Friday, August 9, 2019

Intelligence uses at Abu Ghraib Military prison Research Paper

Intelligence uses at Abu Ghraib Military prison - Research Paper Example In 2004, however, the Abu Ghraib prison scandal erupted, putting the US’s human intelligence and counter-intelligence strategies at the center of international attention and generating massive criticism from human rights advocates. The perceived human rights violations that the Iraqi prisoners were subjected to were condemned and highlighted the need to review and make reforms in human intelligence and counter-intelligence in the military. This paper is an attempt to revisit exactly how human intelligence and counter-intelligence were deployed by the United States in Abu Ghraib. It begins by first discussing the rationale and purpose of HUMINT and counterintelligence, then it proceeds to discuss the means with which these strategies were deployed by US soldiers in Abu Ghraib, and finally, it looks into the reforms that were undertaken as a result of the worldwide controversy that was generated. The rationale and purpose of HUMINT and counterintelligence The primary justificati on for HUMINT and counterintelligence is reposed in the National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States of America, to wit: The United States faces substantial challenges to its security, freedom, and prosperity. Transnational terrorism, continued proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), asymmetric warfare, extremist movements, and failed states present severe challenges to a just and stable international order. Our ability to meet these challenges is threatened by the intelligence activities of traditional and non-traditional adversaries. Our adversaries – foreign intelligence services, terrorists, foreign criminal enterprises and cyber intruders – use overt, covert, and clandestine activities to exploit and undermine US national security interests. (2007: iv) In essence, therefore, the primary rationale for the adaption of HUMINT and counterintelligence is to adequately respond and neutralize the threats posed by the opponent. More specific to t he Iraqi context , military intelligence and counterintelligence experts were purposely deployed in Abu Ghraib in a calculated effort to enforce an active quest in eliminating the fatal problem of insurgency. The same was also done in the hopes of gathering intelligence advantageous in maintaining a more viable democratic Iraq. The person in charge of Abu Ghraib in 2004, Brigadier General Jane Krapinski, â€Å"was an experienced operations and intelligence officer who had served with the Special Forces and in the 1991 Gulf War† (Hersh, 2004). This strategy faced a number of challenges, not least of which was the nature of Iraqis their training and culture that makes them choose death over surrender. Another important purpose of HUMINT and counterintelligence specific to the Global War on Terror is that in Iraq, â€Å"it has become increasingly difficult to distinguish insurgents from citizens within the population† (Lane: 2009, 3). Hence, to avoid fatalities, it became necessary to extract inside information from insurgents that were captured. How HUMINT and counterintelligence were deployed: Abu Ghraib and the issue of human rights Abu Ghraib, which was already a prison in Iraq even before the war broke out, served as a significant place in gathering intelligence for the coalition forces. The originally Iraqi prison -- uninhabited and abandoned after its fall to the coalition for

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