from Poland thus polish is their first language, however their Mum explained to me that Molly is going to nursery to develop her English. She also said that Tom was only speaking a little; some words English and some Polish. I will be observing Tom in his home. Observing Tom Ã¢â¬â Week one 12.10.2012 word count: 991 I arrived at the flat and was greeted by TomÃ¢â¬â¢s mother who took my coat and showed me around the flat. TomÃ¢â¬â¢s sister was sat eating at the table in the living room and Tom walked out of his bedroom and looked at me. He stared at me and I said Ã¢â¬Å"helloÃ¢â¬ , he smiled and ran back in his bedroom. Molly walked down the hall and smiled at me and spoke to Mum in polish and Mum replied, she then galloped past me and sat on the floor with toys. Mum told me that she had told Molly they had a visitor coming but they had to pretend I was invisible; she said she hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t told Tom as he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand. Besides the anxiety I was experiencing, I felt quite comfortable in the flat, the smell of washing powder was very familiar and I instantly warmed to the children. It seemed as though they were waiting for me to engage and it felt alien that I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Mum encouraged the children to play in their bedroom as they were both stood looking at me. Mum went into the kitchen and I crouched down in the corner of the bedroom. I quickly realised this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a great idea as they both presented me with toys and giggled looking at each other. Molly passed me a Barbie and held another one and said, Ã¢â¬Å"This is dolly and you have man dollyÃ¢â¬ she then spoke in character through the Barbie and said, Ã¢â¬Å"Hello!Ã¢â¬ I found it difficult to divert from playing with her, I said Ã¢â¬Å"helloÃ¢â¬ and passed it to Tom to encourage them to play together. Molly continued to say, Ã¢â¬Å"This is dollyÃ¢â¬ trying to pass her to me. She seemed slightly frustrated that I was attempting to divert her attention away from me and I found it unnatural. As kneeling down was attracting their attention I stood in the doorway out the way. Mum came in the bedroom and put a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s DVD of nursery rhymes. Molly started jumping about; Tom watched Molly and copied her jumping. They both smiled and kept looking at me. I smiled at them but was unsure of my facial expressions because I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to seem too approachable. I continued to find it uncomfortable how much they seemed to plea for my attention and I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t respond properly. Molly then got out a box of Lego and brought it over to where I was stood, Tom followed and they started building the blocks together. They played nicely, taking it in turns; I enjoyed watching them and felt at ease that the attention was off me. When they made a tower Molly said, Ã¢â¬Å"no finish, no finishÃ¢â¬ each time they put a piece on and then said, Ã¢â¬Å"Finished!Ã¢â¬ and they both clapped their hands smiling. They did this several times. I noticed that Tom seemed relaxed and let Molly take the lead when she wanted to. Molly then went to get a picnic set and brought it back. Tom pretended to pour me a drink and passed me a cup; I said Ã¢â¬Å"Thank-youÃ¢â¬ and pretended to drink. I pointed at Molly to encourage him to pass it to her. Molly laid three plates on the floor and pointed at one and said, Ã¢â¬Å"Play?Ã¢â¬ I think Mum could see that I needed some help diverting their attention so she encouraged Molly to go back into her bedroom and they put some books away. Tom quickly ran back in his room following them. Mum laid a picnic blanket and laid it down on the floor in the bedroom and asked Molly to bring the picnic set in there. Mum then changed TomÃ¢â¬â¢s nappy. Molly fluctuated from polish to English as she spoke. She then got out a fancy dress and showed me, saying Ã¢â¬Å"Look its MollyÃ¢â¬â¢s dress.Ã¢â¬ Mum helped her put it on. Tom tugged at the box of fancy dress clothes and so Mum also helped him into a skirt. They danced around the room together laughing. Molly kept spinning around and giggling and Tom copied her. I liked the way Mum had no problem with letting Tom wear a skirt and it reminded me of my own childhood when my younger brother would also wear my dresses. Ã¢â¬ËWheels on the busÃ¢â¬â¢ came on and Tom danced in front of the television and they both did the arm motions. Tom wiggled his bum and stood right in front of the television. Mum laughed and sat cross legged next to them. Although the children were quite active, the atmosphere in the house was very calm and quiet, MumÃ¢â¬â¢s presence was very peaceful and she spoke very quietly. Molly climbed on to her bed, Mum went over and tickled her; she giggled loudly. Tom still had his skirt on and continued to dance around the room. He then started to push a pram with a doll in around the room; he continued to watch the television and wiggled his bum watching with his mouth open. He then tipped over the pram and sat on the floor; he held the back wheel and moved it like he was pretending to drive. Molly then ran in to the hall and put on her shoes; Tom followed her and copied her. Molly put a hat on and then put one on TomÃ¢â¬â¢s head. Mum laughed and helped Tom put his shoes on. She then tried to take off TomÃ¢â¬â¢s skirt but he held on to it so she let him keep it on. Tom then pottered back into his bedroom where Molly was dancing, he joined in. Molly spun around with her eyes closed and then giggled looking at me. Tom copied her and stumbled backwards, Molly pulled Tom towards her and cuddled him and kissed his face. I wondered if Molly was Ã¢â¬Ëacting upÃ¢â¬â¢ because she was being watched by me, I questioned whether their behaviour was entirely natural. End of observation. Observing Tom Ã¢â¬â Week four 02.11.2012 word count: 1,025 When I arrived Tom ran out of his bedroom and into his parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ room. He climbed up on to the bed and turned around to look at Mum, smiling as if he knew she was going to react. Mum said, Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, TomÃ¢â¬ in a cautionary manner yet smiling. She grabbed him playfully and tickled him; he laughed loudly and squealed rolling on his back. He then climbed up on to the window sill. Mum spoke more sternly to Tom (in Polish) I assumed she was asking him to either get down or be careful. Again Tom turned back and looked at Mum gingerly with a cheeky smile. Mum told me she had felt poorly for a couple of weeks; she seemed quite run down and a little stressed. However she was patient with Tom. Mum was sat next to him and had her hand on the window handle so he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t open it. Tom pointed out the window and looked astonished, Mum said, Ã¢â¬Å"Oooh ****Ã¢â¬ (Polish) Tom repeated the word and Mum nodded and smiled. She explained to me that he had seen a motor bike, she then pointed at various things out the window and said their names and Tom attempted to repeat the words. Tom spoke in a deep voice and stuck his chest out. Mum laughed and told me she was pointing out the vehicles names. I wondered whether Tom was speaking in a deep voice to imitate someone or whether he was trying to be Ã¢â¬ËmanlyÃ¢â¬â¢. Tom then reached out to the window handle, Mum said, Ã¢â¬Å"TomÃ¢â¬ firmly and took his hands away. He did this several more times, Mum again said his name and on the 4th time Tom imitated Mum and shouted, Ã¢â¬Å"Tom!Ã¢â¬ Mum started laughing and picked him up and sat him on the bed and tickled him again, he laughed loudly and then climbed down and ran out into the hallway. Molly came out into the hall from her bedroom and smiled at me, she then ran after Tom and they both went into the living room. Mum pulled out their table and chairs and got out some paper for them. Molly said, Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re going to paint, you know?Ã¢â¬ Mum laughed and sat them down with some paint and cups of water. Tom picked up two paint brushes and banged them on his paper and made roaring sounds. He then struggled to pick up paint on his paint brush and frowned as he brushed over the pallets of paint, he tried to paint on the paper but nothing stuck, he stamped his feet a few times. Molly soaked up more water on her paint brush and slowly brushed her paint brush over the pallets, she seemed to know what she was doing, perhaps from painting at Nursery or remembering what Mum or Dad had taught her. Tom seemed a lot more impatient and frustrated and looked at Molly painting, slightly frowning. He then leant over and painted on her paper. She shouted out, Ã¢â¬Å"No Tom!Ã¢â¬ But he had left no mark, just a watery smear, so she pulled her paper away and continued to paint. Mum turned around and said, Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, hey Tom.Ã¢â¬ Tom continued to try to paint and let out noises of frustration; Mum came over and tried to help him apply the paint on his brush. Molly said, Ã¢â¬Å"MimiÃ¢â¬ and Mum drew a Mickey Mouse face on her piece of paper in pink. Molly held her paper and came over to me saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Look its Mimi, Mickey Mouse, you know?Ã¢â¬ I laughed and wondered if Molly had heard someone at Nursery saying, Ã¢â¬Å"you knowÃ¢â¬ and was imitating them as she had said it a few times and I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t heard her say it before. Tom leant over and tried to paint on MollyÃ¢â¬â¢s Mickey Mouse, Molly squealed out and shouted, Ã¢â¬Å"No, Tom!Ã¢â¬ Mum seemed to tell them off as she spoke sternly in Polish, however still remained calm. The children seemed more agitated today and I wondered if Mum being ill had slightly impacted their behaviour, although Mum seemed to be struggling she was still calm with the children. I also noticed that Mum and Molly spoke more in Polish than previous weeks, I wondered if this was because they were more comfortable in my presence. Mum drew a Mickey Mouse for Tom so he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t bother Molly anymore. She drew his Mickey Mouse in blue, perhaps to tell the difference between whose was whose, but I also considered whether it was colour coded for Ã¢â¬ËgirlÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËboyÃ¢â¬â¢. He smiled and shouted, Ã¢â¬Å"Mimi!Ã¢â¬ Molly and Tom both called out, Ã¢â¬Å"MimiÃ¢â¬ they seemed to be in competition with each other of who could shout louder and laughed each time they shouted. Tom then went around the table on the opposite side to Molly and she prodded him playfully in his tummy with the end of her paint brush. Tom giggled so she did it again, she continued to do it and they both giggled more and more each time, becoming very excited. Molly then climbed up onto a seat at the dining room table and asked Mum if she could have her stickers, Tom went over and peered up at the table to see what Molly was doing. Mum helped Tom into his seat and brought over a sheet of stickers, Molly began sticking them onto her paper but Tom struggled to peel his stickers off, he made a fist and banged the paper making grunting noises. Mum went over again and helped him peel them off. Tom struggled again when Mum went back to the computer so he seemed to lose interest and again became more interested in MollyÃ¢â¬â¢s paper. Seeing Tom struggling made me feel uncomfortable that I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t assist him. Tom climbed down from the table and ran into his bedroom; he peered up at the shelf of DVDÃ¢â¬â¢s. He shouted out, perhaps in Polish, Mum came in the room and pointed at various DVDÃ¢â¬â¢s until he said yes. She put on a film called Ã¢â¬ËPipiÃ¢â¬â¢ Tom danced around to the introduction music and stood close to the screen wiggling his bottom. End of observation. In this essay I will evaluate my experience as an observer and describe the place of observation in Social work. Finally, I will focus on gender development as my major theme of consideration. Initially, although I was a little apprehensive; I came to find the role of the observer a considerable challenge. Although in some ways I grew more comfortable with certain aspects of the exercise, I found a degree of discomfort in the role I was to undertake. I could relate greatly to the content of Quitak, N (2004) article, as I too struggled to find my feet to gain the right balance in distance and involvement. I experienced feelings of guilt when the children required my attention and learnt that I had to tolerate the anxiety of non-intervention. Trowell and Miles (1991) say in relation to social work, that due to the requirements of the role, they at times have to be assertive (cited in Quitak, 2004). Therefore to be effective, they must come to terms with the discomfort this can imply. M attinson (1975) cited in Quitak, N (2004) discusses this concept in terms of the Ã¢â¬Ëpsychological distanceÃ¢â¬â¢ often required. Trowell and Miles (1991) cited in Quitak (2004) in terms of remaining Ã¢â¬Ëactively positiveÃ¢â¬â¢; retaining a physical distance, whilst allowing one self to become deeply involved. When recording my observation afterwards, I found that the first things I recalled were from the first and last part of the hour, plus what was unusual and stood out to me. Munro (1991) says that this is because we are trying to hold onto awareness of the surroundings and the different ways in which people converse and interact, (cited in Lefevre, 2010). I recognised I was preoccupied with trying to remember everything. On reflection I realised that I should have observed everything and then later try to identify the most salient points. A further distraction was TomÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, Molly, who features heavily in my records, because her behaviour was more emphatic, however, I was unable to moderate her behaviour in order to allow Tom a more significant role. Munro (1991) says that such challenges an d disruptions to memory are one of the reasons assessments are often based on incomplete or inaccurate information. I was also concerned on whether pre-determined bias would creep in, as indeed, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s values, culture and previous experiences will always influence how they interpret what they see (Cox, 2005, cited in Lefevre, 2010). Furthermore due to Tom not speaking properly yet and the language barrier it was harder for me to recall as I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t prompt my memory with odd sentences. Malekoff (1994) says that thoughts and feelings of children are often emotionally processed and conveyed through more direct means, and body language may provide important clues as to how they feel (cited in Lefevre, M. 2010). This heightened my awareness of non-verbal communication and improved my capacity to analyse non- verbal behaviour. Observing children over time may help to explain what relates more to their general character and what might be a response to caretaking and environmental experiences. What they convey through certain choices provides insight into their social identity and sense of self and cultural norms. Plus their racial identity may also be revealed. A social worker will need to be open to different social and cultural experiences and consider how a child may be affected by different factors such as ethnocentrism. Self-awareness and understanding of the impact of oppression on racial identity will be important (Robinson, 2007, cited in Lefevre, 2010). Recent work on prejudice/identity development focuses on applications of intergroup theory to examine the basis of social categorization and its effects. One development has been to look more generally at childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge of other countries and nationalities (Cowie et al. 2009). I believe this could be very beneficial for Tom in the future. When watching the children I questioned whether their behaviour was altered by my presence (see week one, lines 58-62 and week four, lines 109-110). The experience of being observed can evoke anxiety and feelings of disempowerment due to possible fear of being judged or misunderstood, which can result in them behaving differently. In relation to assessments, it is important to consider how workers might affect the observed situation (Tanner and Turney, 2000 cited in Lefevre, 2004). I understand that the move from observation to interpretation is complex and therefore should proceed with caution. In bringing reflective approaches to child observations into social work, a link is made Ã¢â¬Ëbetween knowledge of human growth and development, observational skills and effective social work communication with children (Luckock et al, 2006, p 39). A picture of a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s world, particularly their emotional experience, is created, which may include how they interact with and respond to parents. This may then be used to inform assessment and care planning, including the assessment of neglect (Tanner and Turney, 2000), child protection assessments (Fleming, 2004), multidisciplinary assessments for the family courts (Youell, 2002) and the supervision of contact (Hindle and Easton, 1999). The debate about the health, safety and welfare of children became a preoccupation of government following the death of Victoria Climbie in 2000 (Youell, 2009 and Wilson, 1992). It Ã¢â¬Ëcan refer to both oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s expression, with lackÃ¢â¬â¢ of expressiveness on either oneÃ¢â¬â¢s part seen as dissatisfyingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Hecht et al., 1989). Cultures vary in what is considered Ã¢â¬Ëappropriate channellingÃ¢â¬â¢ of emotions. For example in some cultural groups restraint of strong feelings is highly valued. Social workers must always consider cultural factors when assessing people (Robinson, 2007. Pg. 116-120). I considered cultural differences whilst observing, Mum was always very quiet and when I met Dad, he was also quiet. Although I was aware that this may be their personalities, I considered if is in their culture to be quiet (see week one, line 49). This experience has taught me that although it is imperative for practitioners to be sensitive to the impact of our presence, it is vital not to forget that we must remain focussed upon the objectives set for the observation. From observing Tom, I found myself particularly interested in his behaviour in relation to his Ã¢â¬Ëgender roleÃ¢â¬â¢. I became drawn in to spotting which toys interested him, what he chose to wear and his general behaviour. Piaget has shown how important symbolisation is to cognitive development. One of the many important things children must learn during their first years is what sex they are; they learn that they are expected to behave in different ways according to whether they are a boy or a girl. Learning to behave Ã¢â¬Å"appropriatelyÃ¢â¬ for their sex involves learning their Ã¢â¬Å"gender identityÃ¢â¬ (Davenport, 1992, pg. 275). I will be looking at theories of acquiring a sex-role, looking at; biological factors, social learning and cognitive development. The results of various studies indicate that most children begin to acquire their sex identity from around 18 months. By 2 years they begin to identify what sex other children are, although theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not too sure of their own gender identity until somewhere between two and a half and three years (Davenport, 1992, pg. 275). Accordingly, at 22 months, Tom should be beginning to identify gender, but not his own for another 7 or 8 months. Boys and girls differ in one chromosome pair; this genetic difference normally leads to differential production of hormones. These hormones lead to differentiation of bodily characteristics, such as the genital organs, and may also influence brain growth and therefore behaviour patterns (Cowie et al, 2003). Theories emphasising biological forces look for experimental evidence that links male hormones with certain types o f behaviour (Davenport, 1992). Collaer and Hines (1995) cited in Cowie et al. (2009) examined the evidence for the effects of sex hormone abnormalities on behaviour over a range of outcome variables. They conclude that the evidence is strongest for childhood play behaviour; in normal foetal development male sex hormones seem to predispose boys to become more physically active. They also argue that the evidence is relatively strong in two other areas: aggression and sexual orientation. Such effects are consistent with evidence that some sex differences appear early in life. Much research has shown males to be more aggressive, and that aggression begins at around 2 years (Cowie et al. pg. 190-192. 2009). Tom demonstrated behaviours of aggression; see Ã¢â¬Ëobservation week fourÃ¢â¬â¢ (lines 88-103 and 119). This has been explained by the higher testosterone levels than females. However, it is possible that boys are reinforced for behaving aggressively, and this makes them produce more testosterone (Cowie et al. 2009). Money and Ehrhardt (1972) carried out a study to understand the effect that the male sex hormone, androgen has on girls. They examined girls who had been exposed to unusually high levels of androgen before birth. Compared with a matched group of girls who hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t, these girls and their mothers reported themselves to being Ã¢â¬ËtomboysÃ¢â¬â¢. However, Cowie et al (2009) argue that because the parents knew of the hormonal abnormalities, this could have affected their behaviour towards their children. While biological factors are probably important in explanations of sex differences, they do not fully explain the process of sex-role identification, or explain the variations in sex roles in different societies (Cowie et al, 2009). Social Learning theorists claim that we acquire our gender roles by observation, modelling, and being reinforced for behaving accordingly. This implies a learning process, that social factors are also important. For example it may be that female babies are spoken to more often than boys, thus pick up language sooner (Davenport, pg. 276-278, 1992). On reflection, TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Mum spoke more to Molly, although this may be because she was replying to her. An early approach to the learning of sex-role identification was that children are moulded into sex-roles by the behaviour of adults, especially parents and teachers (Bandura, 1969; Mischel, 1970). In its early version (which Maccoby, 2000, calls Ã¢â¬Ëdirect sociolizationÃ¢â¬â¢) this theory suggests tha t parents and others reward sex-appropriate behaviour in children (cited in Smith et al. 2009), (see week one, lines 45-47 and also lines 40-1 and 56-57). Mum happily helped Tom in to the skirt, although would then attempt to get it off. I wondered if this was because Mum was a bit reluctant to him wearing it, or even feared I may judge her. I also considered if it would be different if Dad were around. Fagot (1978) studied children ages 20-24 months in American homes and found that girls were encouraged by their parents to dance, dress up and play with dolls, whereas boys were encouraged to play with blocks and trucks. Conversely, TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Mum did not discourage him from playing with the pram (see week one, lines 51-54) a typical Ã¢â¬Ëgirls toyÃ¢â¬â¢. Furthermore Fagot (1985) found that nursery school teachers tend to reward Ã¢â¬ËfeminineÃ¢â¬â¢ types of behaviour, in both boys and girls, yet this does not prevent boys engaging more in noisy, rough-and-tumble play. Nevertheless, many reviews have felt that this evidence has not been very convincing (Golombok, and Hines, 2002; Maccoby, 2000, cited in Smith et al. 2009). It m ay be that any differential behaviour by parents is simply responding to pre-existing differences in boys and girls behaviour (Davenport, 1992). Indirect socialization (Maccoby, 2000), supposes that children observe the behaviour of same sex models, and imitate them, for example, boys might imitate the behaviour of male figures on TV (cited in Smith et al. 2009).TV features in every record, and Tom was always very engrossed and on more than one occasion I noticed him imitating what was acted or said (see week one, line 52). A report by Himmelweit et al. (1958) looked for changes in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour with the concern that violence on television may make children more aggressive, and that many programmes portray stereotyped images of sex roles. Alternatively, others think that television can be used to encourage cooperative behaviour, or reduced stereotyped views (Greenfield, 1984, cited in Smith et al. 2009). This introduces influences on behaviour that suggest the importance of cognitive factors. Social cognitive theory (Bussey and Bandura, 1999) draws together the ideas of both theories. They suggest children monitor their own behaviour built on what is appropriate; identification with peer group monitoring their behaviour in relation to how they expect same-sex peers might react (cited in Cowie et al. 2009). I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get to see Tom interact with any male children, I found Molly to be a great influence on his behaviour; i.e. see week one lines 21-22, 26 and 59. I imagine this is because supposedly he has not yet identified himself as a boy and does not have much, if any, contact with other boys of similar age. Preference for same-sex peers seems to be a cross-cultural phenomenon, and one that increases through childhood into adolescence. Maccoby (1998, 200) has documented this, and argues that it is a key factor in integrating not only cognitive and social factors, but also the biological factors affecting sex differences (Cowie et al. 2009). Observing Tom enabled me a great insight into his world, but has also indeed taught me a lot about myself, gaining skills of self-awareness and reflective practice that I hope to bring to future practice. Bibliography Bandura, A. 1969: Social Learning theory of identificatory processes. In D. A Goslin (ed.), Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally. Peter K.Smith, Helen Cowie and Mark Blades (2009). Understanding ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Development . 4th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 186-194. G C Davenport (1992). An introduction to Child development. London: Colins Educational. 275-291. Money, J. and Ehrhardt, A. A. 1972: Man and Woman, Boy and Girl. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Michelle Lefevre (2010). Communicating with children and young people making a difference. Bristol: The Policy Press. 147-169. Judith Trowell and Gillian Miles. (1991). The contribution of observation training to professional development in social work . Journal of social work practice. 5 (1), 50-56. Natasha Quitak. (2010). Difficulties in Holding the role of the observer.Journal of social work practice. 18 (2), 247-253. Lena Robinson (2007). Cross-Cultural child development for social workers an introduction. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 116-120. Kate Wilson. (1992). The place of child observation in social work.Journal of social work practice. 6 (1), 37-47. Biddy Youell . (2009). Guide to emotional and behavioural health . Available: http://www.ccinform.co.uk/articles/2009/10/19/3614/guide+to+emotional+and+behavioural+health.html. Last accessed 27th Nov 2012.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Procurement Methods - Assignment Example In this project, the construction procurement techniques that will be talked about are the novated design and build methods, accelerated traditional methods and the construction management approach. Construction administration is as procurement course in which the works are built by various different foremen. These builders are contracted to the customer yet overseen by a development supervisor. The construction supervisor goes about as a specialist for the customer, controlling and facilitating the working contracts. The development administrator is by and large selected ahead of schedule in the outline change so their experience can be utilized to enhance the fabricate capacity and bundling of suggestions as they build. This can empower some exchange foremen to be delegated sooner than others, possibly shortening the time taken to finish the responsibility assigned. Then again, there will be the value instability until the configuration is finished and all agreement has been let. Accelerated traditional method is a system where a builder is selected prior in the arrangement of design on the premise of fractional data, either by transaction or in competition. Arrangement, from the premise of the starting, incomplete data, happens once the last outline data gets to be accessible. Development begins when the outline is created to the last stage (Bennett, 1990). Whilst this permits an early begin on location, it additionally involves less conviction about expense. In Accelerated traditional method, some outline covers development. It is accomplished by letting a different, advance works contract. For instance, by permitting foundations (site leeway, heaping and establishments) to continue to construct once arranging consent has been gotten keeping in mind the design for whatever remains of the building is finished, and by tendering over the ground development independently. This lessens the aggregate
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Body cameras - Essay Example Body cameras can record everything what the police officer can see and hear as an advantage to view in an unbiased situation. This is advantageous for the police department in keeping track the interaction with the community ensuring all-important information that can give links to enhancement of security situations are taken into consideration. When using a body camera, all the recordings are stored and accessed through a secure server where senior leaders can access and view all patrols. This would also be important as it helps the management of the security department to determine the patrol level of the officers to ascertain the meeting of the required patrol standards (Gonzalez-Sanchez & Puig, 2011). Police officers cannot alter the device but only turn it on or off. Chief Tony Farrar, Chief of the Rialto Police Department in California, conducted a 12-month experiment resulting over 50 percent drop in the number of complaints and the use of force. A statistics that could be attributed to the utilization of the body camera as a device that could equally act to relay the use of excess force by the police. Likewise, the University of Georgia police department described the use of the body camera as an Ã¢â¬Å"increase positive resolutionÃ¢â¬ for their
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Alberta Tar Sands - Essay Example The resulting oil is piped to refineries. This initial process of tar sand extraction is approximated to result in gasoline that carries at least five times more carbon dioxide than would usual crude oil production. According to the Canada National Energy Board, engineering advancements are predicted to decrease this extensive carbon dioxide emission. As shown in the graphic, the remaining 80 percent of the sands are too deep to be excavated, therefore, steam is injected into these deeper oil sands, loosening the bitumen and allowing producers to draw it upward. The process was known as "steam-assisted gravity drainage." It is believed to be more efficient than the "truck and steam" method. Even though producers recycle much of their water, about one barrel of water is lost for each barrel of oil collected. Developers are required to repair and restore oil sand mining sites to at least the corresponding amount of their preceding biological efficiency, including revegetation and drain age restoration (Laumer). Alberta Energy supports the accountable improvement of these extensive deposits through planning and cooperation with government, industry and communities to guarantee a viable royalty system that is attractive to investors, suitable regulations and ecological safeguard and the administration of Crown rights to oil sands while considering several barriers such as higher industrial threat and higher investment expenditures, which are experienced by oil sands developers ("Oil Sands"). Alberta's oil sands industry is the product of multi-billion-dollar ventures in infrastructure and technology needed to expand the non-conventional resource. In 2006, in accordance with the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), production outlay in Alberta's oil sands totaled more or less $14 billion. Yearly oil sands production is developing progressively as the industry matures. Output of marketable oil sands production raised to1.126 millionbarrels per day (bbl/d) in 2006. Foreseeing in 2020, this level of production could reach 3 million barrels per day. In the year 2030, it could possibly be producing 5 million barrels per day. This scale of productivity would sustain the development of other major industries and witness Alberta become a Global Energy Leader ("Oil Sands"). Alberta's development of oil sands resources symbolizes a victory of industrial modernization. Through the years, government and industry have worked jointly to discover innovative and profitable means to develop and mine oil sands. Extensive research on energy is more essential today than ever before. Working through the Alberta Energy Research Institute, the Alberta government is dedicated to a mutual approach to encourage the latest technology and improvement programs that will decrease the impact of greenhouse gases and other emissions, and lessen the consumption of water and gas ("Oil Sands"). However, amidst all the benefits, risks eventually surfaced. Recently, the Environmental Defense released a new report on the Alberta Oil Sands, calling it "the most destructive project on Earth". Listed below are some facts: -Oil sands mining is permitted to use two times the amount of fresh water which is
Friday, July 26, 2019
TheLesson EugeneIonesco - Essay Example From the play, it is evident that the professor is also a domineering and violent person. He uses language to attack the student. HE shows his power and control in a very cruel manner (Ionesco 69). Later on in the lesson, he is also depicted as someone who easily loses his patience. It leads him into homicidal acts. The other character in the play is the pupil. The pupil is an 18 year old lady who wears a student smock with a white collar. During his first times in the class with the professor, she comes out as a very enthusiastic and hopeful person. She believes that the professor will help her pass the total Ã¢â¬Å"doctorateÃ¢â¬ exams. As the play progresses the pupil shows very absurd lack of common elementary knowledge (Ionesco 50). She does not know the capital city of France let alone the seasons of the year. As the lesson progresses, she surprisingly gets enough courage and equanimity to defy the professor. She does so with minimal success. The final character is the maid. She is a friendly and a loyal servant. She also comes out as considerate and caring person when she warns and advices the professor about his actions. The maid is submissive and this makes him accompany the professor even when he was going to engage in unacceptable acts. The power struggle in the Lesson by Eugene Ionesco comes out in the form of a satirized to Ã¢â¬Å"totalitarianismÃ¢â¬ in politics, education and language. The author sets it is a way that the professor only has one student at a time. This is itself is a demonstration of the control that the tutor was seeking over his student. He is teaching his student in a manner which is not only stifling but also very controlling. The professor talks nonsense and at the same time expects the student to be able to verbalize what he wants her to say. This theme in the play is meant to show how such practices have detrimental impact in the education settings.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Litigation v. Mediation - Essay Example f a lawsuit, case, or controversy Ã¢â¬â which is a contest authorized by the provisions of law, and at a court of justice Ã¢â¬â which is aimed at the realization or the pursuit of enforcing the breached rights or the expected parts of the deal in question. The participants in such a case are the plaintiff and the defendant Ã¢â¬â who within the subject of the lawsuit are referred to, as the litigants. Mediation on the other hand, is an Ã¢â¬Ëalternative dispute resolutionÃ¢â¬â¢ model, which is used to complement or substitute other modes Ã¢â¬â as a way of assisting the disputants reach an agreement, through the creation of improved dialogue between them. In such a case, the parties involved are to consider the mediation process Ã¢â¬â as resolving the dispute to their mutual advantage Ã¢â¬â besides facilitation by an impartial mediator. Considering that the dispute is of a business nature, it is conclusive that the right or the duty to be enforced must have some financial value Ã¢â¬â as well as a time-span within which its value may be perceived. Therefore, in the case the legal pursuit is to extend to the level Ã¢â¬â which the value of the legal practice or pursuit exceeds the value of the breached agreement; then from a business perspective, the pursuit will not be logical or rational. On the basis of this argument, mediation as opposed to litigation is a better option; as it will require less time and cost incurrence. The advantages that Alexander is likely to enjoy, in the case he chooses to take mediation instead of litigation include the following: A timely resolution of the dispute, which is basically Ã¢â¬â because the neutral and experienced third-party will push for increased dialogue between the disputants, from which better understanding of the dispute premises will be established, therefore making the case easier to resolve. In this regard, the better understanding as well as the pursuit for voluntary agreement and mutual advantage will enable the disputants to arrive at
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
An Economic Analysis of With Honors Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words
An Economic Analysis of With Honors - Assignment Example Such is the knowledge that is evident in Simon; he has certainly gathered as a function of his substantially long stay on the streets. In a way, it must be understood that, if properly harnessed, such kind of knowledge can be quite beneficial and can serve as a great source of information to researchers and other learners in the study of society and human nature. Our world requires more than common requisites in life. A mere Harvard education is not a guarantee a better life at all. Important as it is, it is still not a panacea to all the limitations that characterize life. We require more knowledge about the world and ourselves. Unfortunately, much of that information is never found in the libraries at Harvard or anywhere else in the world. It is found through experience in life shared through mutual relationships. It is found through the experiences in the streets, just as Simon seems to have gathered. It is found through relationships with idiots and intellectuals. In the movie, M onty learns a great deal from his predicament and relationship with Simon. He gets to underscore the importance of tolerance in life, which becomes integral economically to him. He changes the topic of his thesis because of his association with Simon and the subsequent transformation of his general world perception. It is imperative to realize that, as it appears in the movie that it is not only socially correct, but economically beneficial as well, to prepare efficiently for adulthood life by learning the basics. Graduating with honors alone by submitting a thesis in time is not a sufficient milestone in the course of life. It demands the knowledge that Simon is unknowingly propagating. The essence of life from a moral perspective is to live with honor and not to merely graduate with honors. Economically, a life with honor creates a sense of respect and enables one to climb very high social ladders in the society. For instance, people who live with honor access leadership positions , which come with money and fame. Therefore, as a recurrent theme in the movie, such an orientation in life can effectively make one realize the very essence of their lives, which can bring economic success and prosperity (Strasburger 54). In the movie, the four students learn new ideas in life and gather integral lessons in life. They learn not to ignore the street people like Simon. Assuming everybody in the world was to learn about these realities, it would translate to a very economically prosperous world that cares for the less fortunate in the society and recognizes that everybody in the world is important in their own right. Indeed, nothing is better than such a realization. It is rather funny in the manner Simon exchanges a page of the thesis with Monty for his daily necessities. That is of very great economic importance. It shows that there is nothing in the world that is given for free at least not even for a Harvard senior like Monty. The moral of the episode lies in inun dating the students with the idea that they should expect circumstances in life where despite their holding Harvard degrees, they have to strive and work hard for the necessities in life. In a way, it seems that the world can be a much better place if the likes of Simon were given the opportunity to display the wide experience they have gathered in their experiences in the world. The Harvard students in the movie appear as students of Simon despite his apparent lack of academic knowledge. Economically, this can
International Business - UK and China - Essay Example China has a growth rate three times higher than that of Europe, but wage levels there are typically close to a tenth of the UK's. The mere fact that China is such a successful player in the global economy means that small businesses in the UK are affected by the growth of the Chinese market. There are mutual benefits for both UK and Chinese businesses. China has a strong manufacturing base but is in need of technical expertise and innovative technologies that can be provided by Welsh companies. Moreover, there is a strong incentive for Chinese companies to co-operate with Britain as it can be used as a gateway to Europe, and in turn the biggest consumer market in world. Chinese labor costs are very low. There is a fear from some small firms that British manufacturing base could be undermined. Indeed if a large manufacturer relocates to China this has implications for small manufacturers who are first or second-tier suppliers. In terms of labor costs a UK small manufacturer cannot compete and many are suffering as a result. Others indicate, however, that labor is not their highest overhead and when transport costs are included, they believe that they can compete favourably with Chinese products. Moreover, as China's economy develops its workforce, it will grow in wealth and in turn is potentially an extremely large consumer market for goods. Chinese economy presents threats as well as opportunities to British businesses not only as competitor but as the market and supplier. "China and India now encompassed a third of all humanity, and were a potential mass market, supplier and competitor" (Duckers, 2005). Duckers makes a note that British businesses should not think that high value products can be kept while making low value products in China using the cheap labour. In fact, China is turning many times more engineers and technologists than Europe. China is producing half of the world's cameras, refrigerators and TV sets, 30 per cent of air conditioning and washing machines. The growth of Chinese economy has proved to have positive impact on inflation in UK. "According to Monetary Policy Committee member Stephen Nickell, cheap Chinese imports are one of the main reasons why inflation in the UK has remained low in recent years. At the same time, the price of services such as lawyers' fees and haircuts have risen reasonably quickly" (Conway, 2005). In the result of the rapid growth of Chinese economy, more and more British businesses are considering exploring opportunities for trading in China. When getting started the following challenges need to be considered: "Businesses need to ensure they receive a consular briefing before starting business in China and that the Chinese consulate knows in advance of the visit. China is one of the world's most complex markets and companies should send their best people. Employees should be prepared to stay in the region for at least five years to build a successful market. Companies should not start up blind - they need to undertake their own market research in the region before setting up an office or factory. Talking to complementary companies who have already established a successful base about the issues they faced will be hugely beneficial" (Logan, 2005). As Helen Logan continues, the first step is securing a customer base. "Existing, international customers should be targeted first to build the client base,
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL - Case Study Example The culture of Chinese demands them to take tea as opposed to coffee and this proved to be the first cultural challenge for Nestle. Their culture demands strict trust before conducting businesses with foreigners (Allen, 2009). The trust is earned through complying with their culture, demands and offering them gifts time and again. This proved to be quite a challenge for the company and especially the adoption of Chinese culture in its business. The gift part was against their code of conduct and especially because it was seen as a form of corruption (Hanson and Rothlin, 2010). The code of ethics and conduct of the Nestle Company had to be changed to adopt and accommodate the cultures of the Chinese people or the company would lack support and hence have to move base of operation to another country. China was just starting to succeed and hence Nestle wanted to create a strong base and outdo its competitors. Culture of China demanded that majority of the management of the company had to comprise of Chinese people. This therefore meant a complete change in administrative process as the managers in some positions had to be removed and taken to head other branches in other nations. This process was not only costly but took time to enforce hence delaying the process of Nestle establishing its market niche in the country. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural demands which need to be enforced made a mockery of the administrative processes and procedures of the company (Sun, 2012). The cultural demands made the company have ultimatums of carrying out changes and the administrators were reduced to mere puppets. With the many cultural demands which were being led by the government agencies, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s administration faced leadership challenges and internal conflicts. The administration eventually in order to comply with the ever growing cultural demands had to fully change from their norm
Monday, July 22, 2019
Great Expectations Essay Dickens was known as one of the best authors and many of his books have stood the test of time. Great Expectations was first published in 1861 and to this present day remains to thrill and engage modern day readers. Clearly dickens must use a wide range of techniques to gain and sustain his readers interest.Ã A very good technique that dickens used in Great Expectations is Dickens larger than life characters that have been exaggerated to make the story come alive and more believable. A good example is Miss Havisham, as she is regularly described by Pip as some ghastly waxwork from the fair and having dark eyes. She is also described as a skeleton, and someone who had shrunk to skin and bone and having clothes that were faded and lost their brightness. This makes the reader perceive her as a very evil and dead person. This has a significant effect because this is the first time the reader meets Miss Havisham, and therefore builds up a first impression. This technique can also emphasise on one characteristic of a person. Another characteristic that dickens emphasises on is the change in character that Joe goes through when Pp becomes a gentleman. Dickens uses respectful dialogue for Joe, using words such as sir towards Pip. This is because at the time of the novel, if you came upon wealth, regardless of your morals and the way you acted t others, you would be considered to be a gentleman. So even though Pip appears ungrateful to Joe, Joe still shows dear respect to him, thus creating more distance between them. These well-portrayed characters are what brings the story to life, and therefore help keep the readers interest. Other than the characters being larger than life, many characters personalities clash, and are extremely opposite. For instance, when Pip is describing Mrs Joe and Joe, he describes Joe as mild, good-natured, sweet-tempered, easy going, foolish, dear fellow. However, he describes the way that Mrs Joe presents herself, as having a coarse apron, an impregnable bib that was stuck full of pins and needles and having a trenchant way of cutting. These two characters are very different as the nasty. Nightmarish, way that Mrs Joe dresses, with her dangerous needles and her impregnable apron, is contradictory to Joes easy manner and his kind gentle touch. It is strange that these two could forge a relationship, as there is a role-reversal issue because Mrs Joe is a brute, with her trenchant way of cutting and a rather manly attitude. Whereas Joe shows a kind and affectionate attitude towards Pip. It would also seem that Mrs Joe has an angry personality towards Pip and Joe as she bought them up by hand. I believe that this technique is very good because it creates variety, contrast and very exciting situations to keep the interest of the reader. In Great expectations there is a wide use of similes and metaphors, which can also be used to describe characters sometimes. For example when Pip describes the way in which Mrs Joe Gargery cuts bread he says she had a trenchant way of cutting the bread, and hewed it in half. This can be reflected upon as her character being strong, brutal, and savage. This can be backed up by the example that Pip and Joe were raised by hand. This is also a more physical approach to her character. These similes and metaphors are also a more exciting way of describing a character. This is also keeps the reader much more engaged and less likely to resign from the gripping novel. Throughout the novel on several occasions there are ironic twists in the story line. A very ironic moment is when Pip finds out that who his real benefactor is. Magwitch turns up at Pips door and later ecstatically claims this is the gentleman I made! This moment is a real moral blow to Pip and is very crushing to find out Miss Havisham was not his real benefactor. This is an ironic twist because the very person that helped Pip become a gentleman was in fact a convict. Another ironic moment is that Estella, although she is rich and upper class, was adopted from a lower class background, so just like Pip, she is now rich, but her heritage lies lower down. Pip was visiting Jaggers house and he noticed that the way the housekeeper presented herself and the way she knitted with her fingers together convinced him that this woman was Estellas mother. This is ironic because Estella, although she acts very proud of being upper class and is exceedingly harsh to Pip, has a heritage that lies in the lower class, as Miss Havisham adopted her from the housekeeper. Its these exciting twists in the story line, that are unpredictable, that make Great Expectations such a gripping novel, that along with all the other techniques, fully gains and sustains the readers interest.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Symptoms and Treatment of Parkinsons Disease ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is a progressive neurologic disorder affecting the brain centers that are responsible for control and regulation of movement. It is characterized by bradykinesia (slowness of movement), tremor, and muscle stiffness or rigidity (Katzung, Mastes, Trevor, 2012). The major lesion appears to result in a loss of pigmented neurons, particularly those in the substantia nigra of the brain. The substantia nigra is a collection of midbrain nuclei that project fibers to the corpus striatum. One of the major neurotransmitters in this area of the brain, and in other parts of the central nervous system, is dopamine, which has an important inhibiting function in the central control of movement (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Although dopamine normally exists in high concentration in certain parts of the brain, in ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease it is depleted in the substania nigra and the corpus striatum. Depletion of dopamine levels in the basal ganglia is associated with bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremors (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Regional cerebral blood flow is reduced in patients with ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, and there is a high prevalence of dementia. Biochemical and pathologic data suggest that demented patients with ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease may have coexistent AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (Connelly Fox, 2012). In the majority of patients, the cause of the disease is unknown. Arteriosclerotic Parkinsonism is seen more frequently in older age groups. It may follow encephalitis, poisoning, or toxicity (manganese, carbon monoxide), or hypoxia, or may be drug induced. The disease most frequently attacks persons in their fifties and sixties and is the second most common neurologic disorder of the elderly (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). The clinical manifestations of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease are impaired movement, muscle rigidity, tremor, muscle weakness, and loss of postural reflexes. Early signs include a stiffening of the extremities and a wax-like rigidity in the performance of all movements. The patient has difficulty in initiating, maintaining, and performing motor activities, and experiences some delay in carrying out normal activity (Kofman). As the disease progresses, the tremor begins, frequently in one hand and arm, then the other, and later in the head, although the tremor may remain unilateral. The tremor is characteristic: it is a slow, turning motion (pronation-supination) of the forearm and the hand, and motion of the thumb against the fingers as if rolling a pill between the fingers. It increases when the patient is concentrating or feels anxious (Connelly Fox, 2012). Other characteristics of the disease affect the face, stature, and gait. There is loss of normal arm swing. Eventually, the rigid extremities become weaker. Since there is limited movement in the muscles, the face has so little expression that it is said to be masklike (with infrequency of blinking), a feature that can be recognized at a glance (Connelly Fox, 2012). There is a loss of postural reflexes, and the patient stands with head bent forward and walks as if in danger of falling forward. Difficulty in pivoting and loss of balance may lead to frequent falls (Katzung, Mastes, Trevor, 2012). Frequently, these patients show signs of depression, and it has not been established whether the depression is a reaction to the disorder or related to a biochemical abnormality. Mental manifestations may appear in the form of cognitive, perceptual, and memory deficits. A number of psychiatric manifestations (personality changes, psychosis, dementia, confusion) are particularly common among the elderly (Kofman). Complications from immobility (pneumonia, urinary tract infection) and the consequences of falls and accidents are major causes of death (Kofman). Early diagnosis of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease can be difficult, as the patient can rarely pinpoint when symptoms started. Often someone close to the patient notices a change such as stooped posture, stiff arm, a slight limp, or tremor. Handwriting changes may be an early diagnostic clue. The diagnosis of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease can usually be made with certainty when there is evidence of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). The results of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s history and neurological examination are carefully evaluated. Without treatment ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease progresses over ten to fifteen years to a rigid, akinetic state in which patients are incapable of caring for themselves (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). The availability of effective pharmacological treatment has altered the prognosis of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease; in most cases, functional mobility can be maintained for many years. Life expectancy of adequately treated patients is increased substantially (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). The presence of dysphagia is associated with shorter survival times. Motor impairment of the muscles in the throat impairs swallowing and poses a risk for aspiration pneumonia. Other complications of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease include sleep disorders, sexual dysfunction, bowel and bladder complications, and sensory problems, such as the loss of smell (Kofman). There is no cure for ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Treatment mainly relies on replacing dopamine with focus on controlling symptoms and improving quality of life (Katzung, Mastes, Trevor, 2012). Because ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease symptoms are due to a deficiency of the brain chemical dopamine, the brain drug treatment help increase dopamine levels in the brain. Levodopa, usually in combination with carbidopa, is the standard drug treatment (Katzung, Mastes, Trevor, 2012). For patients who do not respond to levodopa, dopamine agonists may be prescribed. Physical therapy is an important part of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease treatment. Rehabilitation can help improve balance, mobility, speech and functional abilities. No treatment method has been proven to change the course of the disease. For early disease, with little or no impairment, drug therapy may not be necessary (Kofman). There is no cure for ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, but medications, physical therapy, and surgical interventions can help control symptoms and improve the quality of life (Connelly Fox, 2012). The goals of treatment are to relieve disabilities and balance the problems of the disease with the side effects of the medications. A number of issues must be considered in choosing a medication for treatment. These include the effectiveness of the medication, the side effects of the medication, and the loss of effectiveness over time (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Levodopa (L-dopa) has been used for years and is the gold standard for treatment. L-dopa increases brain levels of dopamine. It is probably the most effective drug for controlling symptoms and is used in all phases of the disease. The standard preparations, Sinemet and Atamet, combine levodopa with carbidopa, a drug that slows the breakdown of levodopa. Levodopa is better at improving motor problems than dopamine agonists but increases the risk of involuntary movements. Effectiveness tends to decrease after four to five years of use (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Dopamine agonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ drugs mimic dopamine to stimulate the dopamine system in the brain. The drugs included are pramipexole (Mirapex), ropinirole (Requip), bromocriptine (Parlodel), and rotigotine (Neupro) (Katzung, Mastes, Trevor, 2012). Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors may have some mild benefits in initial therapy; they include selegiline (Eldepryl) and rasagiline (Azilect), and they slow the breakdown of dopamine that occurs naturally in the brain and dopamine produced by levodopa (Katzung, Mastes, Trevor, 2012). Entacapone (comtan) is a catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor that helps to prolong the effects of levodopa by blocking an enzyme that breaks down dopamine (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Medications to treat other symptoms associated with ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease include antidepressants. TricyclicÃ¢â¬â¢s, particularly Amitriptyline (Elavil), studies indicate that the use of SSRIs may worsen symptoms. Anti-psychotics include clozapine and quetiapine help with psychotic symptoms seen with ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). The cholinesterase inhibitor drugs donepezil (Aricept) and rivastigmine (Exelon) are used to treat AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease and are sometimes used for ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. The benefits are small and may not be noticed. Daytime sleepiness and fatigue may be treated with modafinil (Provigil) a drug used to treat narcolepsy or methylphenidate (Ritalin) may be considered for fatigue. Glycopyrrolate, scopolamine, and injections of botulinum toxin may be used to relieve drooling symptoms (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Advanced ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease poses challenges for the patient and caregivers. Eventually, symptoms such as stooped posture, freezing, and speech difficulties may no longer respond to drug therapy. Surgery (deep brain stimulation) may be considered. Patients become increasingly dependent on others for care and require assistance with daily tasks. The goal of treatment for advanced ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease should be on providing safety, comfort, and quality of life (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). The toxic effects of Levodopa with carbidopa are considerable. Dyskinesia, the ability to control muscles, can take many forms, most often uncontrolled flailing of the arms and legs or chorea, rapid and repetitive motions that can affect the limbs, face, tongue, mouth, and neck (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Hypotension is a common problem during the first few weeks of therapy. Cardiac arrhythmias and gastrointestinal difficulties are common, with the potential of gastric bleeding. Levodopa can cause disturbances in breathing function, but may benefit patients with upper airway obstructions. Hair loss and mental and psychiatric side effects including confusion, extreme emotional states, especially anxiety, vivid dreams, visual and auditory hallucinations, sleepiness, and effects on learning are other side effects of levodopa (Connelly Fox, 2012). Levodopa causes fewer psychiatric side effects than other drugs including anticholinergics, selegiline, amantadine, and dopamine ago nists. Psychiatric side effects often occur at night, therefore, some doctors recommend reducing the evening dose (Connelly Fox, 2012). Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors block monoamine oxidase B, an enzyme that degrades dopamine. Selegiline was commonly used in early onset disease in combination with L-dopa for maintenance (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Concerns of the significant side effects have been raised. Azilect, a newer MAO-B Inhibitor, is used alone during early stage ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease and in combination with L-dopa for moderate to advanced ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Side effects of MAO-B inhibitors include orthostatic hypotension, hypertension if combined with drugs that increase serotonin levels, such as many antidepressants (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). A dangerous increase in blood pressure may occur if patients eat foods rich in the amino acid tyramine, while taking selegiline or rasagiline, and for two weeks after stopping the medications. Patients should avoid foods such as aged cheeses, processed lunch meats, pickled herring, yeast extracts, aged red wine, draft beers, sa uerkraut, and soy sauce (Connelly Fox, 2012). Dopamine agonists stimulate dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra. Dopamine agonists are effective in delaying motor complications during the first years of treatment (Katzung, Mastes, Trevor, 2012). Newer dopamine agonists, Mirapex (pramipexole) and Requip (ropinirol) are the most commonly prescribed. Mirapex appears to work better and have fewer side effects than requip. Side effects include nausea, vomiting, constipation, headache, nasal congestion, nightmares, hallucinations, and psychosis. Bromocriptine is the only ergot dopamine agonist approved for treatment in the US (Connelly Fox, 2012). Apomorphine is a dopamine agonist used as a rescue drug in people having on-off effects severe enough to require going off L-dopa for a few days. Because it causes severe nausea and vomiting, it must be taken with an anti-emetic. Rotigotine (Neupro) is a once daily transdermal patch to treat early and advanced stage ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (Connelly Fox, 2012). Catechol-O- Methyl Transferase Inhibitors (COMT Inhibitors) increase concentrations of existing dopamine in the brain. Entacapone (Comtan, Stalevo) is the current standard COMT inhibitor. It improves motor fluctuations related to weaning off effects. The side effects include involuntary muscle movement, confusion, hallucinations, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, headache, urinary retention, cramps, diarrhea, less common constipation, susceptibility to respiratory infection, sweating and dry mouth (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). A major concern is reports of death from liver damage in patients taking tolcapone (Tasmar) and is recommended only for patients unable to tolerate other drugs. Entacapone does not appear to have the same effects on the liver and does not require the same monitoring (Katzung, Mastes, Trevor, 2012). Anticholinergic drugs were the first used in the treatment for ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. They are used only for control of tremors in early stages (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Side effects are dry mouth, nausea, urinary retention, blurred vision, and constipation. They can increase heart rate and constipation. They may cause mental problems including memory loss, confusion, and hallucinations (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Amantadine stimulates the release of dopamine and may be used with early mild symptoms. Side effects include swollen ankles, and mottled skin, visual hallucinations. Overdose can cause serious and life-threatening toxicity (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). References Brunton, L., Chabner, B., Knollman, B. (2011). Goodman Gilmans: The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (12 ed.). McGraw-Hill. Connelly, B., Fox, S. (2012, December). Drug treatments for the neuropsychiatric complications of Parkinsons disease. Retrieved from Medscape.com: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticles/777166 Katzung, B., Mastes, S., Trevor, A. (2012). Basic clinical pharmacology (12 ed.). McGraw-Hill. Kofman, O. (n.d.). Complications of therapy in Parkinsons disease. CKP-MFC, 12, 87-91. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2153537
Parenting Styles And Their Effect On Children Behavior Education Essay Early years of learning in a childs life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough task. This can be proved from the fact that children who share a home and are brought up in the same environment, under same circumstances may develop a remarkably different personality than one another. A parenting style is a psychological concept based on regular strategies that parents use while raising their children. There are several different theories and concepts about the best and perfect ways to raise a child. Parenting style plays an important role in raising a child. Baumrinds theory about parenting identifies four distinctive parenting st yles and is complimented by a well-supported and organized progression of ideas. All these tend to cover different parenting techniques worldwide and have contrast with Baumrinds theory. Parental responsibilities start soon after the birth and play a significant role and leave an impact on childs overall life. Most of the parents usually develop their own parenting style usually based upon amalgamation of factors such as childrens temperament and parenting style influenced by their own upbringing, what they observed in other families, what they have been trained and the surrounding culture. There is no hard and fast rule about parenting. It usually evolves with the passage of time as children grow up and develop their personalities. The quality of parenting is an important influence on childrens intellectual, emotional and social development ( Nevid, 2009). How parents put in effort to respond and correct their children greatly impacts how they progress individually and socially. A childs development process is influenced by several factors, for instance, the people and situations he comes into close contact and interaction. Parents influence is the greatest on a chi lds development. The positivity as well as negativity in a childs attitude and behavior is because of parents brought up and parenting style. In 1960s a very famous theory about parenting was developed by Diana Baumrind. This theory was based upon three parenting style named authoritative, permissive and authoritarian. Later, another vital factor named uninvolved was added by Maccoby and Martin. Diana adopted a broad and well managed way to study on more than 100 preschool-age children. She used several approaches using naturalistic observation, parental interviews and other research methods. This broad study helped her to figure out and recognize four important aspects of parenting which include disciplinary strategies, warmth and nurturance, communication styles and expectation of maturity and control. The three parenting styles found out by Diana were based upon these dimensions. According to authoritarian parenting style, parents expect their children to strictly follow the rules and regulations set by them. Parents tend to punish their children if they fail to obey them. Authoritarian parents fail to give any explanation or reason for the rules imposed by them. If a child asks for explanation, the simple reply is, Because I said so. Usually these parents are less responsive and have high demands and expectations. According to Baumrind, these parents are obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation ( Rosenfeld, 2007). Such parents expect complete cooperation from their children and are not at all tolerant about the rules and regulations set by them. They expect maturity on the part of children and are very less interactive with their children. Children of such parents are usually focused in studies and tend to make good grades. They develop the habit of staying out of troubles. A negative impact of this parenting s tyle is that the children are not socially developed as they are never motivated and encouraged to give and develop opinions. They are shy and unconfident, and lack decision making power. This make them less interactive and negatively affect their decision making power. Second parenting style is known as authoritative parenting. This is a relatively democratic style of parenting as the parents are responsive and receptive towards their children. They are usually willing to respond to the questions of their children. Moreover, they are more encouraging and forgiving parents rather than punishing ones in case the child does not come up to their expectation. Baumrind suggests that these parents monitor and communicate clear standards for their childrens conduct. They are forceful, but not aggressive and restrictive. The disciplinary methods adopted by them are supportive. They want their children to be confident as well as socially responsible ( Rosenfeld, 2007). This style ensures healthy development among children because they are taught to abide by rules and regulations in a positive way. They are allowed to asked questions and develop personal opinions. Children of such parents are socially interactive and confident as they have the habit of develo ping opinions. They are self-assured. Third parenting style suggested by Baumrind is known as Permissive parenting. These types of parents are often referred as tolerant parents and they tend to make fewer demands to their children. These parents are less concerned about disciplining their children as they have low expectations of adulthood and self-control. According to Baumrind, permissive parents are more receptive than demanding. They are less concerned about culture and are soft. They do not require mature attitude, allow significant self-regulation, and avoid conflict ( Rosenfeld, 2007). They are friendly with their children. Parents in this case intend to be their childs friend then being a disciplinary figure. Parent-children communication is encouraged. Children raised by indulgent parents have developed self-confidence, healthier social skills and lower levels of depression. All these factors in turn develop a positive and optimistic attitude in individuals. The negative impact of such parenting style is that a childs emotional development is harmed and damaged. He does not matures in this area. Last category of parenting added by Maccoby and Martin is known as uninvolved parenting. These parents are usually less demanding, less communicative and less responsive. They manage to fulfill the basic needs and necessities of their children but overall, they are less attached to their children. In some cases, these parents are ignorant to the extent that they may even ignore the needs and necessities of their children. Such parents are ambivalent to their childs necessities and desires. They are neglectful about their children. As parents are less demanding and do not intend to make rules for their children, hence children lack communication, encouragement and praise. Children of such parents develop negative features in their personalities and lack confidence. They are not socially active and confident because less compliance demand by parents stunts their social growth. They are never educated about handling different situations, hence cognitive growth is negatively affected. These parenting styles have a significant impact on childrens psychology. The study of 100 preschool children helped Baumrind to develop the impact of parenting on children. For instance, Authoritarian parenting styles normally result in obedient and respectful children, who are quiet skillful, but they rank lower in happiness and social capability. On the contrary, Authoritative parenting style results in happy and socially capable children. Thirdly, Permissive parenting often results in children who face problems with power and usually show poor and weak performance in school. Lastly, uninvolved parenting styles have the lowest rank among all the categories of parenting. As these children are ignored by the parents so they grow as individuals with less self-control, low self-esteem and are less capable and skilled as compared to their peers. Another important aspect of parenting style is that the adolescent behavior is an important measure that can have a significant influence on parenting style. For instance, if a child breaks a curfew, both parents adopt a measure to deal with the child in order to enforce an action. Hence, childs behavior has a major influence on the parenting style adopted by parents. A cooperative and motivated child is more probable to have parents who adopt an authoritative parenting attitude. On the other hand, an unhelpful, immature and careless teen may be more expected to provoke a parenting style that is authoritarian or uninvolved parenting style. Overall attitude of the child tends to evolve parenting style of the children. It is commonly practiced on the part of the parents that they change their parenting habits with time. Few parents are more rigid with elder children and less rigid with younger ones. Hence, the time period, changes in culture and environment and changes in circumstances evolves the parents as well as their parenting style. Ethnicity is another vital aspect that can have an influence on the parenting style. It has been observed that authoritative parenting style is more prevalent among white families as compared to others. On the other hand, authoritarian parenting style seems to be more common among ethnic minority families. The basic reason behind this influence is the impact of culture and parental beliefs. For instance, ethnic minority families usually live in dangerous neighborhoods where life isnt secure so parents tend to adopt authoritarian behavior as it stresses upon parental control and compliance. In this scenario, this style of parenting is necessary for the safety of the children. There are other measures as well that can significantly influence the parenting style. For instance, internal factors like lack of sleep and mood, external factors such as work stress and duties and childs personality and attitude. All these factors play a vital role on parenting style adopted by parents. According to the overall study of different parenting styles authoritative parenting is considered the most effective with fruitful and positive impacts on childrens overall brought up as compared to other three parenting styles (Pressley McCormick, 2007). Now the question arises, what makes authoritative parenting the best one among all? Many reasons can be listed such as warm and receptive attitude of the parents towards the children result in a comfortable environment at home. As the result of this comfort provided at home, children usually develop a positive approach towards life. Children of the authoritative parenting style are usually self-sufficient, self-controlled, and content, hence they have an optimistic attitude overall. They develop personal opinion; interact with peers in an effective and efficient manner. They can handle situations in a wise manner. They gain all necessary skills because of the parenting style adopted at home. Overall surrounding and culture can have a vital impact on the parenting style. Research has shown that most of the Chinese parents adopt authoritarian parenting style ( Zimmerman Schunk, 2011). Chines parents are strict about rules and regulations; unnecessary freedom is not granted to Chinese children and parents are usually strict about the code of conduct and ethics. One of the major reasons behind this parenting style being prevalent in Chinese parents is basically the one child policy imposed by the government. It restricts all Chinese families to have only one child. As a result of this policy, all the attention of the Chinese parents is focused on their only child, hence they want to see perfection in their upbringing and they tend to adopt this parenting style. It leaves no room for failure on the part of parents. Secondly, the culture of China promotes hard work, so parents in China intend to raise bright and intelligent children who can excel in life thus they adopt autho ritarian parenting style. Thus the parenting style of China is similar to the authoritarian style of Diana Baumrinds theory of parenting. It has the similar outcomes among Chinese children as discussed above in Baumrinds theory. Chinese children adopt almost all the measures of Baumrinds authoritarian theory. Similarly a sample of 408 students was studied to determine the parenting style commonly practiced in Canada. Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Perception of Parental Reciprocity Scale, the Social Provisions Scale-Present Version and parental interviews were conducted to measure students and parents upon various scales to judge their relationship with their parents to figure out the parenting style being practiced. The research showed that authoritative parenting is the style commonly practiced in Canada ( Shaw, 2008). This study determined that Canadian parents are more tolerant. They seem to have authoritative parenting style. Canadians have a relatively democratic style of parenting as the parents are responsive and receptive towards their children. They are usually ready to respond to the questions of their children. They are less punitive and coercive. Although Canadian parents are concerned about rules and regulations but they are forgiving in case a child fails to abide by the rule or come up to the expectation of the parents. The disciplinary methods adopted by them are kind. Hence the features of authoritative parenting style of Baumrinds theory is seems to be practiced in Canadian culture. Based on past research, all three dimensions of authoritative parenting (connection, Regulation, and autonomy granting) seem to exist in the context of Japanese culture (Golombok, 2000). There is an old Japanese proverb, there is no treasure that surpasses a child. Japanese hold a high respect for childhood period and consider it a cherished and valued period in the human life cycle. This way of thinking among Japanese develops thinking that children are innocent and naturally good. Environment tends to affect them in later years of life. This belief develops a view among Japanese that parenting is like caring for a plant that must be carefully cultivated, skilled and pruned as it rises. Most of the children in Japan are greatly dependent upon mothers. It is a common practice in Japan that mothers performs most of the tasks of their children which includes decision-making about hobbies, education and career paths. Thus most of the Japanese children are obedient and dutiful towards th eir parents. Parenting in Japan is closely associated with understanding with parents specially mothers. Most of the mothers in Japan are so close to their child that they establish a relationship wherein mother and child have a collective mind rather than two separate, individual minds. They use this understanding and closeness to teach their children about morals, values, ethics, and to persuade them to behave wisely. They prefer to not to use coercive methods. Some of the features of Japanese parenting style are in accordance with authoritarian parenting style of Baumrind but it has some contrasting features as well. For instance, parents in Japan do not tend to punish their children if they fail to obey them. Rather, they use their understanding and closeness with the children to correct them. Hence, they are relatively lenient as compared to Baumrinds authoritarian parenting style. Japanese rather apply rational parenting approach to up bring their children. In rational parenting approach, well aware Japanese moms consult child development professionals, doctors, educators, family and friends in order to make the finest choices for their children as they mature. Secondly, Nest building and feeling parenting are two usual methods practiced by modern Japanese mothers to exercise control over their childs thinking. This helps them to develop a perfect understanding with their children. In this practice, parents tend to take keen interest in their childs nutrition, communication, activities and even fashion. Mothers prefer to keep their children at home most of the time and avoid social and outdoor activities. They are taught to communicate fairly, regularly and solely with their mothers. This approach focuses to increase dependency while depending upon the trust and closeness the child feels toward his mother. From the study about Japanese way of parenting, it is quite evident that few of the features of parenting are in accordance to Baumrinds authoritarian parenting style but overall, a unique method is practice by Japanese to parent the children. On the whole, each of these parenting styles mentioned above tends to have certain influences on childrens behavior. Inconsistency in parents approach regarding the parenting behavior can be damaging for the children. Neither all parenting styles are perfectly right or completely wrong. It is a continuous lifelong job of trials and mistakes. It needs to be evolved timely with emerging situations and changed circumstances. The results are never 100 percent. All parents adopt various approaches to raise their children with no fixed rules and regulations, no written commands and no proper instructions. What works with one child at home might completely fail in case of other child at home. Even real siblings are completely different individuals with different habits and behaviors. Situations aroused with time impel us to act in a particular way. They impact us consciously and subconsciously. Thus parenting refers to how we were raised, when we were raised, and where we were raised. All t hese factors together play an important role in parenting. Parents must constantly monitor their childs behavior and attitude and change their parenting style accordingly. Rigidity in parenting style is never advisable.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Dickens employs a rich variety of settings and characters to embody the continual struggle between darkness and light central to his novel Great Expectations. Examine how the author has captured this symbolic battle Ã¢â¬Å"Great ExpectationsÃ¢â¬ By Charles Dickens Dickens employs a rich variety of settings and characters to embody the continual struggle between darkness and light central to his novel Great Expectations. Examine how the author has captured this symbolic battle, and how it has been dramatically linked to PipÃ¢â¬â¢s ever-changing fortunes. Dickens captures the symbolic battle between the darkness and the light by employing a wide diversity of settings and characters to represent the ever-changing situations that Pip is in. The characters are always correlated to the background to convey the lessons that Dickens wants to show and he uses the characters to (more or less) tell the story, which gives the novel an almost theatrical, feel like the backgrounds are painted to suit the event. The author makes it easy for us to imagine the setting which creates these very dramatic, colourful backdrops in our imagination, by creating the mood and the atmosphere of the book. A continual question that is kept throughout the story is whether PipÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressive side has anything to do with his working class background and how uneducated he is? As the reader we can only conclude this question right at the end of the novel, when Pip essentially aspires to his Ã¢â¬Å"Great ExpectationsÃ¢â¬ and his new status. Pip has two sides to his ever-changing character, a good side and a bad side which is very much influenced by where he is or what is happening. It becomes clear as the novel progresses that whenever Pip is with Mr Joe Gargery his, loving, kind side is always brought out. Joe is always linked to the brighter side of nature, a man who never thinks or talks ill of anyone. It is JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s influence and presence that is evidently replicated upon Pip in this quote Ã¢â¬Å"There I stood, for minutes, looking at Joe, already at work with a glow of health and strength upon his face that made it show as if the bright sun of the life in store for him were shining on it.Ã¢â¬ Whereas whenever Pip is in the company of Miss Havisham who is forever linked to darkness, death and decay Ã¢â¬ I saw Miss Havisham going along it in a ghostly manner, making a low cryÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"She sat, corpse-likeÃ¢â¬ we are given the impression that Pip becomes torn between the two different worlds. This is due to the fact there is this bright star, Estella who brings light into